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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400513/determining-the-factors-driving-selective-effects-of-new-nonsynonymous-mutations
#1
Christian D Huber, Bernard Y Kim, Clare D Marsden, Kirk E Lohmueller
The distribution of fitness effects (DFE) of new mutations plays a fundamental role in evolutionary genetics. However, the extent to which the DFE differs across species has yet to be systematically investigated. Furthermore, the biological mechanisms determining the DFE in natural populations remain unclear. Here, we show that theoretical models emphasizing different biological factors at determining the DFE, such as protein stability, back-mutations, species complexity, and mutational robustness make distinct predictions about how the DFE will differ between species...
April 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387074/-female-genital-mutilations-the-condition-in-liege
#2
L Swenen, G Brichant, A Kaluanga, V Masson, M Nisolle
Due to current migration flows, the practising obstetrician is likely to encounter parturient women carriers of female genital mutilations (FGM). This article describes the obstetrical complications related to the latter. We compared a group of mutilated patients (n = 69) to a control group (n = 162) and studied the data concerning pregnancy, childbirth, newborn, postpartum and length of hospital stay. Among the mutilated patients, 44% were group B streptococcus carriers against 23 % in the control group (p inferior to 0...
January 2017: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381290/the-mothering-experience-of-women-with-fgm-c-raising-uncut-daughters-in-ivory-coast-and-in-canada
#3
Sophia Koukoui, Ghayda Hassan, Jaswant Guzder
BACKGROUND: While Female Genital Cutting (FGM/C) is a deeply entrenched cultural practice, there is now mounting evidence for a gradual decline in prevalence in a number of geographical areas in Africa and following migration to non-practicing countries. Consequently, there is now a growing number of women with FGM/C who are raising 'uncut' daughters. This study used a qualitative methodology to investigate the experience of women with FGM/C raising daughters who have not been subjected to the ritual...
April 5, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355362/controlled-clinical-trial-addressing-teeth-whitening-with-hydrogen-peroxide-in-adolescents-a-12-month-follow-up
#4
Marcelo Mendes Pinto, Marcela Leticia Leal Gonçalves, Ana Carolina Costa da Mota, Alessandro Melo Deana, Silvia Regina Olivan, Carolina Bortoletto, Camila Haddad Leal de Godoy, Katia Lumi Tanikawa Vergilio, Olga Maria Altavista, Lara J Motta, Sandra Kalil Bussadori
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the colorimetric change in incisors and canines of adolescents aged 12 to 20 years submitted to at-home whitening and to evaluate satisfaction, sensitivity and discomfort during the procedures through a questionnaire. METHOD: Thirty adolescents were randomly assigned to the following groups: 1) 6.0% hydrogen peroxide (White Class with calcium - FGM); 2) 7.5% hydrogen peroxide (White Class with calcium - FGM); 3) 10% hydrogen peroxide (Oral B 3D White - Oral-B); 4) Control group - placebo...
March 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335771/understanding-the-motivations-of-health-care-providers-in-performing-female-genital-mutilation-an-integrative-review-of-the-literature
#5
REVIEW
Marie-Hélène Doucet, Christina Pallitto, Danielle Groleau
BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a traditional harmful practice that can cause severe physical and psychological damages to girls and women. Increasingly, trained health-care providers carry out the practice at the request of families. It is important to understand the motivations of providers in order to reduce the medicalization of FGM. This integrative review identifies, appraises and summarizes qualitative and quantitative literature exploring the factors that are associated with the medicalization of FGM and/or re-infibulation...
March 23, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301010/effect-of-sonic-vibrations-on-bond-strength-of-fiberglass-posts-bonded-to-root-dentin
#6
Amanda Mahammad Mushashe, Rodrigo Otavio Jatahy Ferreira do Amaral, Carlos Eduardo Edwards Rezende, Flares Baratto Filho, Leonardo Fernandes da Cunha, Carla Castiglia Gonzaga
Sonic vibrations may improve the bond strength and durability of fiberglass posts by improving adhesive penetration into dentin as well as the cement flow. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sonic vibrations on the bond strength between fiberglass posts and root dentin using the pull-out test. Bovine roots were endodontically treated and divided randomly into four groups (n=12): Group C - conventional cementation (control); Group SA - sonic vibration (Smart Sonic Device, FGM) of the adhesive system and conventional post accommodation; SP group - conventional adhesive application and sonic vibration of the post during accommodation; and SASP - sonic vibration of the system adhesive and the post during accommodation...
January 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288664/injured-bodies-damaged-lives-experiences-and-narratives-of-kenyan-women-with-obstetric-fistula-and-female-genital-mutilation-cutting
#7
Lillian Mwanri, Glory Joy Gatwiri
BACKGROUND: It is well acknowledged that Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C/C) leads to medical, psychological and sociocultural sequels. Over 200 million cases of FGM/C exist globally, and in Kenya alone, a total of 12,418,000 (28%) of women have undergone FGM/C, making the practice not only a significant national, but also a global health catastrophe. FGM/C is rooted in patriarchal and traditional cultures as a communal experience signifying a transition from girlhood to womanhood...
March 14, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273856/time-prediction-models-for-echinococcosis-based-on-gray-system-theory-and-epidemic-dynamics
#8
Liping Zhang, Li Wang, Yanling Zheng, Kai Wang, Xueliang Zhang, Yujian Zheng
Echinococcosis, which can seriously harm human health and animal husbandry production, has become an endemic in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. In order to explore an effective human Echinococcosis forecasting model in Xinjiang, three grey models, namely, the traditional grey GM(1,1) model, the Grey-Periodic Extensional Combinatorial Model (PECGM(1,1)), and the Modified Grey Model using Fourier Series (FGM(1,1)), in addition to a multiplicative seasonal ARIMA(1,0,1)(1,1,0)₄ model, are applied in this study for short-term predictions...
March 4, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267442/effects-of-female-genital-mutilation-cutting-on-the-sexual-function-of-sudanese-women-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Abdulrahim A Rouzi, Rigmor C Berg, Nora Sahly, Susan Alkafy, Faten Alzaban, Hassan Abduljabbar
BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a cultural practice that involves several types of removal or other injury to the external female genitalia for nonmedical reasons. Although much international research has focused on the health consequences of the practice, little is known about sexual functioning among women with various types of FGM/C. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of FGM/C on the sexual functioning of Sudanese women. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study conducted at Doctor Erfan and Bagedo Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia...
March 3, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264185/how-much-accuracy-of-interstitial-glucose-measurement-is-enough-is-there-a-need-for-new-evidence
#10
Norbert Hermanns, Dominic Ehrmann, Bernhard Kulzer
This analytical comment discusses what standards are needed for the evaluation of the accuracy of glucose measurement systems continuously measuring glucose in the interstitial fluid. Since accuracy standards for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)/flash glucose monitoring (FGM) systems are currently based on modeling studies or consensus of experts, we raised the question whether non-inferiority trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of CGM/FGM measurements compared to capillary blood glucose measurement with point-of-care devices could help to establish clarity about the needed accuracy standards of CGM/FGM...
March 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256242/a-functionally-graded-material-model-for-the-transmural-stress-distribution-of-the-aortic-valve-leaflet
#11
Bruno V Rego, Michael S Sacks
Heterogeneities in structure and stress within heart valve leaflets are of significant concern to their functional physiology, as they affect how the tissue constituents remodel in response to pathological and non-pathological (e.g. exercise, pregnancy) alterations in cardiac function. Indeed, valve interstitial cells (VICs) are known to synthesize and degrade leaflet extracellular matrix (ECM) components in a manner specific to their local micromechanical environment. Quantifying local variations in ECM structure and stress is thus necessary to understand homeostatic valve maintenance as well as to develop predictive models of disease progression and post-surgical outcomes...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249120/acceptance-of-fgm-or-cgm-in-clinical-decision-making-and-patient-preference-where-do-we-go-from-here
#12
Roger S Mazze
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198970/is-the-bonding-of-self-adhesive-cement-sensitive-to-root-region-and-curing-mode
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Thaynara Faelly Boing, Giovana Mongruel Gomes, João Carlos Gomes, Alessandra Reis, Osnara Maria Mongruel Gomes
Objectives: To evaluate the influence of two curing techniques on the degree of conversion (DC) of resin cements and on bond strength (BS) of fiber posts in different regions of root dentin. Material and Methods: Twenty single-rooted premolars were endodontically treated, and the post spaces were prepared. The roots were randomly divided into two groups (n=10), according to the activation mode of the resin cement RelyX™ U200 (3M ESPE Saint Paul, MN, USA): conventional (continuous activation mode) and soft-start activation mode (Ramp)...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195276/an-experimental-thermally-deposited-coating-for-improved-bonding-to-glass-fiber-posts
#14
Giselle Rodrigues Reis, Fernanda Pereira Silva, Aline Oliveira-Ogliari, André Luis Faria-E-Silva, Rafael R Moraes, Veridiana Resende Novais, Murilo de Sousa Menezes
PURPOSE: To determine whether an experimental thermally deposited siloxane-methacrylate coating for use in industrial scale applications would improve the bond strength of resin-based materials to glass fiber posts (GFPs) without affecting their mechanical properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An experimental 5% (w/v) solution of methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane was prepared. Two types of GFPs (Exacto, Angelus; White Post DC, FGM) were divided into the following groups: S: silane; SA: silane and adhesive; HS: 35% H₂O₂ and silane; HSA: 35% H₂O₂, silane and adhesive; Exp: siloxane-methacrylate coating (Si-O) via post immersion in experimental solution followed by heating; Exp-S: silane after Si-O treatment; Exp-A: adhesive after Si-O treatment; and Exp-SA: silane and adhesive after Si-O treatment...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Adhesive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183596/a-numerical-study-on-the-application-of-the-functionally-graded-materials-in-the-stent-design
#15
Arezoo Khosravi, Hossein Bahreinizad, Milad Salimi Bani, Alireza Karimi
Undesirable deformation of the stent can induce a significant amount of injure not only to the blood vessel but also to the plaque. The objective of this study was to reduce/minimize these undesirable deformations by the application of Functionally Graded Materials (FGM). To do this, Finite Element (FE) method was employed to simulate the expansion of a stent and the corresponding displacement of the stenosis plaque. Three hyperelastic plaque types as well as five elastoplastic stents were simulated. Dogboning, foreshortening, maximum stress in the plaque, and the pressure which is needed to fully expand the stent for different stent materials, were acquired...
April 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178983/management-of-painful-clitoral-neuroma-after-female-genital-mutilation-cutting
#16
Jasmine Abdulcadir, Jean-Christophe Tille, Patrick Petignat
BACKGROUND: Traumatic neuromas are the result of regenerative disorganized proliferation of the proximal portion of lesioned nerves. They can exist in any anatomical site and are responsible for neuropathic pain. Post-traumatic neuromas of the clitoris have been described as an uncommon consequence of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). FGM/C involves partial or total removal of the female genital organs for non-therapeutic reasons. It can involve cutting of the clitoris and can cause psychological, sexual, and physical complications...
February 8, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164298/psychological-and-counselling-interventions-for-female-genital-mutilation
#17
Helen Smith, Karin Stein
Women and girls living with female genital mutilation (FGM) are more likely to experience psychological problems than women without FGM. As well as psychological support, this population may need additional care when seeking surgical interventions to correct complications of FGM. Recent WHO guidelines recommend cognitive behavioral therapy for women and girls experiencing anxiety disorders, depression, or post-traumatic stress disorder. The guidelines also suggest that preoperative counselling for deinfibulation, and psychological support alongside surgical interventions, can help women manage the physiological and psychological changes following surgery...
February 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164297/sexual-counselling-for-treating-or-preventing-sexual-dysfunction-in-women-living-with-female-genital-mutilation-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Uduak Okomo, Miriam Ogugbue, Elizabeth Inyang, Martin M Meremikwu
BACKGROUND: Female sexual dysfunction is the persistent or recurring decrease in sexual desire or arousal, the difficulty or inability to achieve an orgasm, and/or the feeling of pain during sexual intercourse. Impaired sexual function can occur with all types of female genital mutilation (FGM) owing to the structural changes, pain, or traumatic memories associated with the procedure. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized studies into the effects of sexual counseling with or without genital lubricants on the sexual function of women living with FGM...
February 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164296/deinfibulation-for-preventing-or-treating-complications-in-women-living-with-type-iii-female-genital-mutilation-a%C3%A2-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Babasola O Okusanya, Olabisi Oduwole, Nuria Nwachuku, Martin M Meremikwu
BACKGROUND: Deinfibulation is a surgical procedure carried out to re-open the vaginal introitus of women living with type III female genital mutilation (FGM). OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of deinfibulation on gynecologic or obstetric outcomes by comparing women who were deinfibulated with women with type III FGM or women without FGM. SEARCH STRATEGY: Major databases including CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Scopus were searched until August 2015...
February 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164295/deinfibulation-for-treating-urologic-complications-of-type-iii-female-genital-mutilation-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Emmanuel Effa, Olumuyiwa Ojo, Austin Ihesie, Martin M Meremikwu
BACKGROUND: Women and girls who have undergone type III female genital mutilation (FGM) may suffer urologic complications such as recurrent urinary tract infections, obstruction, stones, and incontinence. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of deinfibulation for preventing and treating urologic complications in women and girls living with FGM. SEARCH STRATEGY: The following major databases were searched from inception to August 2015: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials...
February 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
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