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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346663/resident-participation-in-neighbourhood-audit-tools-a-scoping-review
#1
Aafke C L Hofland, Jeroen Devilee, Elise van Kempen, Lea den Broeder
Background: Healthy urban environments require careful planning and a testing of environmental quality that goes beyond statutory requirements. Moreover, it requires the inclusion of resident views, perceptions and experiences that help deepen the understanding of local (public health) problems. To facilitate this, neighbourhoods should be mapped in a way that is relevant to them. One way to do this is participative neighbourhood auditing. This paper provides an insight into availability and characteristics of participatory neighbourhood audit instruments...
February 1, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346557/peer-supporters-experiences-on-an-australian-perinatal-mental-health-helpline
#2
Laura J Biggs, Helen L McLachlan, Touran Shafiei, Rhonda Small, Della A Forster
Perinatal mental health is an important public health issue, and peer support is a potentially important strategy for emotional well-being in the perinatal period. PANDA Perinatal Anxiety & Depression Australia provides support to individuals impacted by perinatal mental health issues via the National Perinatal Anxiety & Depression Helpline. Callers receive peer support from volunteers and counselling from paid professional staff. The views and experiences of PANDA peer support volunteers have not previously been studied...
January 16, 2018: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346007/the-rise-and-fall-of-universal-health-coverage-as-a-goal-of-international-health-politics-1925-1952
#3
Martin Gorsky, Christopher Sirrs
The UN Sustainable Development Goals of 2015 have restored universal health coverage (UHC) to prominence in the international health agenda. Can understanding the past illuminate the prospects for UHC in the present? This article traces an earlier history of UHC as an objective of international health politics. Its focus is the efforts of the International Labor Organization (ILO), whose Philadelphia Declaration (1944) announced the goal of universal social security, including medical coverage and care. After World War II, the ILO attempted to enshrine this in an international convention, which nation states would ratify...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345974/cognitive-effects-of-cancer-and-cancer-treatments
#4
Tim A Ahles, James C Root
As the population of cancer survivors has grown into the millions, there has been increasing emphasis on understanding how the late effects of treatment affect survivors' ability to return to work/school, their capacity to function and live independently, and their overall quality of life. This review focuses on cognitive change associated with cancer and cancer treatments. Research in this area has progressed from a pharmacotoxicology perspective to a view of the cognitive change as a complex interaction of aspects of the treatment, vulnerability factors that increase risk for posttreatment cognitive decline, cancer biology, and the biology of aging...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345416/a-qualitative-study-experiences-of-stigma-by-people-with-mental-health-problems
#5
Charlotte Huggett, Michèle D Birtel, Yvonne F Awenat, Paul Fleming, Sophie Wilkes, Shirley Williams, Gillian Haddock
OBJECTIVES: Prior research has examined various components involved in the impact of public and internalized stigma on people with mental health problems. However, studies have not previously investigated the subjective experiences of mental health stigma by those affected in a non-statutory treatment-seeking population. DESIGN: An in-depth qualitative study was conducted using thematic analysis to investigate the experiences of stigma in people with mental health problems...
January 18, 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345369/memory-b-cell-heterogeneity-remembrance-of-things-past
#6
REVIEW
Gretchen Harms Pritchard, Marion Pepper
B cells that persist for long periods of time after antigen encounter exist as either antibody-producing plasma cells (long-lived plasma cells, LLPCs) that reside primarily in the bone marrow or rapidly responsive memory B cells (MBCs) that reside in the spleen and circulation. Although LLPCs are thought to be non-responsive to a secondary infection, MBCs respond to subsequent infection through the production of antibody-secreting cells, formation of new germinal centers (GCs), and repopulation of the memory pool...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345224/therapy-interventions-for-children-with-neurodisabilities-a-qualitative-scoping-study
#7
Bryony Beresford, Susan Clarke, Jane Maddison
BACKGROUND: Therapy interventions emerged four times in the top 10 research priorities in a James Lind Alliance research prioritisation exercise for children with neurodisabilities (Morris C, Simkiss D, Busk M, Morris M, Allard A, Denness J, et al. Setting research priorities to improve the health of children and young people with neurodisability: a British Academy of Childhood Disability-James Lind Alliance Research Priority Setting Partnership. BMJ Open 2015;5:e006233). The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) commissioned this study as part of an information-gathering exercise in response to this...
January 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345184/temperature-dependent-small-rna-expression-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#8
Isabel Fast, David Rosenkranz
Temperature has a major impact on gene expression in ectotherms. But until recently, it was not clear in which way, if any, small non-coding RNAs such as miRNAs or piRNAs contribute to thermosensitive gene regulation. We have recently shown that temperature-responsive miRNAs in Drosophila drive adaptation to different ambient temperatures on the transcriptome level. Moreover, we demonstrated that higher temperatures lead to a more efficient piRNA-dependent transposon silencing, possibly due to heat-induced unfolding of RNA secondary structures...
January 18, 2018: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345036/application-of-molecular-tools-to-elucidate-the-microbiota-of-seafood
#9
Paloma de Almeida Rodrigues, Rafaela Gomes Ferrari, Carlos Adam Conte Junior
The aim of this review is to present the methodologies currently applied to identify microbiota and pathogens transmitted to humans through seafood consumption, focusing on molecular techniques and pointing out their importance, advantages, disadvantages, and applicability. Knowledge of available techniques allows researchers to identify which technique best fits their expectations. With such discernment, it will be possible to infer which disadvantages will be present and, therefore, not interfering with the final result...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344025/insulin-resistance-in-kidney-disease-is-there-a-distinct-role-separate-from-that-of-diabetes-or-obesity
#10
REVIEW
Adam Whaley-Connell, James R Sowers
Insulin resistance is a central component of the metabolic dysregulation observed in obesity, which puts one at risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and complications related to diabetes such as chronic kidney disease. Insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia place one at risk for other risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, and proteinuria, e.g., development of kidney disease. Our traditional view of insulin actions focuses on insulin-sensitive tissues such as skeletal muscle, liver, adipose tissue, and the pancreas...
December 2017: Cardiorenal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343871/-ulysses-contract-in-psychiatry
#11
Andrea Daverio, Gioia Piazzi, Anna Saya
Over the last twenty years we have witnessed a growing focus on the rights of the ill people. The debate on informed consent and a new redefinition of the therapeutic relationship is constantly evolving. With this article, we propose a critical literature review of the so-called "Ulysses contract" or "psychiatric advance directives". It refers to the will that a subject expresses in writing, or orally, about the treatments he or she wishes or does not wish to be subject to if the time comes when it may be impossible to express his/her consent...
November 2017: Rivista di Psichiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343739/qualitative-systematic-review-of-barriers-and-facilitators-to-self-management-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-views-of-patients-and-healthcare-professionals
#12
REVIEW
Siân Russell, Oladapo J Ogunbayo, James J Newham, Karen Heslop-Marshall, Paul Netts, Barbara Hanratty, Fiona Beyer, Eileen Kaner
Self-management interventions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can improve quality of life, reduce hospital admissions, and improve symptoms. However, many factors impede engagement for patients and practitioners. Qualitative research, with its focus on subjective experience, can provide invaluable insights into such factors. Therefore, a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative evidence on COPD self-management from the perspective of patients, carers, and practitioners was conducted. Following a systematic search and screening, 31 studies were appraised and data extracted for analysis...
January 17, 2018: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343041/forgoing-life-sustaining-treatments-in-the-icu-to-withhold-or-to-withdraw-is-that-the-question
#13
Giuseppe R Gristina, Francesca Baroncelli, Marco Vergano
In the last decades, mortality from severe acute illnesses has considerably declined thanks to the advances in intensive care medicine. Meanwhile, critical care physicians realized that lifesustaining treatments (LST) may not be appropriate for every patient, and end-of-life care in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) started to receive growing attention. Most deaths occurring in the ICU now follow a decision to forgo life-sustaining treatments (DFLST), which can be implemented either by withdrawing (WDLST) or withholding (WHLST) life-sustaining treatments...
January 17, 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341020/mri-in-the-study-of-animal-models-of-stroke
#14
Pedro Ramos-Cabrer, Daniel Padro
Stroke consists of the loss of cerebral functions resulting from the interruption of blood supply to a region of the brain, and represents the second cause of death and the leading cause of major disability in adults in Europe. Stroke is a very active field of research at preclinical and clinical levels, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is one of the most powerful tools that scientist and clinicians have for the study of the onset, evolution and consequences of this devastating disease, as well as for the monitoring of the success of available treatments, or for the development of novel therapeutic strategies...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340597/managing-dose-damage-and-data-rates-in-multi-frame-spectrum-imaging
#15
Lewys Jones, Aakash Varambhia, Richard Beanland, Demie Kepaptsoglou, Ian Griffiths, Akimitsu Ishizuka, Feridoon Azough, Robert Freer, Kazuo Ishizuka, David Cherns, Quentin M Ramasse, Sergio Lozano-Perez, Peter D Nellist
As an instrument, the scanning transmission electron microscope is unique in being able to simultaneously explore both local structural and chemical variations in materials at the atomic scale. This is made possible as both types of data are acquired serially, originating simultaneously from sample interactions with a sharply focused electron probe. Unfortunately, such scanned data can be distorted by environmental factors, though recently fast-scanned multi-frame imaging approaches have been shown to mitigate these effects...
January 11, 2018: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339995/physical-performance-and-anthropometric-characteristics-of-male-south-african-university-soccer-players
#16
Alliance Kubayi, Yvonne Paul, Prescott Mahlangu, Abel Toriola
Soccer is the most popular sport worldwide. Despite its global acclaim, scientific studies of soccer have tended to focus on tactics and techniques, thereby neglecting the physical and physiological profile of the players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine physical and anthropometric characteristics of male South African university soccer players. Twenty-seven male soccer players aged 19 to 24 (mean age: 22.1 years; s = 1.5 years) volunteered to participate in the study. The results showed that goalkeepers (77...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339310/distant-from-input-evidence-of-regions-within-the-default-mode-network-supporting-perceptually-decoupled-and-conceptually-guided-cognition
#17
Charlotte Murphy, Elizabeth Jefferies, Shirley-Ann Rueschemeyer, Mladen Sormaz, Hao-Ting Wang, Daniel S Margulies, Jonathan Smallwood
The default mode network supports a variety of mental operations such as semantic processing, episodic memory retrieval, mental time travel and mind-wandering, yet the commonalities between these functions remains unclear. One possibility is that this system supports cognition that is independent of the immediate environment; alternatively or additionally, it might support higher-order conceptual representations that draw together multiple features. We tested these accounts using a novel paradigm that separately manipulated the availability of perceptual information to guide decision-making and the representational complexity of this information...
January 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339091/an-energetic-view-of-stress-focus-on-mitochondria
#18
REVIEW
Martin Picard, Bruce S McEwen, Elissa Epel, Carmen Sandi
Energy is required to sustain life and enable stress adaptation. At the cellular level, energy is largely derived from mitochondria - unique multifunctional organelles with their own genome. Four main elements connect mitochondria to stress: 1) Energy is required at the molecular, (epi)genetic, cellular, organ, and systemic levels to sustain components of stress responses; 2) Glucocorticoids and other steroid hormones are produced and metabolized by mitochondria; 3) Reciprocally, mitochondria functionally respond to neuroendocrine and metabolic stress mediators; and 4) Experimentally manipulating mitochondrial functions alters physiological and behavioral responses to psychological stress...
January 12, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338704/alcohol-marketing-on-youtube-exploratory-analysis-of-content-adaptation-to-enhance-user-engagement-in-different-national-contexts
#19
Himanshu Gupta, Tina Lam, Simone Pettigrew, Robert J Tait
BACKGROUND: We know little about how social media alcohol marketing is utilized for alcohol promotion in different national contexts. There does not appear to be any academic work on online exposure to alcohol marketing via social media in India, and most of the limited research in Australia has focused on Facebook. Hence, the present study extends previous research by investigating alcohol promotion conducted on an under-researched form of social media (YouTube) in two contrasting geographic contexts...
January 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338570/a-novel-rubric-to-evaluate-wearable-cameras-for-assessment-of-interrater-reliability
#20
Amanda C Jozkowski, Echo A Presgraves, Krista L Hodges, Erica N Wirth, Nicole E Brandstetter, Molly T Thayer
Research has reported on traditional methods of assessing interrater reliability but, currently, no such standard protocol exists for selection of alternative methods of assessing interrater reliability, such as wearable video cameras. The professions of occupational therapy and occupational science take a unique ecological perspective when evaluating individuals, which focuses on the naturalistic perspective of an individual, ideally resulting in optimal performance. Given current advancements in technology, wearable, low-cost, unobtrusive, first-person view digital video cameras are readily available for use in research...
January 1, 2018: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
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