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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528418/spatial-distribution-and-temporal-trend-of-anthropogenic-organic-compounds-derived-from-the-2011-east-japan-earthquake
#1
Kaoruko Mizukawa, Yasuko Hirai, Hiroyuki Sakakibara, Satoshi Endo, Keiji Okuda, Hideshige Takada, Naoko Murakami-Sugihara, Kotaro Shirai, Hiroshi Ogawa
The tsunami caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 disturbed coastal environments in the eastern Tohoku region in Japan. Numerous terrestrial materials, including anthropogenic organic compounds, were deposited in the coastal zone. To evaluate the impacts of the disaster, we analyzed PCBs, LABs, PAHs, and hopanes in mussels collected from 12 locations in the east of Tohoku during 2011-2015 (series A) by GC-ECD or GC-MS and compared them with results from mussels collected from 22 locations around Japan during 2001-2004 (series B)...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528360/a-spiking-neural-network-model-of-the-midbrain-superior-colliculus-that-generates-saccadic-motor-commands
#2
Bahadir Kasap, A John van Opstal
Single-unit recordings suggest that the midbrain superior colliculus (SC) acts as an optimal controller for saccadic gaze shifts. The SC is proposed to be the site within the visuomotor system where the nonlinear spatial-to-temporal transformation is carried out: the population encodes the intended saccade vector by its location in the motor map (spatial), and its trajectory and velocity by the distribution of firing rates (temporal). The neurons' burst profiles vary systematically with their anatomical positions and intended saccade vectors, to account for the nonlinear main-sequence kinematics of saccades...
May 20, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527716/discovery-of-recurring-behavioural-sequences-in-wistar-rat-social-activity-possible-support-to-studies-on-autism-spectrum-disorders
#3
M Casarrubea, F Faulisi, A Cudia, D Cancemi, M Cardaci, M S Magnusson, G Crescimanno
This study was undertaken to investigate whether, in rat interactive activities, recurring sequences of behavioural events might be identified and how and to what extent each component of the pair is involved. To this aim, the multivariate temporal-pattern (t-pattern) analysis was applied to the social interactions of 9 pairs of male Wistar rats tested in open field. Interactive activities were classified into intra- and inter-subjects. Quantitative evaluations showed that intra-subject behavioural elements represented 62...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527572/roles-of-retinoic-acid-in-germ-cell-differentiation
#4
Marius Teletin, Nadège Vernet, Norbert B Ghyselinck, Manuel Mark
The modalities of gametogenesis differ markedly between sexes. Female are born with a definitive reserve of oocytes whose size is crucial to ensure fertility. Male fertility, in contrast, relies on a tightly regulated balance between germ cell self-renewal and differentiation, which operates throughout life, according to recurring spatial and temporal patterns. Genetic and pharmacological studies conducted in the mouse and discussed in this review have revealed that all-trans retinoic acid and its nuclear receptors are major players of gametogenesis and are instrumental to fertility in both sexes...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527351/permutation-entropy-analysis-of-heart-rate-variability-for-the-assessment-of-cardiovascular-autonomic-neuropathy-in-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Claudia Carricarte Naranjo, Lazaro M Sanchez-Rodriguez, Marta Brown Martínez, Mario Estévez Báez, Andrés Machado García
Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a relevant tool for the diagnosis of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN). To our knowledge, no previous investigation on CAN has assessed the complexity of HRV from an ordinal perspective. Therefore, the aim of this work is to explore the potential of permutation entropy (PE) analysis of HRV complexity for the assessment of CAN. For this purpose, we performed a short-term PE analysis of HRV in healthy subjects and type 1 diabetes mellitus patients, including patients with CAN...
May 8, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527341/unravelling-respiratory-syncytial-virus-outbreaks-in-buenos-aires-argentina-molecular-basis-of-the-spatio-temporal-transmission
#6
Gabriel Lihue Rojo, Stephanie Goya, Mariana Orellana, Andrea Sancilio, Alberto Rodriguez Perez, César Montali, Carolina García, Lilian Sosa, Alejandra Musto, Daniela Alvarez, Alejandro Castello, Mariana Viegas
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main viral cause of hospitalization due to acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants worldwide. Several vaccines against RSV are under research and development, which are about to be approved. We evaluated transmission patterns in different settings to determine age-specific vaccination targets from a viral perspective. We sequenced the G glycoprotein's ectodomain of a constant clinical sampling between two epidemic outbreaks in a limited geographical region and performed phylogeographic analyses...
May 17, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527142/temporal-and-spatial-features-of-selected-wastewater-marking-pharmaceuticals-and-potential-mechanisms-of-their-removal-from-urban-rivers
#7
Haidong Zhou, Yadan Wangjin, Jianbo Liu, Tianqi Ying, Yumei Xuan
The investigations on seasonal and spatial distribution of 12 selected wastewater-marking pharmaceuticals (WWMPs) belonging to different therapeutic classes were conducted in three major urban rivers of Yangpu District, Shanghai, East China. The potential mechanisms for the removal of WWMPs in the rivers were also experimentally investigated. The detection frequencies of most WWMPs were in the range of 56-100%, with the exception of clofibric acid, which was not detected during the storm events. The median concentrations ranged from not detected to 5821 ng/L (caffeine) and the maximum concentration was 8662 ng/L, found in caffeine...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526888/brain-structural-networks-associated-with-intelligence-and-visuomotor-ability
#8
Youngwoo Bryan Yoon, Won-Gyo Shin, Tae Young Lee, Ji-Won Hur, Kang Ik K Cho, William Seunghyun Sohn, Seung-Goo Kim, Kwang-Hyuk Lee, Jun Soo Kwon
Increasing evidence indicates that multiple structures in the brain are associated with intelligence and cognitive function at the network level. The association between the grey matter (GM) structural network and intelligence and cognition is not well understood. We applied a multivariate approach to identify the pattern of GM and link the structural network to intelligence and cognitive functions. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was acquired from 92 healthy individuals. Source-based morphometry analysis was applied to the imaging data to extract GM structural covariance...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526753/altered-feto-placental-vascularization-feto-placental-malperfusion-and-fetal-growth-restriction-in-mice-with-egfl7-loss-of-function
#9
Lauretta A Lacko, Romulo Hurtado, Samantha Hinds, Michael G Poulos, Jason M Butler, Heidi Stuhlmann
EGFL7 is a secreted, angiogenic factor produced by embryonic endothelial cells. To understand its role in placental development, we established a novel Egfl7 knockout mouse. The mutant mice have gross defects in chorioallantoic branching morphogenesis and placental vascular patterning. Microangiography and 3D imaging revealed patchy perfusion of Egfl7(-/-) placentas marked by impeded blood conductance through sites of narrowed vessels. Consistent with poor feto-placental perfusion, Egfl7 knockout resulted in reduced placental weight and fetal growth restriction...
May 19, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525811/an-online-supervised-learning-method-based-on-gradient-descent-for-spiking-neurons
#10
Yan Xu, Jing Yang, Shuiming Zhong
The purpose of supervised learning with temporal encoding for spiking neurons is to make the neurons emit a specific spike train encoded by precise firing times of spikes. The gradient-descent-based (GDB) learning methods are widely used and verified in the current research. Although the existing GDB multi-spike learning (or spike sequence learning) methods have good performance, they work in an offline manner and still have some limitations. This paper proposes an online GDB spike sequence learning method for spiking neurons that is based on the online adjustment mechanism of real biological neuron synapses...
April 27, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525545/gene-co-expression-network-analysis-for-identifying-modules-and-functionally-enriched-pathways-in-sca2
#11
Lance T Pflieger, Warunee Dansithong, Sharan Paul, Daniel Scoles, Karla P Figueroa, Pratap Meera, Thomas S Otis, Julio C Facelli, Stefan M Pulst
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by CAG repeat expansion in the ATXN2 gene. The repeat resides in an encoded region of the gene resulting in polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion which has been assumed to result in gain of function, predominantly, for the ATXN2 protein. We evaluated temporal cerebellar expression profiles by RNA sequencing of ATXN2Q127 mice vs wildtype littermates. ATXN2Q127 mice are characterized by a progressive motor phenotype onset, and have progressive cerebellar molecular and neurophysiological (Purkinje cell firing frequency) phenotypes...
May 19, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525381/the-cell-of-origin-dictates-the-temporal-course-of-neurofibromatosis-1-nf1-low-grade-glioma-formation
#12
Anne C Solga, Joseph A Toonen, Yuan Pan, Patrick J Cimino, Yu Ma, Guillaume A Castillon, Scott M Gianino, Mark H Ellisman, Da Yong Lee, David H Gutmann
Low-grade gliomas are one of the most common brain tumors in children, where they frequently form within the optic pathway (optic pathway gliomas; OPGs). Since many OPGs occur in the context of the Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) cancer predisposition syndrome, we have previously employed Nf1 genetically-engineered mouse (GEM) strains to study the pathogenesis of these low-grade glial neoplasms. In the light of the finding that human and mouse low-grade gliomas are composed of Olig2+ cells and that Olig2+ oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) give rise to murine high-grade gliomas, we sought to determine whether Olig2+ OPCs could be tumor-initiating cells for Nf1 optic glioma...
May 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524772/effects-of-stereoscopic-disparity-on-early-erp-components-during-classification-of-three-dimensional-objects
#13
Alan J Pegna, Alexandre Darque, Mark V Roberts, E Charles Leek
This study investigates the effects of stereo disparity on the perception of three-dimensional (3D) object shape. We tested the hypothesis that stereo input modulates the brain activity related to perceptual analyses of 3D shape configuration during image classification. High-density (256-channel) EEG was used to record the temporal dynamics of visual shape processing under conditions of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) visual presentation. On each trial, observers made image classification judgements ('Same'/'Different') to two briefly presented, multi-part, novel objects...
May 19, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524067/biofabrication-of-tobacco-mosaic-virus-nanoscaffolded-supercapacitors-via-temporal-capillary-microfluidics
#14
Faheng Zang, Sangwook Chu, Konstantinos Gerasopoulos, James Culver, Reza Ghodssi
This paper reports the implementation of temporal capillary microfluidic patterns and biological nanoscaffolds in autonomous microfabrication of nanostructured symmetric electrochemical supercapacitors. A photoresist layer was first patterned on the substrate, forming a capillary microfluidics layer with two separated interdigitated microchannels. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) macromolecules suspended in solution are autonomously delivered into the microfluidics, and form a dense bio-nanoscaffolds layer within an hour...
May 19, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523469/system-for-automatic-heart-rate-calculation-in-epileptic-seizures
#15
Marcin Kołodziej, Andrzej Majkowski, Remigiusz J Rak, Bartosz Świderski, Andrzej Rysz
This article presents a comprehensive system for automatic heart rate (HR) detection. The system is robust and resistant to disturbances (noise, interferences, artifacts) occurring mainly during epileptic seizures. ECG signal filtration (IIR) and normalization due to skewness and standard deviation were used as preprocessing steps. A key element of the system is a reference QRS complex pattern calculated individually for each ECG recording. Next, a cross-correlation of the reference QRS pattern with short, normalized ECG windows is calculated and the maxima of the correlation are found (R-wave locations)...
May 18, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523229/strategy-based-reasoning-training-modulates-cortical-thickness-and-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-adults-with-chronic-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Kihwan Han, Rebecca A Davis, Sandra B Chapman, Daniel C Krawczyk
INTRODUCTION: Prior studies have demonstrated training-induced changes in the healthy adult brain. Yet, it remains unclear how the injured brain responds to cognitive training months-to-years after injury. METHODS: Sixty individuals with chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI) were randomized into either strategy-based (N = 31) or knowledge-based (N = 29) training for 8 weeks. We measured cortical thickness and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) before training, immediately posttraining, and 3 months posttraining...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523217/relation-between-patterns-of-intrinsic-network-connectivity-cognitive-functioning-and-symptom-presentation-in-trauma-exposed-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#17
Melissa Parlar, Maria Densmore, Geoffrey B Hall, Paul A Frewen, Ruth A Lanius, Margaret C McKinnon
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated resting fMRI connectivity within the default mode (DMN), salience (SN), and central executive (CEN) networks in relation to neurocognitive performance and symptom severity in trauma-exposed patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHOD: Group independent component analysis was conducted among patients with MDD (n = 21), examining DMN, SN, and CEN connectivity in relation to neurocognitive performance and symptom severity...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522968/the-effect-of-visual-spatial-and-temporal-manipulations-on-embodiment-and-action
#18
Natasha Ratcliffe, Roger Newport
The feeling of owning and controlling the body relies on the integration and interpretation of sensory input from multiple sources with respect to existing representations of the bodily self. Illusion paradigms involving multisensory manipulations have demonstrated that while the senses of ownership and agency are strongly related, these two components of bodily experience may be dissociable and differentially affected by alterations to sensory input. Importantly, however, much of the current literature has focused on the application of sensory manipulations to external objects or virtual representations of the self that are visually incongruent with the viewer's own body and which are not part of the existing body representation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522967/sources-of-phoneme-errors-in-repetition-perseverative-neologistic-and-lesion-patterns-in-jargon-aphasia
#19
Emma Pilkington, James Keidel, Luke T Kendrick, James D Saddy, Karen Sage, Holly Robson
This study examined patterns of neologistic and perseverative errors during word repetition in fluent Jargon aphasia. The principal hypotheses accounting for Jargon production indicate that poor activation of a target stimulus leads to weakly activated target phoneme segments, which are outcompeted at the phonological encoding level. Voxel-lesion symptom mapping studies of word repetition errors suggest a breakdown in the translation from auditory-phonological analysis to motor activation. Behavioral analyses of repetition data were used to analyse the target relatedness (Phonological Overlap Index: POI) of neologistic errors and patterns of perseveration in 25 individuals with Jargon aphasia...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522533/a-dedicated-network-for-social-interaction-processing-in-the-primate-brain
#20
J Sliwa, W A Freiwald
Primate cognition requires interaction processing. Interactions can reveal otherwise hidden properties of intentional agents, such as thoughts and feelings, and of inanimate objects, such as mass and material. Where and how interaction analyses are implemented in the brain is unknown. Using whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging in macaque monkeys, we discovered a network centered in the medial and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex that is exclusively engaged in social interaction analysis. Exclusivity of specialization was found for no other function anywhere in the brain...
May 19, 2017: Science
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