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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542587/seminal-plasma-induces-inflammation-and-enhances-hiv-1-replication-in-human-cervical-tissue-explants
#1
Andrea Introini, Stéphanie Boström, Frideborg Bradley, Anna Gibbs, Axel Glaessgen, Annelie Tjernlund, Kristina Broliden
The most immediate and evident effect of mucosal exposure to semen in vivo is a local release of proinflammatory mediators accompanied by an influx of leukocytes into the female genital mucosa (FGM). The implication of such response in HIV-1 transmission has never been addressed due to limitations of currently available experimental models. Using human tissue explants from the uterine cervix, we developed a system of mucosal exposure to seminal plasma (SP) that supports HIV-1 replication. Treatment of ectocervical explants with SP resulted in the upregulation of inflammatory and growth factors, including IL-6, TNF, CCL5, CCL20, CXCL1, and CXCL8, and IL1A, CSF2, IL7, PTGS2, as evaluated by measuring protein levels in explant conditioned medium (ECM) and gene expression in tissue...
May 19, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540220/female-genital-mutilation-cutting-in-africa
#2
REVIEW
Akin-Tunde A Odukogbe, Bosede B Afolabi, Oluwasomidoyin O Bello, Ayodeji S Adeyanju
Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a traditional practice in which the external female genitalia is partially or totally incised or excised for a non-therapeutic reason, usually without the consent of the individual. FGM/C is common in Africa with varying prevalence in different countries, though the incidence is reducing because it is considered a human rights issue with tremendous advocacy for its elimination by mainly nongovernmental organizations. It is mainly underreported in many countries in Africa especially where it has been declared illegal...
April 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532515/what-do-we-know-about-assessing-healthcare-students-and-professionals-knowledge-attitude-and-practice-regarding-female-genital-mutilation-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Jasmine Abdulcadir, Lale Say, Christina Pallitto
INTRODUCTION: Improving healthcare providers' capacities of prevention and treatment of female genital mutilation (FGM) is important given the fact that 200 million women and girls globally are living with FGM. However, training programs are lacking and often not evaluated. Validated and standardized tools to assess providers' knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) regarding FGM are lacking. Therefore, little evidence exists on the impact of training efforts on healthcare providers' KAP on FGM...
May 22, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521830/evidence-based-policy-responses-to-strengthen-health-community-and-legislative-systems-that-care-for-women-in-australia-with-female-genital-mutilation-cutting
#4
REVIEW
Nesrin Varol, John J Hall, Kirsten Black, Sabera Turkmani, Angela Dawson
BACKGROUND: The physical and psychological impact of female genital mutilation / cutting (FGM/C) can be substantial, long term, and irreversible. Parts of the health sector in Australia have developed guidelines in the management of FGM/C, but large gaps exist in community and professional knowledge of the consequences and treatment of FGM/C. The prevalence of FGM/C amongst Australian women is unknown. Our article reviews the literature on research on FGM/C in Australia, which focuses on health system response to women and girls with FGM/C...
May 18, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512546/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-different-enamel-surface-treatments-and-waiting-times-on-the-staining-prevention-after-bleaching
#5
Débora Monteiro, Allyson Moreira, Tulimar Cornacchia, Cláudia Magalhães
BACKGROUND: Bleached dental enamel can be more susceptible to staining than the enamel that has never been bleached, especially right after tooth bleaching. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of surface treatments and waiting time prior to contact with dye on bleached enamel staining susceptibility. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred teeth were bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide (Whiteness HP, FGM) and randomly assigned to G1 artificial saliva, G2 2% sodium fluoride (Flugel, Nova DFL), G3 casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride paste (CPP-ACPF, MI Paste Plus, GC America), G4 rinse for color maintenance after bleaching (Keep White Rinse, DMC) and G5 polishing with aluminum oxide-impregnated disks (Super Buff Disk, Shofu)...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503478/the-effects-of-non-thermal-plasma-and-conventional-treatments-on-the-bond-strength-of-fiber-posts-to-resin-cement
#6
Maíra do Prado, Eduardo Moreira da Silva, Juliana das Neves Marques, Caroline Brum Gonzalez, Renata Antoun Simão
OBJECTIVES: This study compared the effect of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and ammonia (NH3) plasmas on the bond strength of resin cement to fiber posts with conventional treatments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-five fiber posts were divided into 5 groups: Control (no surface treatment); H2O2 (24% hydrogen peroxide for 1 min); Blasting (blasting with aluminum oxide for 30 sec); NH3 (NH3 plasma treatment for 3 min); HMDSO (HMDSO plasma treatment for 15 min). After the treatments, the Ambar adhesive (FGM Dental Products) was applied to the post surface (n = 10)...
May 2017: Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501717/assisting-asylum-seekers-in-a-time-of-global-forced-displacement-five%C3%A2-clinical-cases
#7
Katherine C McKenzie, Arielle Thomas
According to the United Nations High Commissioner on Refugees, over 65 million people were displaced from their homes due to conflict and persecution in 2015. Many physicians express an interest in human rights and a desire to assist this group of refugees and asylum seekers. Physicians are able to use their unique skills by performing medical forensic evaluations of individuals seeking asylum. Some asylum seekers have psychological or physical scars or functional abnormalities relating to injuries or ill-treatment they experience due to persecution...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499386/gender-equality-and-human-rights-approaches-to-female-genital-mutilation-a-review-of-international-human-rights-norms-and-standards
#8
REVIEW
Rajat Khosla, Joya Banerjee, Doris Chou, Lale Say, Susana T Fried
Two hundred million girls and women in the world are estimated to have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM), and another 15 million girls are at risk of experiencing it by 2020 in high prevalence countries (UNICEF, 2016. Female genital mutilation/cutting: a global concern. 2016). Despite decades of concerted efforts to eradicate or abandon the practice, and the increased need for clear guidance on the treatment and care of women who have undergone FGM, present efforts have not yet been able to effectively curb the number of women and girls subjected to this practice (UNICEF...
May 12, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467252/enamel-mineral-content-changes-after-bleaching-with-high-and-low-hydrogen-peroxide-concentrations-colorimetric-spectrophotometry-and-total-reflection-x-ray-fluorescence-analyses
#9
Avd Pinto, E C Bridi, Flb Amaral, Fmg França, C P Turssi, C A Pérez, E F Martinez, F M Flório, R T Basting
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) content in enamel bleached with high and low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (HP) using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) and colorimetric spectrophotometry (SPEC). Forty-eight sound human third molars were used. Their roots were embedded in polystyrene resin and immersed for seven days in an artificial saliva solution. Then they were distributed into six groups to receive the bleaching treatments. The agents of high HP concentration (for in-office use) evaluated were Whiteness HP Maxx/FGM (35% HP), Whiteness HP Blue/FGM (35% HP, 2% calcium gluconate), Pola Office+/SDI (37...
May 2017: Operative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465814/iranian-midwives-knowledge-of-and-attitudes-toward-female-genital-mutilation-cutting-fgm-c
#10
Zahra Bostani Khalesi, Soheila Pirdadeh Beiranvand, Fariba Ebtekar
INTRODUCTION: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is globally recognized as a violation of the human rights of females. It has no health benefits and harms those who undergo the procedure. Midwives are therefore expected to be aware of how to manage these consequences and play a key role in the prevention of the practice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the level of Iranian midwives' knowledge of and attitudes toward FGM/C. METHODS: A total of 168 midwives were enrolled in our descriptive study...
February 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463814/al2o3-ti-functionally-graded-material-prepared-by-spark-plasma-sintering-for-orthopaedic-applications
#11
Marjan Bahraminasab, S Ghaffari, Hossein Eslami-Shahed
Orthopaedic prostheses still suffer from limited lifetime which imposes revision surgery with the associated risks involved. This, to some extent, is related to the vulnerability of the biomaterials used for their fabrication that are commonly single-constituent and uniform. Therefore, hybrid biomaterials such as composites and functionally graded materials (FGMs) are being developed to overcome the shortcomings of available biomaterials. The present paper focuses on the study of the structural, physical and mechanical properties of a FGM made of alumina-titanium fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400513/determining-the-factors-driving-selective-effects-of-new-nonsynonymous-mutations
#12
Christian D Huber, Bernard Y Kim, Clare D Marsden, Kirk E Lohmueller
The distribution of fitness effects (DFE) of new mutations plays a fundamental role in evolutionary genetics. However, the extent to which the DFE differs across species has yet to be systematically investigated. Furthermore, the biological mechanisms determining the DFE in natural populations remain unclear. Here, we show that theoretical models emphasizing different biological factors at determining the DFE, such as protein stability, back-mutations, species complexity, and mutational robustness make distinct predictions about how the DFE will differ between species...
April 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387074/-female-genital-mutilations-the-condition-in-liege
#13
L Swenen, G Brichant, A Kaluanga, V Masson, M Nisolle
Due to current migration flows, the practising obstetrician is likely to encounter parturient women carriers of female genital mutilations (FGM). This article describes the obstetrical complications related to the latter. We compared a group of mutilated patients (n = 69) to a control group (n = 162) and studied the data concerning pregnancy, childbirth, newborn, postpartum and length of hospital stay. Among the mutilated patients, 44% were group B streptococcus carriers against 23 % in the control group (p inferior to 0...
January 2017: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381290/the-mothering-experience-of-women-with-fgm-c-raising-uncut-daughters-in-ivory-coast-and-in-canada
#14
Sophia Koukoui, Ghayda Hassan, Jaswant Guzder
BACKGROUND: While Female Genital Cutting (FGM/C) is a deeply entrenched cultural practice, there is now mounting evidence for a gradual decline in prevalence in a number of geographical areas in Africa and following migration to non-practicing countries. Consequently, there is now a growing number of women with FGM/C who are raising 'uncut' daughters. This study used a qualitative methodology to investigate the experience of women with FGM/C raising daughters who have not been subjected to the ritual...
April 5, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355362/controlled-clinical-trial-addressing-teeth-whitening-with-hydrogen-peroxide-in-adolescents-a-12-month-follow-up
#15
Marcelo Mendes Pinto, Marcela Leticia Leal Gonçalves, Ana Carolina Costa da Mota, Alessandro Melo Deana, Silvia Regina Olivan, Carolina Bortoletto, Camila Haddad Leal de Godoy, Katia Lumi Tanikawa Vergilio, Olga Maria Altavista, Lara J Motta, Sandra Kalil Bussadori
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the colorimetric change in incisors and canines of adolescents aged 12 to 20 years submitted to at-home whitening and to evaluate satisfaction, sensitivity and discomfort during the procedures through a questionnaire. METHOD: Thirty adolescents were randomly assigned to the following groups: 1) 6.0% hydrogen peroxide (White Class with calcium - FGM); 2) 7.5% hydrogen peroxide (White Class with calcium - FGM); 3) 10% hydrogen peroxide (Oral B 3D White - Oral-B); 4) Control group - placebo...
March 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335771/understanding-the-motivations-of-health-care-providers-in-performing-female-genital-mutilation-an-integrative-review-of-the-literature
#16
REVIEW
Marie-Hélène Doucet, Christina Pallitto, Danielle Groleau
BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a traditional harmful practice that can cause severe physical and psychological damages to girls and women. Increasingly, trained health-care providers carry out the practice at the request of families. It is important to understand the motivations of providers in order to reduce the medicalization of FGM. This integrative review identifies, appraises and summarizes qualitative and quantitative literature exploring the factors that are associated with the medicalization of FGM and/or re-infibulation...
March 23, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301010/effect-of-sonic-vibrations-on-bond-strength-of-fiberglass-posts-bonded-to-root-dentin
#17
Amanda Mahammad Mushashe, Rodrigo Otavio Jatahy Ferreira do Amaral, Carlos Eduardo Edwards Rezende, Flares Baratto Filho, Leonardo Fernandes da Cunha, Carla Castiglia Gonzaga
Sonic vibrations may improve the bond strength and durability of fiberglass posts by improving adhesive penetration into dentin as well as the cement flow. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sonic vibrations on the bond strength between fiberglass posts and root dentin using the pull-out test. Bovine roots were endodontically treated and divided randomly into four groups (n=12): Group C - conventional cementation (control); Group SA - sonic vibration (Smart Sonic Device, FGM) of the adhesive system and conventional post accommodation; SP group - conventional adhesive application and sonic vibration of the post during accommodation; and SASP - sonic vibration of the system adhesive and the post during accommodation...
January 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288664/injured-bodies-damaged-lives-experiences-and-narratives-of-kenyan-women-with-obstetric-fistula-and-female-genital-mutilation-cutting
#18
Lillian Mwanri, Glory Joy Gatwiri
BACKGROUND: It is well acknowledged that Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C/C) leads to medical, psychological and sociocultural sequels. Over 200 million cases of FGM/C exist globally, and in Kenya alone, a total of 12,418,000 (28%) of women have undergone FGM/C, making the practice not only a significant national, but also a global health catastrophe. FGM/C is rooted in patriarchal and traditional cultures as a communal experience signifying a transition from girlhood to womanhood...
March 14, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273856/time-prediction-models-for-echinococcosis-based-on-gray-system-theory-and-epidemic-dynamics
#19
Liping Zhang, Li Wang, Yanling Zheng, Kai Wang, Xueliang Zhang, Yujian Zheng
Echinococcosis, which can seriously harm human health and animal husbandry production, has become an endemic in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. In order to explore an effective human Echinococcosis forecasting model in Xinjiang, three grey models, namely, the traditional grey GM(1,1) model, the Grey-Periodic Extensional Combinatorial Model (PECGM(1,1)), and the Modified Grey Model using Fourier Series (FGM(1,1)), in addition to a multiplicative seasonal ARIMA(1,0,1)(1,1,0)₄ model, are applied in this study for short-term predictions...
March 4, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267442/effects-of-female-genital-mutilation-cutting-on-the-sexual-function-of-sudanese-women-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Abdulrahim A Rouzi, Rigmor C Berg, Nora Sahly, Susan Alkafy, Faten Alzaban, Hassan Abduljabbar
BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a cultural practice that involves several types of removal or other injury to the external female genitalia for nonmedical reasons. Although much international research has focused on the health consequences of the practice, little is known about sexual functioning among women with various types of FGM/C. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of FGM/C on the sexual functioning of Sudanese women. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study conducted at Doctor Erfan and Bagedo Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia...
March 3, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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