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temporal pattern

Sinem Acar, Ece Bulut, Bora Durul, Ilhan Uner, Mehmet Kur, M Dilek Avsaroglu, Hüseyin Avni Kirmaci, Yasar Osman Tel, Fadile Y Zeyrek, Yesim Soyer
192 Food samples (commonly consumed 8 food types), 355 animal samples (animal feces of bovine, ovine, goat and chicken) and 50 samples from clinical human cases in Sanliurfa city, Turkey in a year were collected to determine the Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica mosaic in Turkey. 161 Salmonella isolates represented 17 serotypes, 20 sequence types (STs) and 44 PFGE patterns (PTs). 3 serotypes, S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium and S. Kentucky, were recovered from three different hosts. The highest discriminatory power was obtained by PFGE (SID=0...
October 8, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
J M Glownia, A Natan, J P Cryan, R Hartsock, M Kozina, M P Minitti, S Nelson, J Robinson, T Sato, T van Driel, G Welch, C Weninger, D Zhu, P H Bucksbaum
Time-resolved femtosecond x-ray diffraction patterns from laser-excited molecular iodine are used to create a movie of intramolecular motion with a temporal and spatial resolution of 30 fs and 0.3 Å. This high fidelity is due to interference between the nonstationary excitation and the stationary initial charge distribution. The initial state is used as the local oscillator for heterodyne amplification of the excited charge distribution to retrieve real-space movies of atomic motion on ångstrom and femtosecond scales...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Tommi L Gaines, Daniel Werb, Jaime Arredondo, Victor M Alaniz, Carlos Vilalta, Leo Beletsky
BACKGROUND: In 2009, Mexico enacted a drug policy reform (Narcomenudeo) designed to divert persons possessing small amounts of illicit drugs to treatment rather than incarceration. To assess reform impact, this study examines the spatial-temporal trends of drug-related policing in Tijuana, Mexico post-enactment. METHOD: Location of self-reported arrests (N = 1,160) among a prospective, community-recruited cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana (N = 552) was mapped across city neighborhoods...
October 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Christian Kärgel, Claudia Massau, Simone Weiß, Martin Walter, Viola Borchardt, Tillmann H C Krueger, Gilian Tenbergen, Jonas Kneer, Matthias Wittfoth, Alexander Pohl, Hannah Gerwinn, Jorge Ponseti, Till Amelung, Klaus M Beier, Sebastian Mohnke, Henrik Walter, Boris Schiffer
Neurobehavioral models of pedophilia and child sexual offending suggest a pattern of temporal and in particular prefrontal disturbances leading to inappropriate behavioral control and subsequently an increased propensity to sexually offend against children. However, clear empirical evidence for such mechanisms is still missing. Using a go/nogo paradigm in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we compared behavioral performance and neural response patterns among three groups of men matched for age and IQ: pedophiles with (N = 40) and without (N = 37) a history of hands-on sexual offences against children as well as healthy non-offending controls (N = 40)...
October 21, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Arpita Bose, Rosalind Wood, Swathi Kiran
BACKGROUND: Verbal fluency tasks are included in a broad range of aphasia assessments. It is well documented that people with aphasia (PWA) produce fewer items in these tasks. Successful performance on verbal fluency relies on the integrity of both linguistic and executive control abilities. It remains unclear if limited output in aphasia is solely due to their lexical retrieval difficulties or has a basis in their executive control abilities. Analysis techniques, such as temporal characteristics of word retrieved, clustering and switching, are better positioned to inform the debate surrounding the lexical and/or executive control contribution for success in verbal fluency...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Yiwen Li Hegner, Axel Lindner, Christoph Braun
The processes underlying perceptual decision making are diverse and typically engage a distributed network of brain areas. It is a particular challenge to establish a sensory-to-motor functional hierarchy in such networks. This is because single-cell recordings mainly study the nodes of decision networks in isolation but seldom simultaneously. Moreover, imaging methods, which allow simultaneously accessing information from overall networks, typically suffer from either the temporal or the spatial resolution necessary to establish a detailed functional hierarchy in terms of a sequential recruitment of areas during a decision process...
October 21, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Marijn Bart Martens, Monica Frega, Jessica Classen, Lisa Epping, Elske Bijvank, Marco Benevento, Hans van Bokhoven, Paul Tiesinga, Dirk Schubert, Nael Nadif Kasri
Heterozygous mutations or deletions in the human Euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1) gene cause Kleefstra syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by autistic-like features and severe intellectual disability (ID). Neurodevelopmental disorders including ID and autism may be related to deficits in activity-dependent wiring of brain circuits during development. Although Kleefstra syndrome has been associated with dendritic and synaptic defects in mice and Drosophila, little is known about the role of EHMT1 in the development of cortical neuronal networks...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shui'er Han, Claudia Lunghi, David Alais
Continuous flash suppression (CFS) is a psychophysical technique where a rapidly changing Mondrian pattern viewed by one eye suppresses the target in the other eye for several seconds. Despite the widespread use of CFS to study unconscious visual processes, the temporal tuning of CFS suppression is currently unknown. In the present study we used spatiotemporally filtered dynamic noise as masking stimuli to probe the temporal characteristics of CFS. Surprisingly, we find that suppression in CFS peaks very prominently at approximately 1 Hz, well below the rates typically used in CFS studies (10 Hz or more)...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Mikyung Lee, Zhichao Liu, Ruili Huang, Weida Tong
BACKGROUND: All biological processes are inherently dynamic. Biological systems evolve transiently or sustainably according to sequential time points after perturbation by environment insults, drugs and chemicals. Investigating the temporal behavior of molecular events has been an important subject to understand the underlying mechanisms governing the biological system in response to, such as, drug treatment. The intrinsic complexity of time series data requires appropriate computational algorithms for data interpretation...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Christoph Funk, Adrian Roth
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major concern for drug developers, regulators and clinicians. It is triggered by drug and xenobiotic insults leading to liver impairment or damage, in the worst-case liver failure. In contrast to acute "intrinsic" hepatotoxicity, DILI typically manifests in a very small subset of the population under treatment with no clear dose relationship and inconsistent temporal patterns and is therefore termed an idiosyncratic event. Involved are multifactorial, compound-dependent mechanisms and host-specific factors, making the prediction in preclinical test systems very challenging...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Kishan A Manani, Kim Christensen, Nicholas S Peters
Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke by a factor of 4-5 and is the most common abnormal heart rhythm. The progression of AF with age, from short self-terminating episodes to persistence, varies between individuals and is poorly understood. An inability to understand and predict variation in AF progression has resulted in less patient-specific therapy. Likewise, it has been a challenge to relate the microstructural features of heart muscle tissue (myocardial architecture) with the emergent temporal clinical patterns of AF...
October 2016: Physical Review. E
Catherine S Hubbard, Lino Becerra, Jonathan H Smith, Justin M DeLange, Ryan M Smith, David F Black, Kirk M Welker, Rami Burstein, Fred M Cutrer, David Borsook
The aim of this study was to identify structural and functional brain changes that accompanied the transition from chronic (CM; ≥15 headache days/month) to episodic (EM; <15 headache days/month) migraine following prophylactic treatment with onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A). Specifically, we examined whether CM patients responsive to prophylaxis (responders; n = 11), as evidenced by a reversal in disease status (defined by at least a 50% reduction in migraine frequency and <15 headache days/month), compared to CM patients whose migraine frequency remained unchanged (non-responders; n = 12), showed differences in cortical thickness using surface-based morphometry...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Axel Van Der Gucht, Mehdi Aoun Sebaiti, Eric Guedj, Jessie Aouizerate, Sabrina Yara, Romain Gherardi, Eva Evangelista, Julia Chalaye, Anne-Ségolène Cottereau, Antoine Verger, Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Levi, Emmanuel Itti, Francois Jerome Authier
PURPOSE: Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition with specific muscle lesions characterized by an abnormal long-term persistence of aluminum hydroxide particles within macrophages at the site of previous immunization. Patients present with diffuse arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to characterize brain FDG-PET metabolic abnormalities in MMF patients, and the relation with cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: FDG-PET brain imaging and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests were performed in 100 consecutive MMF patients (mean age, 45...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
J A Bohn, B M Kassaye, D Record, B C Chou, I L Kraft, J C Purdy, K A Hilton, D A Miller, S Getachew, A Addissie, J A Robison
BACKGROUND: Global childhood mortality rates remain high. Millennium Development Goal 4 focused efforts on reducing rates by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In Ethiopia, child mortality rates dropped 71 % from 1990 to 2015, however it is estimated that 184,000 Ethiopian children die each year. There is limited information about pediatric hospital admissions in Ethiopia. Our aims were to examine the temporal relationship of mortality to admission, describe the demographics, and identify cause mortality of children admitted to the Zewditu Memorial Hospital (ZMH)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Sebastian Sippel, Holger Lange, Miguel D Mahecha, Michael Hauhs, Paul Bodesheim, Thomas Kaminski, Fabian Gans, Osvaldo A Rosso
Data analysis and model-data comparisons in the environmental sciences require diagnostic measures that quantify time series dynamics and structure, and are robust to noise in observational data. This paper investigates the temporal dynamics of environmental time series using measures quantifying their information content and complexity. The measures are used to classify natural processes on one hand, and to compare models with observations on the other. The present analysis focuses on the global carbon cycle as an area of research in which model-data integration and comparisons are key to improving our understanding of natural phenomena...
2016: PloS One
Pi-Chun Huang, Chien-Chung Chen
A plaid is a combination of two gratings whose orientations are orthogonal to each other with the same or similar contrasts. We used plaid patterns as stimuli to investigate the mechanisms underlying the detection of a plaid to understand how the visual system combines information from orientation-selective channels. We used a masking paradigm in which an observer was required to detect a target (either a spiral or a plaid) superimposed on a pedestal. We measured the target threshold versus pedestal contrast (TvC) functions at 7 pedestal contrasts for various target-pedestal combinations with a temporal 2AFC paradigm and a staircase procedure...
2016: PloS One
Kelly N Jahn, Ryan A Stevenson, Mark T Wallace
OBJECTIVES: Despite significant improvements in speech perception abilities following cochlear implantation, many prelingually deafened cochlear implant (CI) recipients continue to rely heavily on visual information to develop speech and language. Increased reliance on visual cues for understanding spoken language could lead to the development of unique audiovisual integration and visual-only processing abilities in these individuals. Brain imaging studies have demonstrated that good CI performers, as indexed by auditory-only speech perception abilities, have different patterns of visual cortex activation in response to visual and auditory stimuli as compared with poor CI performers...
October 19, 2016: Ear and Hearing
M J Lin, F Baky, B C Housley, N Kelly, E Pletcher, J D Balshi, S P Stawicki, D C Evans
INTRODUCTION: Clinical information continues to be limited regarding changes in the temporal risk profile for readmissions during the initial postoperative year in vascular surgery patients. We set out to describe the associations between demographics, clinical outcomes, comorbidity indices, and hospital readmissions in a sample of patients undergoing common extremity revascularization or dialysis access (ERDA) procedures. We hypothesized that factors independently associated with readmission will evolve from "short-term" to "long-term" determinants at 30-, 180-, and 360-day postoperative cutoff points...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Mingxiong Huang, Deborah L Harrington, Ashley Robb, Annemarie Angeles, Sharon Nichols, Angela I Drake, Tao Song, Mithun Diwakar, Charles W Huang, Victoria Risbrough, Anders M Dale, Hauke Bartsch, Scott Matthews, Jeffrey W Huang, Roland R Lee, Dewleen G Baker
Blast mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military service members and Veterans. However, the mechanism of persistent disability is not fully understood. The present study investigated disturbances in brain functioning in mTBI participants using a source-imaging-based approach to analyze functional connectivity (FC) from resting-state magnetoencephalography (rs-MEG). Study participants included 26 active-duty service members or Veterans who had blast mTBI with persistent post-concussive symptoms and 22 healthy control active-duty service members or Veterans...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Rebecca E Young, Andrew D C Maccoll
Patterns in parasite community structure are often observed in natural systems and an important question in parasite ecology is whether such patterns are repeatable across time and space. Field studies commonly look at spatial or temporal repeatability of patterns, but they are rarely investigated in conjunction. We use a large dataset on the macroparasites of the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus L., collected from 14 locations on North Uist, Scotland over an 8-year period to investigate: (1) repeatability of patterns in parasite communities among populations and whether variation is consistent across years, (2) whether variation between years can be explained by climatic variation and progression of the season and (3) whether variation in habitat characteristics explain population differences...
October 20, 2016: Parasitology
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