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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938788/cd4-t-cells-dominate-the-leukocyte-infiltration-response-initiated-by-intra-dermal-injection-of-phytohemagglutinin-into-growing-feathers-in-chickens
#1
K S Sullivan, G F Erf
Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) is commonly used to evaluate cell-mediated immunocompetence. In chickens, PHA is typically injected intra-dermally (i.d.) into the skin (e.g., wing web, wattle, or footpad), and the tissue swelling response is monitored, whereby the extent of tissue swelling positively relates to the individual's cell-mediated immune system capabilities. Although i.d. injected PHA was shown to stimulate mononuclear cell and basophil infiltration to the site of injection, reports on temporal, qualitative, and quantitative aspects of the local cutaneous PHA response are limited...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938470/genetic-disruption-of-21-hydroxylase-in-zebrafish-causes-interrenal-hyperplasia
#2
Helen Eachus, Andreas Zaucker, James A Oakes, Aliesha Griffin, Meltem Weger, Tülay Güran, Angela Taylor, Abigail Harris, Andy Greenfield, Jonathan L Quanson, Karl-Heinz Storbeck, Vincent T Cunliffe, Ferenc Müller, Nils Krone
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a group of common inherited disorders leading to glucocorticoid deficiency. Most cases are caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD). The systemic consequences of imbalanced steroid hormone biosynthesis due to severe 21OHD remains poorly understood. Therefore, we have developed a zebrafish model for 21OHD, which focuses on the impairment of glucocorticoid biosynthesis. A single 21-hydroxylase gene (cyp21a2) is annotated in the zebrafish genome based on sequence homology. Our in silico analysis of the Cyp21a2 protein sequence suggests a sufficient degree of similarity for the usage of zebrafish cyp21a2 to model aspects of human 21OHD in vivo...
September 13, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938055/photosynthetic-phenological-variation-may-promote-coexistence-among-co-dominant-tree-species-in-a-madrean-sky-island-mixed-conifer-forest
#3
D L Potts, R L Minor, Z Braun, G A Barron-Gafford
Across much of western North America, forests are predicted to experience a transition from snow- to rain-dominated precipitation regimes due to anthropogenic climate warming. Madrean sky island mixed conifer forests receive a large portion of their precipitation from summertime convective storms and may serve as a lens into the future for snow-dominated forests after prolonged warming. To better understand the linkage between physiological traits, climate variation, and the structure and function of mixed conifer forests, we measured leaf photosynthetic (A) responses to controlled variation in internal CO2 concentration (Ci) to quantify interspecific phenological variation in A/Ci-derived ecophysiological traits among ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson and C...
September 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936085/twin-middle-cerebral-artery-with-aneurysm-a-variant-of-early-bifurcation-or-a-discrete-entity
#4
Sushant Sahoo, Sunil Singh, Anit Parihar
The middle cerebral artery (MCA) usually bifurcates into a superior or frontal and inferior or temporal branch. However, it may have various branching pattern, and there may be additional arteries from the anterior circulation supplying its territory. The majority of them remain asymptomatic. Some cases may have aneurismal dilatation due to turbulent blood flow or the weak arterial wall. The surgical approach in these cases may be challenging due to complex anatomical pattern of MCA. In this report, we have described a distinct pattern of left MCA with an aneurysm which was not clear in computed tomography angiogram and further confirmed on digital subtraction angiography...
August 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936015/looking-through-a-different-lens-examining-the-inequality-mortality-association-in-u-s-counties-using-spatial-panel-models
#5
Tse-Chuan Yang, Stephen A Matthews, Kiwoong Park
Two areas still need further examination in the ecological study of inequality and mortality. First, the evidence for the relationship between income inequality and mortality remains inconclusive, particularly when the analytic unit is small (e.g., county in the U.S.). Second, most previous studies are cross-sectional and are unable to address the recent diverging patterns whereby mortality has decreased and income inequality increased. This study aims to contribute to both topic areas by studying the relationship between inequality and mortality via a spatiotemporal approach that simultaneously considers the spatial structure and the temporal trends of inequality and mortality using county panel data between 1990 and 2010 for the conterminous U...
September 2017: Applied Geography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935966/silent-sentence-completion-shows-superiority-localizing-wernicke-s-area-and-activation-patterns-of-distinct-language-paradigms-correlate-with-genomics-prospective-study
#6
Kamel El Salek, Islam S Hassan, Aikaterini Kotrotsou, Srishti Abrol, Scott H Faro, Feroze B Mohamed, Pascal O Zinn, Wei Wei, Nan Li, Ashok J Kumar, Jeffrey S Weinberg, Jeffrey S Wefel, Shelli R Kesler, Ho-Ling Anthony Liu, Ping Hou, R Jason Stafford, Sujit Prabhu, Raymond Sawaya, Rivka R Colen
Preoperative mapping of language areas using fMRI greatly depends on the paradigms used, as different tasks harness distinct capabilities to activate speech processing areas. In this study, we compared the ability of 3 covert speech paradigms: Silent Sentence Completion (SSC), category naming (CAT) and verbal fluency (FAS), in localizing the Wernicke's area and studied the association between genomic markers and functional activation. Fifteen right-handed healthy volunteers and 35 mixed-handed patients were included...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934713/imposex-levels-and-butyltin-compounds-bts-in-hexaplex-trunculus-linnaeus-1758-from-the-northern-adriatic-sea-italy-ecological-risk-assessment-before-and-after-the-ban
#7
Federica Cacciatore, Rossella Boscolo Brusà, Seta Noventa, Camilla Antonini, Vanessa Moschino, Malgorzata Formalewicz, Claudia Gion, Daniela Berto, Massimo Gabellini, Maria Gabriella Marin
The aim of this study was to compare imposex and butyltin compounds (BTs) data, collected before and after the organotin ban in 2008, in order to assess temporal and spatial variation of the phenomenon, the decline of BT contamination, and the effects on Hexaplex trunculus population in the coastal area of the northern Adriatic Sea, close to the Venice Lagoon. Both in marine and in lagoon sites, the results obtained in 2013-2015 showed a significant decline in the incidence of imposex in respect to those from the 2002 survey...
September 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934338/effect-of-localized-hypoxia-on-drosophila-embryo-development
#8
Zhinan Wang, Shawn C Oppegard, David T Eddington, Jun Cheng
Environmental stress, such as oxygen deprivation, affects various cellular activities and developmental processes. In this study, we directly investigated Drosophila embryo development in vivo while cultured on a microfluidic device, which imposed an oxygen gradient on the developing embryos. The designed microfluidic device enabled both temporal and spatial control of the local oxygen gradient applied to the live embryos. Time-lapse live cell imaging was used to monitor the morphology and cellular migration patterns as embryos were placed in various geometries relative to the oxygen gradient...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933223/genetic-and-histological-alterations-reveal-key-role-of-prostaglandin-synthase-and-cyclooxygenase-1-and-2-in-traumatic-brain-injury-induced-neuroinflammation-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-rats-exposed-to-moderate-fluid-percussion-injury
#9
Hideki Shojo, Cesario V Borlongan, Tadashi Mabuchi
After the initial insult in traumatic brain injury (TBI), secondary neurodegeneration occurs that is intimately associated with neuroinflammation. Prostaglandin (PG) synthases and cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 may contribute to inflammation in the brain. Temporal and spatial expression features of PG and COX1 and 2 following trauma may guide the development of antineuroinflammation strategies. Here, we examined PG synthase signaling and COX1 and 2 gene expression levels and COX-1- and 2-positive cell types and their temporal localization in TBI-induced brain in an effort to reveal their participation in the disease's evolving neuroinflammation...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933220/elucidation-of-gene-expression-patterns-in-the-brain-after-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Ahreum Baek, Sung-Rae Cho, Sung Hoon Kim
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological disease. The pathophysiological mechanisms of SCI have been reported to be relevant to central nervous system injury such as brain injury. In this study, gene expression of the brain after SCI was elucidated using transcriptome analysis to characterize the temporal changes in global gene expression patterns in a SCI mouse model. Subjects were randomly classified into 3 groups: sham control, acute (3 h post-injury), and subacute (2 wk post-injury) groups...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932829/exploring-coherent-electron-excitation-and-migration-dynamics-by-electron-diffraction-with-ultrashort-x-ray-pulses
#11
Kai-Jun Yuan, André D Bandrauk
Exploring ultrafast charge migration is of great importance in biological and chemical reactions. We present a scheme to monitor attosecond charge migration in molecules by electron diffraction with spatial and temporal resolutions from ab initio numerical simulations. An ultraviolet pulse creates a coherent superposition of electronic states, after which a time-delayed attosecond X-ray pulse is used to ionize the molecule. It is found that diffraction patterns in the X-ray photoelectron spectra show an asymmetric structure, which is dependent on the time delay between the pump-probe pulses, encoding the information of molecular orbital symmetry and chemical bonding...
September 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932682/stroke-associated-pattern-of-gene-expression-previously-identified-by-machine-learning-is-diagnostically-robust-in-an-independent-patient-population
#12
Grant C O'Connell, Paul D Chantler, Taura L Barr
Our group recently employed genome-wide transcriptional profiling in tandem with machine-learning based analysis to identify a ten-gene pattern of differential expression in peripheral blood which may have utility for detection of stroke. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic capacity and temporal stability of this stroke-associated transcriptional signature in an independent patient population. Publicly available whole blood microarray data generated from 23 ischemic stroke patients at 3, 5, and 24 h post-symptom onset, as well from 23 cardiovascular disease controls, were obtained via the National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Omnibus...
December 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932621/the-scheie-visual-field-grading-system
#13
Prithvi S Sankar, Laura O'Keefe, Daniel Choi, Rebecca Salowe, Eydie Miller-Ellis, Amanda Lehman, Victoria Addis, Meera Ramakrishnan, Vikas Natesh, Gideon Whitehead, Naira Khachatryan, Joan O'Brien
OBJECTIVE: No method of grading visual field (VF) defects has been widely accepted throughout the glaucoma community. The SCHEIE (Systematic Classification of Humphrey visual fields-Easy Interpretation and Evaluation) grading system for glaucomatous visual fields was created to convey qualitative and quantitative information regarding visual field defects in an objective, reproducible, and easily applicable manner for research purposes. METHODS: The SCHEIE grading system is composed of a qualitative and quantitative score...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931923/mllt10-knockout-mouse-model-reveals-critical-role-of-af10-dependent-h3k79-methylation-in-midfacial-development
#14
Honami Ogoh, Kazutsune Yamagata, Tomomi Nakao, Lisa L Sandell, Ayaka Yamamoto, Aiko Yamashita, Naomi Tanga, Mai Suzuki, Takaya Abe, Issay Kitabayashi, Toshio Watanabe, Daisuke Sakai
Epigenetic regulation is required to ensure the precise spatial and temporal pattern of gene expression that is necessary for embryonic development. Although the roles of some epigenetic modifications in embryonic development have been investigated in depth, the role of methylation at lysine 79 (H3K79me) is poorly understood. Dot1L, a unique methyltransferase for H3K79, forms complexes with distinct sets of co-factors. To further understand the role of H3K79me in embryogenesis, we generated a mouse knockout of Mllt10, the gene encoding Af10, one Dot1L complex co-factor...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931884/amplitude-of-travelling-front-as-inferred-from-14-c-predicts-levels-of-genetic-admixture-among-european-early-farmers
#15
Fabio Silva, Marc Vander Linden
Large radiocarbon datasets have been analysed statistically to identify, on the one hand, the dynamics and tempo of dispersal processes and, on the other, demographic change. This is particularly true for the spread of farming practices in Neolithic Europe. Here we combine the two approaches and apply them to a new, extensive dataset of 14,535 radiocarbon dates for the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods across the Near East and Europe. The results indicate three distinct demographic regimes: one observed in or around the centre of farming innovation and involving a boost in carrying capacity; a second appearing in regions where Mesolithic populations were well established; and a third corresponding to large-scale migrations into previously essentially unoccupied territories, where the travelling front is readily identified...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931871/filtering-effect-of-temporal-niche-fluctuation-and-amplitude-of-environmental-variations-on-the-trait-related-flowering-patterns-lesson-from-sub-mediterranean-grasslands
#16
Andrea Catorci, Karina Piermarteri, Károly Penksza, Judit Házi, Federico Maria Tardella
Timing of flowering is a critical component of community assembly, but how plant traits respond to heterogeneity of resources has been identified mostly through observations of spatial variations. Thus, we performed a trait-based phenological study in sub-Mediterranean grasslands to assess the importance of temporal variation of resources in the species assemblage processes. We found that early flowering species have traits allowing for slow resource acquisition and storage but rapid growth rate. Instead, mid- and late-flowering species exhibited sets of strategies devoted to minimizing water loss by evapotranspiration or aimed at maximizing the species' competitive ability, thanks to slow growth rate and more efficient resource acquisition, conservation and use...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931808/electroconvulsive-therapy-induced-brain-functional-connectivity-predicts-therapeutic-efficacy-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-multivariate-pattern-recognition-study
#17
Peng Li, Ri-Xing Jing, Rong-Jiang Zhao, Zeng-Bo Ding, Le Shi, Hong-Qiang Sun, Xiao Lin, Teng-Teng Fan, Wen-Tian Dong, Yong Fan, Lin Lu
Previous studies suggested that electroconvulsive therapy can influence regional metabolism and dopamine signaling, thereby alleviating symptoms of schizophrenia. It remains unclear what patients may benefit more from the treatment. The present study sought to identify biomarkers that predict the electroconvulsive therapy response in individual patients. Thirty-four schizophrenia patients and 34 controls were included in this study. Patients were scanned prior to treatment and after 6 weeks of treatment with antipsychotics only (n = 16) or a combination of antipsychotics and electroconvulsive therapy (n = 13)...
May 11, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931803/laminar-differences-in-decision-related-neural-activity-in-dorsal-premotor-cortex
#18
Chandramouli Chandrasekaran, Diogo Peixoto, William T Newsome, Krishna V Shenoy
Dorsal premotor cortex is implicated in somatomotor decisions. However, we do not understand the temporal patterns and laminar organization of decision-related firing rates in dorsal premotor cortex. We recorded neurons from dorsal premotor cortex of monkeys performing a visual discrimination task with reaches as the behavioral report. We show that these neurons can be organized along a bidirectional visuomotor continuum based on task-related firing rates. "Increased" neurons at one end of the continuum increased their firing rates ~150 ms after stimulus onset and these firing rates covaried systematically with choice, stimulus difficulty, and reaction time-characteristics of a candidate decision variable...
September 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931758/molecular-characterization-of-the-transition-from-acute-to-chronic-kidney-injury-following-ischemia-reperfusion
#19
Jing Liu, Sanjeev Kumar, Egor Dolzhenko, Gregory F Alvarado, Jinjin Guo, Can Lu, Yibu Chen, Meng Li, Mark C Dessing, Riana K Parvez, Pietro E Cippà, A Michaela Krautzberger, Gohar Saribekyan, Andrew D Smith, Andrew P McMahon
Though an acute kidney injury (AKI) episode is associated with an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the mechanisms determining the transition from acute to irreversible chronic injury are not well understood. To extend our understanding of renal repair, and its limits, we performed a detailed molecular characterization of a murine ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) model for 12 months after injury. Together, the data comprising RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis at multiple time points, histological studies, and molecular and cellular characterization of targeted gene activity provide a comprehensive profile of injury, repair, and long-term maladaptive responses following IRI...
September 21, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931739/what-drives-the-spatial-distribution-and-dynamics-of-local-species-richness-in-tropical-forest
#20
Thorsten Wiegand, Felix May, Martin Kazmierczak, Andreas Huth
Understanding the structure and dynamics of highly diverse tropical forests is challenging. Here we investigate the factors that drive the spatio-temporal variation of local tree numbers and species richness in a tropical forest (including 1250 plots of 20 × 20 m(2)). To this end, we use a series of dynamic models that are built around the local spatial variation of mortality and recruitment rates, and ask which combination of processes can explain the observed spatial and temporal variation in tree and species numbers...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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