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Meredith J Bashaw, Florian Sicks, Rupert Palme, Franz Schwarzenberger, Adrian S W Tordiffe, Andre Ganswindt
BACKGROUND: Numbers of giraffes are declining rapidly in their native habitat. As giraffe research and conservation efforts increase, the demand for more complete measures of the impact of conservation interventions and the effects of captive environments on animal health and welfare have risen. We compared the ability of six different enzyme immunoassays to quantify changes in fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM) resulting from three sources: adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test, transport, and time of day that samples were collected...
October 18, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Elinor Clarke
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a collective term for the deliberate alteration, removal and cutting of the female genitalia. It has no known health benefits and can have negative physical and psychological consequences. The number of women and girls in the UK that are affected by FGM is unknown. Recent NHS data suggested that FGM has been evident (declared or observed) in women who have accessed health care; however, there are gaps in knowledge and a limited evidence base on the health consequences of FGM...
October 13, 2016: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Debbie Duncan
This is the fourth and final article in a series on female genital mutilation (FGM). It describes the complications of FGM, with a focus on the urinary ones. FGM refers to all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia and/or damage to other female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The World Health Organization (WHO) has classified FGM into four types (1-4). Women who have type 3 commonly experience long-term complications of their urological tract. The first-line treatment for type 3 FGM involves surgical defibulation, but this is not always successful and women can be left with neurogenic bladder dysfunction and urethral stricture disease...
October 13, 2016: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Christina Pechmann, Franz Petermann, Sören Schmidt, Dennis Nitkowski, Anke Köbach, Martina Ruf, Thomas Elbert
The Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is still practiced in many countries and mainly performed for traditional reasons. In this study, the relationship of the FGM type (type I and type III) with anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder as well as the attitude toward FGM was analyzed. For this purpose the data of N=109 of FGM type I and III affected women from Ethiopia were collected. Analyses show moderation effects. It was found that the symptoms of depression and PTSD were less pronounced with a positive attitude towards the FGM in the sample of severely mutilated women (type III)...
October 11, 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Maria I Rodriguez, Armando Seuc, Lale Say, Michelle J Hindin
BACKGROUND: To investigate the association between type of episiotomy and obstetric outcomes among 6,187 women with type 3 Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of women presenting in labor to 28 obstetric centres in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal and Sudan between November 2001 and March 2003. Data were analysed using cross tabulations and multivariable logistic regression to determine if type of episiotomy by FGM classification had a significant impact on key maternal outcomes...
October 10, 2016: Reproductive Health
Waleed M Sweileh
BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a common harmful traditional practice in many communities in Africa and to a lesser extent in Middle East and other regions in the world. In order to better understand publishing on this topic, we conducted a bibliometric study on FGM/C. Bibliometric analyses can be used as an indicator of the extent of interaction of researchers, health authorities, and communities with a particular health issue. METHODS: Scopus database was used to retrieve data on FGM/C...
October 10, 2016: Reproductive Health
Taylan Gün, Osman Fatih Boztepe, Doğan Atan, Aykut İkincioğulları, Hüseyin Dere
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of three different myringoplasty techniques, namely hyaluronic acid fat graft myringoplasty (HAFGM), fat graft myringoplasty (FGM), and temporal fascia for the closure of different sizes and sites of tympanic membrane perforations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients who had undergone a type 1 tympanoplasty operation at our clinic between May 2007 and February 2013. The patients were divided into three groups depending on the patient's choice of technique as follows: Fat Graft Myringoplasty (FGM) (Group I), Hyaluronic Acid Fat Graft Myringoplasty (HAFGM) (Group II), and Temporalis Fascia (TF) (Group III)...
August 2016: Journal of International Advanced Otology
Emmanuel Kabengele Mpinga, Aurélie Macias, Jennifer Hasselgard-Rowe, Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala, Tshimungu Kandolo Félicien, Henk Verloo, Ngoyi K Zacharie Bukonda, Philippe Chastonay
BACKGROUND: Global efforts to end female genital mutilation (FGM) have intensified in recent decades because of the rising awareness that such a practice is an act of extreme violence against women and girls. Articles on FGM have been published highlighting the combined efforts of international and non-governmental organizations, governments, as well as religious and civil society groups to end the practice. However, the consequences of this research are not well known, and it seems that the socioeconomic aspects of the practice are underreported...
2016: Global Health Action
Petra Kendall-Raynor
Though it has been illegal in the UK since 1985, no one has ever been prosecuted for FGM. Under laws rolled out last year in England and Wales, nurses, midwives, doctors and teachers have a mandatory duty to report FGM cases in under-18s to police.
September 28, 2016: Nursing Standard
Claudine Gayle, Janice Rymer
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a traditional practice that has no medical benefit and severe health consequences for girls and women. This article discusses the risks to patients who are pregnant and have had FGM. It will describe urinary tract infections caused by FGM, and how this condition increases the risk of preterm labour and delivery. It will also address the difficulty in vaginal examinations that can be caused by FGM and instances when this can delay diagnosis and treatment. In addition, it will explore a number of intrapartum risks caused by FGM and the role of deinfibulation in pregnancy...
September 22, 2016: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Rehana A Salam, Anadil Faqqah, Nida Sajjad, Zohra S Lassi, Jai K Das, Miriam Kaufman, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
Adolescents have special sexual and reproductive health needs (whether or not they are sexually active or married). This review assesses the impact of interventions to improve adolescent sexual and reproductive health (including the interventions to prevent female genital mutilation/cutting [FGM/C]) and to prevent intimate violence. Our review findings suggest that sexual and reproductive health education, counseling, and contraceptive provision are effective in increasing sexual knowledge, contraceptive use, and decreasing adolescent pregnancy...
October 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Shengzhi Xu, Sen Su, Li Xiong, Xiang Cheng, Ke Xiao
Mining frequent subgraphs from a collection of input graphs is an important topic in data mining research. However, if the input graphs contain sensitive information, releasing frequent subgraphs may pose considerable threats to individual's privacy. In this paper, we study the problem of frequent subgraph mining (FGM) under the rigorous differential privacy model. We introduce a novel differentially private FGM algorithm, which is referred to as DFG. In this algorithm, we first privately identify frequent subgraphs from input graphs, and then compute the noisy support of each identified frequent subgraph...
May 2016: Proceedings
Israa Siddig
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a practice that is now familiar to UK health professionals. It continues to be a problem in high-risk populations and affects girls and women throughout their lives. Complications related to FGM are poorly reported and documented. Health professionals, therefore, must be aware of the adverse effects and how they affect obstetric, gynaecological and sexual function and general quality of life. They must also be sensitive towards the psychological and emotional issues relating to FGM...
September 8, 2016: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Yonglong Pan, Xiaoming Wang, Lin Liu, Hao Wang, Meizhong Luo
A good physical map is essential to guide sequence assembly in de novo whole genome sequencing, especially when sequences are produced by high-throughput sequencing such as next-generation-sequencing (NGS) technology. We here present a novel method, Feature sets-based Genome Mapping (FGM). With FGM, physical map and draft whole genome sequences can be generated, anchored and integrated using the same data set of NGS sequences, independent of restriction digestion. Method model was created and parameters were inspected by simulations using the Arabidopsis genome sequence...
2016: PloS One
Teshome Oljira, Nega Assefa, Yadeta Dessie
OBJECTIVE: To assess the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) among mothers and daughters, and to investigate sociodemographic factors influencing the practice of FGM in Harar, Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among women aged 15 years or older who had at least one living daughter younger than 12 years via the Harar Health and Demographic Surveillance System 2013. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews...
August 22, 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
W Eckardt, T S Stoinski, S Rosenbaum, M R Umuhoza, R Santymire
The continued degradation of primate habitat worldwide is forcing many primate populations into small protected forest islands surrounded by high-density human populations. One well-studied example is the critically endangered mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei). Decades of monitoring and research on Rwanda's mountain gorillas offer a unique opportunity to use non-invasive endocrine analysis to address pressing questions about the conservation of this endangered population. The aims of our study were as follows: (i) to validate field and laboratory methods for assessing stress through faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) analysis using inter-social unit interactions as a natural stressor; (ii) to determine the excretion lag times between interactions and detectable stress response in faeces; and (iii) to determine whether there are circadian patterns of FGM excretion...
2016: Conservation Physiology
Vincenzo Puppo
The World Health Organization reports that more than 200 million women currently alive have been subjected to female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) worldwide, and three million girls continue to be at risk each year. FGM/C today is women's business. The vulva is formed by the labia majora and the vestibule, with its erectile apparatus. These structures are located under the urogenital diaphragm, behind the pubic symphysis in the anterior perineal region. The clitoris is entirely an external genital organ: the glans and body covered by the prepuce are visible/free while the roots are hidden...
September 6, 2016: Clinical Anatomy
Eleanor Brown, Faith Mwangi-Powell, Miriam Jerotich, Victoria le May
The Girl Summit held in 2014 aimed to mobilise greater effort to end Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) within a generation, building on a global movement which viewed the practice as a severe form of violence against women and girls and a violation of their rights. The UN, among others, endorse "comprehensive" strategies to end FGM, including legalistic measures, social protection and social communications. FGM is a sensitive issue and difficult to research, and rapid ethnographic methods can use existing relations of trust within social networks to explore attitudes towards predominant social norms which posit FGM as a social necessity...
May 2016: Reproductive Health Matters
Sijmen Schoustra, Sungmin Hwang, Joachim Krug, J Arjan G M de Visser
Adaptive evolution ultimately is fuelled by mutations generating novel genetic variation. Non-additivity of fitness effects of mutations (called epistasis) may affect the dynamics and repeatability of adaptation. However, understanding the importance and implications of epistasis is hampered by the observation of substantial variation in patterns of epistasis across empirical studies. Interestingly, some recent studies report increasingly smaller benefits of beneficial mutations once genotypes become better adapted (called diminishing-returns epistasis) in unicellular microbes and single genes...
August 31, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Jorge A Moura de Sousa, João Alpedrinha, Paulo R A Campos, Isabel Gordo
One of the simplest models of adaptation to a new environment is Fisher's Geometric Model (FGM), in which populations move on a multidimensional landscape defined by the traits under selection. The predictions of this model have been found to be consistent with current observations of patterns of fitness increase in experimentally evolved populations. Recent studies investigated the dynamics of allele frequency change along adaptation of microbes to simple laboratory conditions and unveiled a dramatic pattern of competition between cohorts of mutations, i...
2016: PeerJ
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