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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777951/experimental-referred-pain-extends-towards-previously-injured-location-an-explorative-study
#1
Thorvaldur Skuli Palsson, Shellie A Boudreau, Hans Jørgen Krebs, Thomas Graven-Nielsen
Facilitated pain mechanisms have been demonstrated in musculoskeletal pain but it is unclear whether a recent painful injury leaves the pain system sensitized. Pain characteristics were assessed in individuals who recently recovered from ankle pain (recovered pain group; n=25) and sex-matched controls (n=25) in response to tonic-pressure pain and saline-induced pain applied at the shin muscle. Pain intensity and pain referral patterns were recorded bilaterally after the painful muscle stimulus. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were measured at the lower legs and shoulder...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777721/pentraxins-crp-i-and-crp-ii-are-post-translationally-deiminated-and-differ-in-tissue-specificity-in-cod-gadus-morhua-l-ontogeny
#2
Bergljót Magnadóttir, Polly Hayes, Berglind Gísladóttir, Birkir Þór Bragason, Mariya Hristova, Anthony P Nicholas, Sigríður Guðmundsdóttir, Sigrun Lange
Pentraxins are fluid phase pattern recognition molecules that form an important part of the innate immune defence and are conserved between fish and human. In Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.), two pentraxin-like proteins have been described, CRP-I and CRP-II. Here we show for the first time that these two CRP forms are post-translationally deiminated (an irreversible conversion of arginine to citrulline) and differ with respect to tissue specific localisation in cod ontogeny from 3 to 84 days post hatching. While both forms are expressed in liver, albeit at temporally differing levels, CRP-I shows a strong association with nervous tissue while CRP-II is strongly associated to mucosal tissues of gut and skin...
May 16, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777026/endosomal-tlr3-tlr7-and-tlr8-control-neuronal-morphology-through-different-transcriptional-programs
#3
Yun-Fen Hung, Chiung-Ya Chen, Yi-Chun Shih, Hsin-Yu Liu, Chiao-Ming Huang, Yi-Ping Hsueh
Neuroinflammation is associated with diverse neurological disorders. Endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) including TLR3, TLR7, and TLR8 cell-autonomously regulate neuronal differentiation. However, the mechanisms by which these three TLRs affect neuronal morphology are unclear. In this study, we compare these TLRs in mouse neurons. By combining in vitro neuronal cultures, in utero electroporation, and transcriptomic profiling, we show that TLR8, TLR7, and TLR3 promote dendritic pruning via MYD88 signaling...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776048/critical-neural-networks-with-short-and-long-term-plasticity
#4
L Michiels van Kessenich, M Luković, L de Arcangelis, H J Herrmann
In recent years self organized critical neuronal models have provided insights regarding the origin of the experimentally observed avalanching behavior of neuronal systems. It has been shown that dynamical synapses, as a form of short-term plasticity, can cause critical neuronal dynamics. Whereas long-term plasticity, such as Hebbian or activity dependent plasticity, have a crucial role in shaping the network structure and endowing neural systems with learning abilities. In this work we provide a model which combines both plasticity mechanisms, acting on two different time scales...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775957/how-treatment-improvement-in-adhd-and-cocaine-dependence-are-related-to-one-another-a-secondary-analysis
#5
Frances R Levin, C Jean Choi, Martina Pavlicova, John J Mariani, Amy Mahony, Daniel J Brooks, Edward V Nunes, John Grabowski
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is overrepresented among individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. We previously reported that treatment with extended release mixed amphetamine salts (MAS-XR) increased abstinence, compared to placebo, among patients with co-occurring ADHD and cocaine dependence. This secondary analysis investigates the temporal relationship between ADHD improvement and cocaine abstinence in the first six weeks of the trial...
May 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775662/multivoxel-pattern-similarity-suggests-the-integration-of-temporal-duration-in-hippocampal-event-sequence-representations
#6
Sathesan Thavabalasingam, Edward B O'Neil, Andy C H Lee
Recent rodent work suggests the hippocampus may provide a temporal representation of event sequences, in which the order of events and the interval durations between them are encoded. There is, however, limited human evidence for the latter, in particular whether the hippocampus processes duration information pertaining to the passage of time rather than qualitative or quantitative changes in event content. We scanned participants while they made match/mismatch judgements on each trial between a study sequence of events and a subsequent test sequence...
May 15, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775485/plasmodium-parasite-exploits-host-aquaporin-3-during-liver-stage-malaria-infection
#7
Dora Posfai, Kayla Sylvester, Anupama Reddy, Jack G Ganley, Johannes Wirth, Quinlan E Cullen, Tushar Dave, Nobutaka Kato, Sandeep S Dave, Emily R Derbyshire
Within the liver a single Plasmodium parasite transforms into thousands of blood-infective forms to cause malaria. Here, we use RNA-sequencing to identify host genes that are upregulated upon Plasmodium berghei infection of hepatocytes with the hypothesis that host pathways are hijacked to benefit parasite development. We found that expression of aquaporin-3 (AQP3), a water and glycerol channel, is significantly induced in Plasmodium-infected hepatocytes compared to uninfected cells. This aquaglyceroporin localizes to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane, the compartmental interface between the host and pathogen, with a temporal pattern that correlates with the parasite's expansion in the liver...
May 18, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775481/widespread-anatoxin-a-detection-in-benthic-cyanobacterial-mats-throughout-a-river-network
#8
Keith Bouma-Gregson, Raphael M Kudela, Mary E Power
Benthic algae fuel summer food webs in many sunlit rivers, and are hotspots for primary and secondary production and biogeochemical cycling. Concerningly, riverine benthic algal assemblages can become dominated by toxic cyanobacteria, threatening water quality and public health. In the Eel River in Northern California, over a dozen dog deaths have been attributed to cyanotoxin poisonings since 2000. During the summers of 2013-2015, we documented spatial and temporal patterns of cyanotoxin concentrations in the watershed, showing widespread distribution of anatoxin-a in benthic cyanobacterial mats...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775401/electroencephalographic-signals-during-anesthesia-recorded-from-surface-and-depth-electrodes
#9
Ville Jäntti, Tuomo Ylinen, Narayan Puthanmadam Subramaniyam, Kotoe Kamata, Arvi Yli-Hankala, Pasi Kauppinen, Eila Sonkajärvi
Purpose - Anesthesiologists have increasingly started to use EEG based indexes to estimate the level and type of unconsciousness. However, the physiology and biophysics are poorly understood in anesthesiological literature. Methods - EEG was recorded from electrodes on the surface of head, including scalp, as well as DBS (deep brain stimulation) electrodes implanted deep in the brain. Mathematical modeling with a realistic head model was performed to create illustrative images of the sensitivity of electrode montages...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774594/in-vivo-characterization-of-3d-skull-and-brain-motion-during-dynamic-head-vibration-using-magnetic-resonance-elastography
#10
Ziying Yin, Yi Sui, Joshua D Trzasko, Phillip J Rossman, Armando Manduca, Richard L Ehman, John Huston
PURPOSE: To introduce newly developed MR elastography (MRE)-based dual-saturation imaging and dual-sensitivity motion encoding schemes to directly measure in vivo skull-brain motion, and to study the skull-brain coupling in volunteers with these approaches. METHODS: Six volunteers were scanned with a high-performance compact 3T-MRI scanner. The skull-brain MRE images were obtained with a dual-saturation imaging where the skull and brain motion were acquired with fat- and water-suppression scans, respectively...
May 17, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774448/the-expression-alteration-of-bc1-rna-and-its-interaction-with-eukaryotic-translation-initiation-factor-eif4a-post-status-epilepticus
#11
Xiangchang Zeng, Wenjing Zong, Qing Gao, Siyu Chen, Lulu Chen, Guirong Zeng, Weihua Huang, Zhenyu Li, Chang Zeng, Yuanyuan Xie, Xiaohui Li, Bo Xiao, Dongsheng-Ouyang, Kai Hu
Abnormal dendritic sprouting and synaptic remodelling are important pathological features of temporal lobe epilepsy. BC1 RNA is a translation repressor involved in the regulation of the dendritic protein synthesis and mRNA transport, which is essential for dendritic development and plasticity. The expression alteration of BC1 RNA in the pilocarpine induced epilepsy model remains unknown. It is unclear if the interactions between BC1 RNA and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) exists in this model. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression changes of BC1 RNA and its interactions with eIF4A post-status epilepticus (SE)...
May 17, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774432/cross-modal-decoupling-in-temporal-attention-between-audition-and-touch
#12
Stefanie Mühlberg, Salvador Soto-Faraco
Temporal orienting leads to well-documented behavioural benefits for sensory events occurring at the anticipated moment. However, the consequences of temporal orienting in cross-modal contexts are still unclear. On the one hand, some studies using audio-tactile paradigms suggest that attentional orienting in time and modality are a closely coupled system, in which temporal orienting dominates modality orienting, similar to what happens in cross-modal spatial attention. On the other hand, recent findings using a visuo-tactile paradigm suggest that attentional orienting in time can unfold independently in each modality, leading to cross-modal decoupling...
May 17, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774037/plant-sediment-interactions-in-salt-marshes-an-optode-imaging-study-of-o-2-ph-and-co-2-gradients-in-the-rhizosphere
#13
Ketil Koop-Jakobsen, Peter Mueller, Robert J Meier, Gregor Liebsch, Kai Jensen
In many wetland plants, belowground transport of O2 via aerenchyma tissue and subsequent O2 loss across root surfaces generates small oxic root zones at depth in the rhizosphere with important consequences for carbon and nutrient cycling. This study demonstrates how roots of the intertidal salt-marsh plant Spartina anglica affect not only O2 , but also pH and CO2 dynamics, resulting in distinct gradients of O2 , pH, and CO2 in the rhizosphere. A novel planar optode system (VisiSens TD® , PreSens GmbH) was used for taking high-resolution 2D-images of the O2 , pH, and CO2 distribution around roots during alternating light-dark cycles...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774013/dynamics-of-aspen-roots-colonization-by-pseudomonads-reveals-strain-specific-and-mycorrhizal-specific-patterns-of-biofilm-formation
#14
Marie-Francoise Noirot-Gros, Shalaka Shinde, Peter E Larsen, Sarah Zerbs, Peter J Korajczyk, Kenneth M Kemner, Philippe H Noirot
Rhizosphere-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens are known plant growth promoting (PGP) and mycorrhizal helper bacteria (MHB) of many plants and ectomycorrhizal fungi. We investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of colonization of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Aspen seedlings roots by the P. fluorescens strains SBW25, WH6, Pf0-1, and the P. protegens strain Pf-5. Seedlings were grown in laboratory vertical plates systems, inoculated with a fluorescently labeled Pseudomonas strain, and root colonization was monitored over a period of 5 weeks...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773757/neural-signatures-of-the-processing-of-temporal-patterns-in-sound
#15
Björn Herrmann, Ingrid S Johnsrude
The ability to detect regularities in sound (i.e., recurring structure) is critical for effective perception, enabling, for example, change detection and prediction. Two seemingly unconnected lines of research concern the neural operations involved in processing regularities: one investigates how neural activity synchronizes with temporal regularities (e.g., frequency modulation; FM) in sounds, whereas the other focuses on increases in sustained activity during stimulation with repeating tone-frequency patterns...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773489/county-level-trends-in-suicide-rates-in-the-u-s-2005-2015
#16
Lauren M Rossen, Holly Hedegaard, Diba Khan, Margaret Warner
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the geographic patterns of suicide can help inform targeted prevention efforts. Although state-level variation in age-adjusted suicide rates has been well documented, trends at the county-level have been largely unexplored. This study uses small area estimation to produce stable county-level estimates of suicide rates to examine geographic, temporal, and urban-rural patterns in suicide from 2005 to 2015. METHODS: Using National Vital Statistics Underlying Cause of Death Files (2005-2015), hierarchical Bayesian models were used to estimate suicide rates for 3,140 counties...
May 8, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773316/rapid-recovery-of-a-coral-dominated-eastern-tropical-pacific-reef-after-experimentally-produced-anthropogenic-disturbance
#17
Ranjan Muthukrishnan, Peggy Fong
Local anthropogenic stressors such as overfishing, nutrient enrichment and increased sediment loading have been shown to push coral reefs toward greater dominance by algae. In a few cases this shift has been temporary, with the ability to recover to a healthy coral-dominated community after disturbance, suggesting some systems have considerable resilience. However, an understanding of the circumstances under which reefs may recover is only beginning to emerge. We monitored recovery of a coral-dominated reef in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) after cessation of a ∼6 month multiple stressor experiment (with herbivore exclosure, nutrient addition, and sediment addition)...
May 7, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772889/bivariate-spatiotemporal-disease-mapping-of-cancer-of-the-breast-and-cervix-uteri-among-iranian-women
#18
Mehdi Raei, Volker Johann Schmid, Behzad Mahaki
Cervical cancer in women is one of the most common cancers and breast cancer has grown dramatically in recent years. The purpose of this study was to map the incidence of breast and cervix uteri cancer among Iranian women over a 6-year period (2004-2009) searching for trend changes and risk factors. Cancer incidence data were extracted from the annual reports of the National Cancer Registry in Iran. Hierarchical Bayesian models, including random spatial and temporal effects was utilized together with bivariate, spatio-temporal shared component modelling...
May 8, 2018: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772885/geographical-distribution-and-spatio-temporal-patterns-of-hospitalization-due-to-dengue-infection-at-a-leading-specialist-hospital-in-malaysia
#19
Gary K K Low, Panayoti Papapreponis, Ridzuan M Isa, Seng Chiew Gan, Hui Yee Chee, Kian Keong Te, Nadia M Hatta
Increasing numbers of dengue infection worldwide have led to a rise in deaths due to complications caused by this disease. We present here a cross-sectional study of dengue patients who attended the Emergency and Trauma Department of Ampang Hospital, one of Malaysia's leading specialist hospitals. The objective was to search for potential clustering of severe dengue, in space and/or time, among the annual admissions with the secondary objective to describe the spatio-temporal pattern of all dengue cases admitted to this hospital...
May 7, 2018: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772882/correlation-analysis-of-air-pollutant-index-levels-and-dengue-cases-across-five-different-zones-in-selangor-malaysia
#20
Loshini Thiruchelvam, Sarat C Dass, Rafdzah Zaki, Abqariyah Yahya, Vijanth S Asirvadam
This study investigated the potential relationship between dengue cases and air quality - as measured by the Air Pollution Index (API) for five zones in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Dengue case patterns can be learned using prediction models based on feedback (lagged terms). However, the question whether air quality affects dengue cases is still not thoroughly investigated based on such feedback models. This work developed dengue prediction models using the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and ARIMA with an exogeneous variable (ARIMAX) time series methodologies with API as the exogeneous variable...
May 7, 2018: Geospatial Health
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