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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087888/simulated-microgravity-decreases-circulating-iron-in-rats-role-of-inflammation-induced-hepcidin-upregulation
#1
Thibault Cavey, Nicolas Pierre, Kévin Nay, Coralie Allain, Martine Ropert, Olivier Loréal, Frédéric Derbré
During spaceflight, humans exposed to microgravity exhibit an increase of iron storage and a reduction of circulating iron. Such perturbations could promote oxidative stress and anemia in astronauts. The mechanism by which microgravity modulates iron metabolism is still unknown. Herein, we hypothesized that microgravity up-regulates hepcidin, a hormone produced by the liver that is the main controller of iron homeostasis. To test this hypothesis, rats were submitted to hindlimb unloading (HU), the reference model to mimic the effects of microgravity in rodents...
January 13, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087602/novel-application-of-3d-contrast-enhanced-cmr-to-define-fibrotic-structure-of-the-human-sinoatrial-node-in-vivo
#2
Thomas A Csepe, Jichao Zhao, Lidiya V Sul, Yufeng Wang, Brian J Hansen, Ning Li, Anthony J Ignozzi, Anna Bratasz, Kimerly A Powell, Ahmet Kilic, Peter J Mohler, Paul M L Janssen, John D Hummel, Orlando P Simonetti, Vadim V Fedorov
AIMS: The adult human sinoatrial node (SAN) has a specialized fibrotic intramural structure (35-55% fibrotic tissue) that provides mechanical and electrical protection from the surrounding atria. We hypothesize that late gadolinium-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) can be applied to define the fibrotic human SAN structure in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: LGE-CMR atrial scans of healthy volunteers (n olu, 23-52 y.o.) using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging system with a spatial resolution of 1...
January 13, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081500/a-highly-sensitive-quantum-dots-dna-nanobiosensor-based-on-fluorescence-resonance-energy-transfer-for-rapid-detection-of-nanomolar-amounts-of-human-papillomavirus-18
#3
Mojtaba Shamsipur, Vahid Nasirian, Kamran Mansouri, Ali Barati, Asad Veisi-Raygani, Soheila Kashanian
A very sensitive and convenient nanobiosensor based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was developed for the detection of a 22-mer oligonucleotides sequence in Human Papillomavirus 18 virus (HPV18) gene. For this purpose, water-soluble CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized and, subsequently, amino-modified 11-mer oligonucleotide as one of the two necessary probes was attached to QDs surface to form functional QDs-DNA conjugates. Right after addition of the QDs-DNA and a second Cyanine5 (Cy5)-labeled 11-mer oligonucleotide probe to the DNA target solution, the sandwiched hybrids were formed...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080974/how-the-heart-speaks-to-the-brain-neural-activity-during-cardiorespiratory-interoceptive-stimulation
#4
Mahlega S Hassanpour, Lirong Yan, Danny J J Wang, Rachel C Lapidus, Armen C Arevian, W Kyle Simmons, Jamie D Feusner, Sahib S Khalsa
Prominent theories emphasize key roles for the insular cortex in the central representation of interoceptive sensations, but how this brain region responds dynamically to changes in interoceptive state remains incompletely understood. Here, we systematically modulated cardiorespiratory sensations in humans using bolus infusions of isoproterenol, a rapidly acting peripheral beta-adrenergic agonist similar to adrenaline. To identify central neural processes underlying these parametrically modulated interoceptive states, we used pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) to simultaneously measure blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) and arterial spin labelling (ASL) signals in healthy participants...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079982/recombinant-soluble-apyrase-apt102-inhibits-thrombosis-and-intimal-hyperplasia-in-vein-grafts-without-adversely-affecting-hemostasis-or-re-endothelialization
#5
Y Ji, O Adeola, T L Strawn, S S Jeong, R Chen, W P Fay
BACKGROUND: Occlusion of vein grafts (VGs) after bypass surgery due to thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia (IH) is a major clinical problem. Apyrases are enzymes that scavenge extracellular ATP and ADP and promote adenosine formation at sites of vascular injury and hence have potential to inhibit vein graft pathology. OBJECTIVES: We examined the effects of recombinant soluble human apyrase, APT102, on platelets, smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro and thrombosis and IH in murine VGs...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079976/maresin-1-induces-a-novel-pro-resolving-phenotype-in-human-platelets
#6
Katie L Lannan, Sherry L Spinelli, Neil Blumberg, Richard P Phipps
BACKGROUND: Antiplatelet therapy is a cornerstone of modern medical practice and is routinely employed to reduce the likelihood of myocardial infarction, thrombosis, and stroke. However, current antiplatelet therapies, such as aspirin, often have adverse side effects, including increased risk of bleeding, and some patients are relatively "aspirin-resistant". Platelets are intimately involved in hemostasis and inflammation, and clinical consequences are associated with excessive or insufficient platelet activation...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079921/four-cases-of-exogenous-acral-pigmentation-related-to-a-darkeling-beetle-coleoptera-tenebrionidae-blaps
#7
S Mokni, L Boussofara, W Saidi, A Aounallah, C Belajouza, N Ghariani, R Nouira, M Denguezli
Beetle (coleoptera) is the largest insect order colonizing all continents 1-2. Most of the beetles synthesize hemolymph containing several chemicals used as signals or defensive secretions against predators 2. Coleoptera body fluids can accidentally come into contact with humans' skin and induce dermatitis. Skin contact with the beetles commonly causes blistering skin eruption 3. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 12, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079509/excellent-balance-skills-despite-active-and-inactive-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-unexpected-results-of-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Josephine Merker, Matthias Hartmann, Florian Kreuzpointner, Ansgar Schwirtz, Johannes-Peter Haas
OBJECTIVES: Postural control (PC) is fundamental for human movements. Different factors, such as injuries or diseases, can adversely affect PC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PC in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients with different disease activity levels in comparison to healthy peers. METHODS: JIA patients with active and inactive lower limb joints (n=36 each group) were examined. Both groups have been on medication and have had physiotherapy for at least 5 years...
January 5, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079302/molecular-basis-for-covalent-inhibition-of-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-by-a-2-phenoxy-1-4-naphthoquinone-small-molecule
#9
Stefano Bruno, Elisa Uliassi, Mirko Zaffagnini, Federica Prati, Christian Bergamini, Riccardo Amorati, Gianluca Paredi, Marilena Margiotta, Paola Conti, Maria Paola Costi, Marcel Kaiser, Andrea Cavalli, Romana Fato, Maria Laura Bolognesi
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) has recently gained attention as an anti-protozoan and anti-cancer drug target. We have previously identified 2-phenoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone as an inhibitor of both Trypanosoma brucei and human GAPDH. Herein, through multiple chemical, biochemical, and biological studies, and through the design of analogs, we confirmed the formation of a covalent adduct, we clarified the inhibition mechanism and we demonstrated antitrypanosomal, antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities in cell cultures...
January 12, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079292/germ-cell-tumors-insights-from-the-drosophila-ovary-and-the-mouse-testis
#10
REVIEW
Helen K Salz, Emily P Dawson, Jason D Heaney
Ovarian and testicular germ cell tumors of young adults are thought to arise from defects in germ cell development, but the molecular mechanisms underlying malignant transformation are poorly understood. In this review, we focus on the biology of germ cell tumor formation in the Drosophila ovary and the mouse testis, for which the evidence supports common underlying mechanisms such as blocking initiation into the differentiation pathway, impaired lineage progression, and sexual identity instability. We then discuss how these concepts inform our understanding of the disease in humans...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079249/fractal-analysis-of-visual-search-activity-for-mass-detection-during-mammographic-screening
#11
Folami Alamudun, Hong-Jun Yoon, Kathleen B Hudson, Garnetta Morin-Ducote, Tracy Hammond, Georgia D Tourassi
PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to assess the complexity of human visual search activity during mammographic screening using fractal analysis and to investigate its relationship with case and reader characteristics. METHODS: The study was performed for the task of mammographic screening with simultaneous viewing of four coordinated breast views as typically done in clinical practice. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions collected for 100 mammographic cases (25 normal, 25 benign, 50 malignant) and 10 readers (three board certified radiologists and seven radiology residents), formed the corpus data for this study...
January 12, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078804/a-low-protein-diet-induces-body-weight-loss-and-browning-of-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-through-enhanced-expression-of-hepatic-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-fgf21
#12
Albert Pérez-Martí, Maite Garcia-Guasch, Anna Tresserra-Rimbau, Alexandra Carrilho-Do-Rosário, Ramon Estruch, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Miguel Ángel Martínez-González, Rosa Lamuela-Raventós, Pedro F Marrero, Diego Haro, Joana Relat
SCOPE: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is considered a promising therapeutic candidate for the treatment of obesity. Since FGF21 production is regulated by various nutritional factors, we analyze the impact of low protein intake on circulating levels of this growth hormone in mice and in a sub cohort of the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial. We also describe the role of hepatic FGF21 in metabolic adaptation to a low-protein diet (LPD). METHODS AND RESULTS: We fed control and liver-specific Fgf21 knockout (LFgf21KO) mice a LPD...
January 11, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078786/v1-connections-reveal-a-series-of-elongated-higher-visual-areas-in-the-california-ground-squirrel-otospermophilus-beecheyi
#13
Moritz Negwer, Yong-Jun Liu, Dirk Schubert, David C Lyon
For studies of visual cortex organization, mouse is becoming an increasingly more often used model. In addition to its genetic tractability, the relatively small area of cortical surface devoted to visual processing simplifies efforts in relating the structure of visual cortex to visual function. However, the nature of this compact organization can make some comparisons to the much larger non-human primate visual cortex difficult. The squirrel, as a highly visual rodent offers a useful means for better understanding how mouse and monkey cortical organization compares...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078776/performance-of-the-forenseq-tm-dna-signature-prep-kit-on-highly-degraded-samples
#14
Paolo Fattorini, Carlo Previderé, Ilaria Carboni, Giorgio Marrubini, Solange Sorçaburu-Cigliero, Pierangela Grignani, Barbara Bertoglio, Paolo Vatta, Ugo Ricci
Next generation sequencing (NGS) is the emerging technology in forensic genomics laboratories. It offers higher resolution to address most problems of human identification, greater efficiency and potential ability to interrogate very challenging forensic casework samples. In the present study, a trial set of DNA samples was artificially degraded, by progressive aqueous hydrolysis, and analyzed together with the corresponding unmodified DNA sample and control sample 2800M, to test the performance and reliability of the ForenSeq(TM) DNA Signature Prep kit using the MiSeq Sequencer (Illumina)...
January 12, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078769/interleukin-1%C3%AE-induced-release-of-interleukin-8-by-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells-in-vitro-assessing-mechanisms-and-possible-treatment-options
#15
REVIEW
Hannelore Bellon, Elly Vandermeulen, Carolien Mathyssen, Annelore Sacreas, Stijn E Verleden, Tobias Heigl, Hanne Vriens, Elise Lammertyn, Charles Pilette, Peter Hoet, Robin Vos, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Geert M Verleden
BACKGROUND: Survival after lung transplantation is hampered by chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). Persistently elevated BAL-neutrophilia is observed in some patients despite treatment with azithromycin, which may be induced by IL-1α. Our aim is to establish an in vitro model, assess mechanistic pathways and test different therapeutic strategies of IL-1α induced release of IL-8 by human bronchial epithelial cells. METHODS: Bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) were stimulated with IL-1α with or without azithromycin or dexamethasone...
January 12, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078760/a-study-of-volumetric-variations-of-basal-nuclei-in-the-normal-human-brain-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#16
Amal Elkattan, Amal Mahdy, Mohamed Eltomey, Radwa Ismail
Knowledge of the effects of healthy aging on brain structures is necessary to identify abnormal changes due to diseases. Many studies have demonstrated age-related volume changes in the brain using MRI. 60 healthy individuals who had normal MRI aged from 20 years to 80 years were examined and classified into three groups: Group I: 21 persons; nine males and 12 females aging between 20-39 years old. Group II: 22 persons; 11 males and 11 females aging between 40-59 years old. Group III: 17 persons; eight males and nine females aging between 60-80 years old...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078713/the-novel-mtor-complex-1-2-inhibitor-p529-inhibits-human-lung-myofibroblast-differentiation
#17
Keith T Ferguson, Elizabeth E Torr, Ksenija Bernau, Jonathan Leet, Davis Sherris, Nathan Sandbo
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and deadly disorder with very few therapeutic options. Palomid 529 (8-(1-hydroxyethyl)-2-methoxy-3-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)-benzo[c]chromen-6-one; P529) is a novel dual inhibitor of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1/2 (mTORC1/2). In these studies, we investigated the effect of P529 on TGF-β-dependent signaling and myofibroblast differentiation. TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of the mTORC1 targets, p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), were both dose dependently inhibited by P529 in human lung fibroblasts with maximal inhibition occurring between 10-20 µM...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078668/mitochondrial-adaptations-to-exercise-in-human-skeletal-muscle-a-possible-role-for-cristae-density-as-a-determinant-of-muscle-fitness
#18
Christopher G R Perry
Skeletal muscle possesses a remarkable plasticity in response to repeated exercise challenges (i.e. exercise 'training'). A hallmark phenotypic change is an increase in the ability to sustain contraction and resist fatigue. Such increased muscle endurance is linked, in part, to an improved ability to sustain ATP synthesis aerobically through coordinated enhancements in the delivery of oxygen (e.g. cardiorespiratory, vascular adaptations) and its utilization within skeletal muscle mitochondria for the oxidation of fat and carbohydrates...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077709/semantic-congruence-accelerates-the-onset-of-the-neural-signals-of-successful-memory-encoding
#19
Pau A Packard, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells, Nico Bunzeck, Berta Nicolás, Ruth de Diego-Balaguer, Lluís Fuentemilla
: As the stream of experience unfolds, our memory system rapidly transforms current inputs into long-lasting meaningful memories. A putative neural mechanism that strongly influences how input elements are transformed into meaningful memory codes relies on the ability to integrate them with existing structures of knowledge or schemas. However, it is not yet clear whether schema-related integration neural mechanisms occur during online encoding. In the current investigation, we examined the encoding-dependent nature of this phenomenon in humans...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077147/the-political-and-scientific-challenges-in-evaluating-compulsory-drug-treatment-centers-in-southeast-asia
#20
Thu Vuong, Nhu Nguyen, Giang Le, Marian Shanahan, Robert Ali, Alison Ritter
BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, like many countries in Southeast Asia, the commonly used approach of center-based compulsory drug treatment (CCT) has been criticized on human rights ground. Meanwhile, community-based voluntary methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been implemented for nearly a decade with promising results. Reform-minded leaders have been seeking empirical evidence of the costs and effectiveness associated with these two main treatment modalities. Conducting evaluations of these treatments, especially where randomization is not ethical, presents challenges...
January 11, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
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