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Martina Larsson, Pollyanna Cohen, Gayle Hann, Sarah M Creighton, Deborah Hodes
This pilot study researched the attitudes towards and the knowledge of female genital mutilation (FGM) in adult women with FGM and their partners. The participant population consisted of English-speaking women and men over 18 years old attending specialist FGM clinics in two London hospitals. The participants completed a questionnaire on the attitudes and the knowledge of FGM, which were adapted with permission from the United Nations Children's Fund and the United States Agency for International Development household surveys...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Bianca Medeiros Maran, Laína Vochikovski, Diego Rafael de Andrade Hortkoff, Rodrigo Stanislawczuk, Alessandro D Loguercio, Alessandra Reis
OBJECTIVES: Desensitizing agents are usually included in the composition of bleaching agents to reduce bleaching-induced tooth sensitivity (TS). This randomized clinical trial (RCT) evaluated the risk and intensity of TS and color change after at-home bleaching with a desensitizing-containing (3% potassium nitrate and 0.2% sodium fluoride) and desensitizing-free 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) gel (Whiteness Perfect, FGM). METHODS: A triple-blind, within-person RCT was conducted on 60 caries-free adult patients...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
Samuel Kimani, Bettina Shell-Duncan
Purpose of Review: Female genital cutting/mutilation (FGM/C) performed by health care professionals (medicalization) and reduced severity of cutting have been advanced as strategies for minimizing health risks, sparking acrimonious ongoing debates. This study summarizes key debates and critically assesses supporting evidence. Recent Findings: While medicalization is concentrated in Africa, health professionals worldwide have faced requests to perform FGM/C. Whether medicalization is hindering the decline of FGM/C is unclear...
2018: Current Sexual Health Reports
Adel Hussein Elduma
BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation or female circumcision (FGM) is a serious health problem in Sudan. This procedure is harmful to women and causes many complications during pregnancy and childbirth. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the female genital mutilation (FGM) and its associated factors in Sudan. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data from Sudan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS - UNICEF) was used in this research. The survey was carried out in 2014 and included women aged between 14 - 49 years...
February 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Anthony Pease, Clement Lo, Arul Earnest, Danny Liew, Sophia Zoungas
BACKGROUND: Technology has been implemented since the 1970s with the hope of improving glycaemic control and reducing the burden of complications for those living with type 1 diabetes. A clinical and cost-effectiveness comparison of all available technologies including continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), continuous glucose monitors (CGMs), sensor-augmented pump therapy (including either low-glucose suspend or predictive low-glucose suspend), hybrid closed-loop systems, closed-loop (single-hormone or dual-hormone) systems, flash glucose monitoring (FGM), insulin bolus calculators, and 'smart-device' applications is currently lacking...
March 12, 2018: Systematic Reviews
A Nikjou, M Sadeghi
The123 I radionuclide (T1/2 = 13.22 h, β+ = 100%) is one of the most potent gamma emitters for nuclear medicine. In this study, the cyclotron production of this radionuclide via different nuclear reactions namely, the121 Sb(α,2n),122 Te(d,n),123 Te(p,n),124 Te(p,2n),124 Xe(p,2n),127 I(p,5n) and127 I(d,6n) were investigated. The effect of the various phenomenological nuclear level density models such as Fermi gas model (FGM), Back-shifted Fermi gas model (BSFGM), Generalized superfluid model (GSM) and Enhanced generalized superfluid model (EGSM) moreover, the three microscopic level density models were evaluated for predicting of cross sections and production yield predictions...
February 17, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Andrea C Johnson, W Douglas Evans, Nicole Barrett, Howida Badri, Tamador Abdalla, Cody Donahue
BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation and cutting (FGM/C, herein FGM) is a widespread and harmful practice. The Government developed a national campaign in Sudan, called Saleema, to change social norms discouraging FGM. Saleema translates to being "whole", healthy in body and mind, unharmed, intact, pristine, and untouched, in a God-given condition. An interim evaluation was conducted using focus groups among Sudanese adults. The primary aim was to explore perceptions of the Saleema poster exemplars and to assess if the desired themes were being communicated...
February 17, 2018: Reproductive Health
Basak Yazkan, R Banu Ermis
OBJECTIVE: The effects of resin infiltration and microabrasion on incipient carious lesions by surface microhardness, roughness and morphological assessments, and resistance to further acid attack of treated lesions were evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty artificially-induced incipient lesions were randomly divided into five groups (n = 16): resin infiltration with an adhesive resin (Excite F, Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), resin infiltration with a resin infiltrant (Icon, DMG, Hamburg, Germany), microabrasion without polishing (Opalustre, Ultradent, South Jordan, UT, USA), microabrasion with polishing (Opalustre, Ultradent, Diamond Excel, FGM, Joinville, SC, Brazil), and distilled water (control group)...
February 15, 2018: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
Helen Baillot, Nina Murray, Elaine Connelly, Natasha Howard
BACKGROUND: Public and policy attention to female genital mutilation (FGM) in diaspora communities has increased in Europe, but research remains limited and misinformation abounds. As a first step to addressing these issues, this study explored FGM prevention and response interventions in Europe, using a scoping literature review and key informant interviews. METHODS: A scoping study design was selected, using Arksey and O'Malley's six-stage scoping framework to review identified sources...
February 8, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Sharmila Devi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2018: Lancet
The Lancet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2018: Lancet
Claire Tantet, Camille Aupiais, Mathilde Bourdon, Frédéric Sorge, Adèle Pagès, Dora Levy, Barthélémy Lafon-Desmurs, Albert Faye
We investigated the knowledge of female genital mutilation (FGM) among 60 general and 52 specialized travel medicine practitioners. Less than 50% of these practitioners had adequate knowledge of FGM. Only 42.9% declared having encountered FGM. FGM is likely underestimated in health facilities. Medical education and supporting information should be developed to better address and prevent FGM.
January 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
Mojtaba Mahmoudi, Ali Reza Saidi, Maryam Alsadat Hashemipour, Parviz Amini
In post-core crown restorations, the significant mismatch between stiffness of artificial crowns and dental tissues leads to stress concentration at the interfaces. The aim of the present study was to reduce the destructive stresses by using a class of inhomogeneous materials called functionally graded materials (FGMs). For the purpose of the study, a 3-dimentional computer model of a premolar tooth and its surrounding tissues were generated. A post-core crown restoration with various crown materials, homogenous and FGM materials, were simulated and analyzed by finite element method...
February 1, 2018: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Beatriz Martines Souza, Daiana Moreli Soares Santos, Aline Silva Braga, Natália Mello Dos Santos, Daniela Rios, Marilia Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf, Ana Carolina Magalhães
BACKGROUND: Titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4 ) has regained interest due to new formulations that have been shown to be more effective against tooth demineralization than sodium fluoride (NaF) formulations in vitro and in situ. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of two types of varnishes (4% TiF4 and a commercial 5% NaF) on the prevention of carious lesions and the treatment of noncavitated enamel carious lesions in the permanent teeth of children living in a fluoridated area...
January 26, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Vanessa Rahal, Marjorie de Oliveira Gallinari, Juliana Stuginski Barbosa, Reynaldo Leite Martins-Junior, Paulo Henrique Dos Santos, Luciano Tavares Angelo Cintra, André Luiz Fraga Briso
This study verified the occurrence of dental sensitivity in patients submitted to a 35% hydrogen peroxide based product (Whiteness HP Maxx 35% - FGM), skin cold sensation threshold (SCST) and its influence on dental sensitivity. Sixty volunteers were divided into 4 groups (n = 15), according to SCST (low: GI and GIII, and high: GII and IV) and bleaching treatment (hydrogen peroxide: GI and GII, and placebo: GIII and GIV). SCST was determined in the inner forearm for 6 different times using a neurosensory analyzer, the TSA II (Medoc Advanced Medical Systems, Ramat Yishai, Northern District, Israel)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
Livia Elisa Ortensi, Patrizia Farina, Els Leye
BACKGROUND: Migration flows of women from Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting practicing countries have generated a need for data on women potentially affected by Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting. This paper presents enhanced estimates for foreign-born women and asylum seekers in Italy in 2016, with the aim of supporting resource planning and policy making, and advancing the methodological debate on estimation methods. METHODS: The estimates build on the most recent methodological development in Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting direct and indirect estimation for Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting non-practicing countries...
January 12, 2018: BMC Public Health
Kensuke Nakata
Some male spiders exhibit female genital mutilation behaviour (FGM) by removing the female genital appendage (scape) to control the mating frequency of females. Female spiders have two, i.e. right and left, genital openings connected with separate spermathecae into which males transfer sperm successively using one pedipalp (secondary genitalia) at a time. Thus, males must complete at least two palpal insertions to fill both spermathecae, before FGM. The present study examined whether (i) scape removal is only associated with the second palpal insertion (one-action hypothesis) or (ii) two contralateral palpal insertions facilitate FGM, with each insertion cutting the basal part of the scape halfway (two-actions hypothesis)...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Sumie Mitsuishi, Rimei Nishimura, Shin-Ichi Harashima, Tomoyuki Kawamura, Daisuke Tsujino, Keiko Koide, Akiko Nishimura, Kazunori Utsunomiya, Nobuya Inagaki, Yoshihito Atsumi
INTRODUCTION: FreeStyle Libre (Abbot Diabetes Care Ltd) has been launched as a novel glucose monitoring system called flash glucose monitoring (FGM) in Europe. Several reports are becoming available on its usefulness and safety. To date, however, reports from Asian countries have not been made available. In this study, we evaluated its usefulness in Japanese people with diabetes in terms of its mental well-being and patient satisfaction outcomes. METHODS: Individuals with type 1 and 2 diabetes treated with insulin were enrolled, and they performed self-monitoring of blood glucose...
December 22, 2017: Advances in Therapy
Diana J R Lafferty, Alexander V Kumar, Sarah Whitcher, Klaus Hackländer, L Scott Mills
Faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations are used increasingly as a non-invasive measure to index physiological stress experienced by diverse taxa. However, FGM may not be evenly distributed throughout a faecal mass or faecal pellet group. Moreover, within-sample variation in FGM measurements associated with different sampling and/or processing techniques is rarely reported despite potentially having important implications for inferring stress levels in free-ranging wildlife. Using a captive collection of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus), we (i) assessed repeatability of FGM measurements (i...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Catrin Evans, Ritah Tweheyo, Julie McGarry, Jeanette Eldridge, Carol McCormick, Valentine Nkoyo, Gina Marie Awoko Higginbottom
INTRODUCTION: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an issue of global concern. High levels of migration mean that healthcare systems in higher-income western countries are increasingly being challenged to respond to the care needs of affected communities. Research has identified significant challenges in the provision of, and access to, FGM-related healthcare. There is a lack of confidence and competence among health professionals in providing appropriate care, suggesting an urgent need for evidence-based service development in this area...
December 14, 2017: BMJ Open
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