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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352624/anesthetic-management-of-two-parturients-with-cerebral-palsy-and-prior-selective-dorsal-rhizotomy
#1
C M Aiudi, E E Sharpe, K W Arendt, J J Pasternak, H P Sviggum
Selective dorsal rhizotomy is a surgical spine procedure used to reduce spasticity in patients with upper motor neuron dysfunction caused by conditions such as cerebral palsy. The optimal anesthetic approach for obstetric patients who have undergone a selective dorsal rhizotomy is unknown. The use and efficacy of neuraxial anesthesia in these patients has not been described. We describe the use of neuraxial anesthesia in two patients with prior selective dorsal rhizotomy. Unless contraindicated for other reasons, a neuraxial anesthetic approach appears to be an effective option in patients with a history of a selective dorsal rhizotomy...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350170/atypical-lower-motor-neuron-disease-with-enlargement-of-nissl-substance-report-of-an-autopsy-case
#2
Masayuki Shintaku, Daita Kaneda, Kiyomitsu Oyanagi
The patient was an 81-year-old woman diagnosed with atypical motor neuron disease who died after a long clinical course (7.5 years without mechanical assistance of ventilation) characterized by lower motor neuron signs and symptoms. Upper motor neuron signs and cognitive impairment were not apparent. Autopsy demonstrated severe neuronal loss in the anterior horn of the spinal cord, and some of the remaining neurons showed enlargement of Nissl substance and apparent thickening of the nuclear envelopes. No Bunina bodies, skein-like inclusions, or structures immunoreactive for phosphorylated transactivation response DNA-binding protein 43 were found...
January 19, 2018: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344456/early-clinical-exposure-as-a-learning-tool-to-teach-neuroanatomy-for-first-year-mbbs-students
#3
Maitreyee Kar, Chinmaya Kar, Hironmoy Roy, Parmod Goyal
Context: Early clinical exposure (ECE) is one of the important tools to teach basic science to the MBBS students. It is one form of vertical integration between basic science and clinical subjects. This study is an effort at exploring the use of ECE as a motivational tool toward better learning in neuroanatomy for first year MBBS students. Aim: This study aims to make the students interested and motivated to study neuroanatomy by using ECE as learning tool in neuroanatomy and to make the students enable to retain the knowledge of neuroanatomy more efficiently and correlate the knowledge of neuroanatomy with neuromedicine...
December 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340258/atypical-initial-presentation-of-painful-muscle-cramps-in-a-patient-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-case-report-and-brief-review-of-the-literature
#4
Aaron R Kuzel, Muhammad Uzair Lodhi, Intekhab Askari Syed, Mustafa Rahim
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized clinically by progressive muscle weakness that can occur proximally or distally in either the upper or lower extremities. It includes both upper motor neuron signs (spasticity, hyperreflexia, clonus, and Babinski sign) and lower motor neuron signs (atrophy, weakness, and muscle fasciculation). Initial presentation of progressively painful muscle cramps should lead the physician to screen for other signs of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
November 10, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331501/incorporating-upper-motor-neuron-health-in-als-drug-discovery
#5
REVIEW
Ina Dervishi, P Hande Ozdinler
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a complex disease, affecting the motor neuron circuitry. After consecutive failures in clinical trials for the past 20 years, edaravone was recently approved as the second drug for ALS. This generated excitement in the field and revealed the need to improve preclinical assays for continued success. Here, we focus on the importance and relevance of upper motor neuron (UMN) pathology in ALS, and discuss how incorporation of UMN survival in preclinical assays will improve inclusion criteria for clinical trials and expedite the drug discovery effort in ALS and related motor neuron diseases...
January 10, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331073/cerebrospinal-fluid-macrophage-biomarkers-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#6
A G Thompson, E Gray, M-L Thézénas, P D Charles, S Evetts, M T Hu, K Talbot, R Fischer, B M Kessler, M R Turner
Objective The neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome involving multiple molecular pathways. The development of biomarkers for use in therapeutic trials is a priority. We sought to use a high-throughput proteomic method to identify novel biomarkers in individual cerebrospinal fluid samples. Methods Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with label-free quantification was used to identify cerebrospinal fluid proteins using samples from a well-characterised longitudinal cohort comprising patients with ALS (n=43), the upper motor neuron variant primary lateral sclerosis (PLS, n=6), cross-sectional healthy (n=20) and disease controls (Parkinsons's n=20, ALS mimic disorders n=12)...
January 13, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322201/characterization-of-corticospinal-activation-of-finger-motor-neurons-during-precision-and-power-grip-in-humans
#7
Christian Svane, Christian Riis Forman, Jens Bo Nielsen, Svend Sparre Geertsen
Direct and indirect corticospinal pathways to finger muscles may play a different role in control of the upper extremity. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and coherence analysis to characterize the corticospinal drive to the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor pollicis brevis (APB) when active during a precision and power grip task. In experiment 1, single motor units were recorded during precision grip and power grip in 20 adults (25.2 ± 7.1 years). Post-stimulus time histograms (PSTH) were obtained following TMS...
January 10, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316850/demographics-and-clinical-characteristics-of-primary-lateral-sclerosis-case-series-and-a-review-of-literature
#8
Ramnath Santosh Ramanathan, Sandeep Rana
AIM: Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is a form of motor neuron disease involving only upper motor neurons. In some patients presenting as PLS, the disease progresses to involve lower motor neurons and thereby converting to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, pure forms of PLS do exist. Our aim was to study epidemiological and clinical characteristics of pure PLS patients treated at our neuromuscular clinic. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 15 patients from July 2011 to October 2014 with PLS treated at the neuromuscular disorder clinic at our hospital...
January 10, 2018: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316845/rho-inhibitor-vx-210-in-acute-traumatic-subaxial-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-design-of-the-spinal-cord-injury-rho-inhibition-investigation-spring-clinical-trial
#9
Michael G Fehlings, Kee D Kim, Bizhan Aarabi, Marco Rizzo, Lisa M Bond, Lisa McKerracher, Alexander Vaccaro, David O Okonkwo
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with a lifetime of disability stemming from loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic functions; these losses, along with increased comorbid sequelae, negatively impact health outcomes and quality of life. Early decompression surgery after SCI can enhance patient outcomes but does not directly facilitate neural repair and regeneration. Currently, there are no FDA-approved pharmacologic therapies to augment motor function and functional recovery in individuals with traumatic SCI...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312877/diagnostic-contribution-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-an-atypical-presentation-of-motor-neuron-disease
#10
Lorenzo Ugga, Cinzia Coppola, Sirio Cocozza, Dario Saracino, Ferdinando Caranci, Francesco Tuccillo, Elisabetta Signoriello, Sara Casertano, Giuseppe Di Iorio, Enrico Tedeschi
Motor neuron disease (MND) is a neurodegenerative disease determining progressive and relentless motor deterioration involving both upper and lower motor neurons (UMN and LMN); several variants at onset are described. Here we describe a case of MND presenting as pure spastic monoparesis in which magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gave a substantial contribution in confirming the diagnosis and assessing the severity of UMN involvement. An isolated pyramidal syndrome, with complete absence of LMN signs, is a rare phenotype in the context of MND (less than 4% of total cases), especially if restricted to only one limb...
December 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309384/toe-walking-a-neurological-perspective-after-referral-from-pediatric-orthopaedic-surgeons
#11
Katherine B Haynes, Robert L Wimberly, Jonathan M VanPelt, Chan-Hee Jo, Anthony I Riccio, Mauricio R Delgado
BACKGROUND: Toe walking (TW) in children is often idiopathic in origin. Our purpose was to determine the incidence of a neurological etiology for TW in patients seen in the neurology clinic after referral from pediatric orthopaedic surgeons. METHODS: We performed an Institutional Review Board approved retrospective review of 174 patients referred to the neurology clinic from orthopaedic surgeons at an academic pediatric tertiary care center between January 2010 and September 2015...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299640/variable-impact-of-tizanidine-on-the-medium-latency-reflex-of-upper-and-lower-limbs
#12
Isaac Kurtzer, Laurent J Bouyer, J Bouffard, A Jin, L Christiansen, J B Nielsen, S H Scott
Sudden limb displacement evokes a complex sequence of compensatory muscle activity. Following the short-latency reflex and preceding voluntary reactions is an epoch termed the medium-latency reflex (MLR) that could reflect spinal processing of group II muscle afferents. One way to test this possibility is oral ingestion of tizanidine, an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist that inhibits the interneurons transmitting group II signals onto spinal motor neurons. We examined whether group II afferents contribute to MLR activity throughout the major muscles that span the elbow and shoulder...
January 3, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260014/regional-glucose-hypometabolic-spread-within-the-primary-motor-cortex-is-associated-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-disease-progression-a-fluoro-deoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-study
#13
Hironobu Endo, Kenji Sekiguchi, Takehiro Ueda, Hisatomo Kowa, Fumio Kanda, Tatsushi Toda
Objective: Here we investigate the process of neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The relationship between the cortical field spreading of glucose metabolic decreases in the primary motor cortex (PMC) and the progression of corresponding extremity dysfunction was evaluated using [18F] fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: Patients with ALS underwent [18F] FDG-PET and the resulting datasets were individually contrasted against healthy controls using the NEUROSTAT software...
March 2017: ENeurologicalSci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240971/functional-limitation-of-the-masticatory-system-in-patients-with-bulbar-involvement-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#14
Nina Riera-Punet, Jordi Martinez-Gomis, Eva Willaert, Monica Povedano, Maria Peraire
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with bulbar dysfunction affects the motor neurons responsible for controlling the muscles in the jaw, face, soft palate, pharynx, larynx, and tongue. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the functional limitation of the jaw in patients with ALS and bulbar dysfunction who had upper motor neurons (UMN), lower motor neurons (LMN) or balanced involvement. One hundred and fifty three patients with ALS and 23 controls were included. All participants answered using the eight-item Jaw Functional Limitation Scale (JFLS-8)...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205982/spasticity-or-periodic-limb-movements
#15
Jonathan Levy, Sarah Hartley, Elsa Mauruc-Soubirac, Antoine Leotard, Frederic Lofaso, Maria-Antonia Quera-Salva, Djamel Bensmail
BACKGROUND: Spasticity and spasms are distressing features of the upper motor neuron syndrome (UMNS) following spinal cord injuries (SCI) or multiple sclerosis (MS), and have common therapeutic implications. Despite an increase of antispastic drugs and strategies, sometimes up to the surgical implant of intrathecal baclofen pump, some patients still complain of disabling spasms, which poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Although clinically similar, flexor spasms due to pyramidal tract disruption must be clearly differentiated from periodic limb movements (PLM), often accompanying restless leg syndrome (RLS) and occurring during sleep...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204007/how-long-does-denervation-take-in-poliomyelitis-or-is-it-a-lifetime
#16
Mehmet Güney Şenol, Cengiz Kaplan, Fatih Ozdağ, Mehmet Saraçoğlu
Background and Objective: This study aims to determine the period of reinnervation in patients with poliomyelitis. This research was conducted to identify the appearance of denervation potentials in patients with poliomyelitis as indicators for reinnervation. Materials and Methods: A total of 246 male patients with poliomyelitis were assessed electrophysiologically between 1988 and 2007. The mean age was 22.8 (18-42). It has been an average of 19.9 ± 4.9 years since the beginning of complaints from the patients...
October 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178940/restoration-of-motor-control-and-proprioceptive-and-cutaneous-sensation-in-humans-with-prior-upper-limb-amputation-via-multiple-utah-slanted-electrode-arrays-useas-implanted-in-residual-peripheral-arm-nerves
#17
Suzanne Wendelken, David M Page, Tyler Davis, Heather A C Wark, David T Kluger, Christopher Duncan, David J Warren, Douglas T Hutchinson, Gregory A Clark
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in sophisticated robotic hands, intuitive control of and sensory feedback from these prostheses has been limited to only 3-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) with 2 sensory percepts in closed-loop control. A Utah Slanted Electrode Array (USEA) has been used in the past to provide up to 81 sensory percepts for human amputees. Here, we report on the advanced capabilities of multiple USEAs implanted in the residual peripheral arm nerves of human amputees for restoring control of 5 DOF and sensation of up to 131 proprioceptive and cutaneous hand sensory percepts...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172335/facial-palsy-masquerading-as-an-acute-dental-abscess
#18
Arif Razzak, Frances O’Leary, Nabeela Ahmed
Facial nerve palsy has specific symptomology, but varied aetiology. Prompt and thorough assessment is required to ascertain if upper or lower motor neurone damage has occurred. This report discusses a 6-year-old female, presenting in the Emergency Department with unilateral facial weakness. Initially thought to be facial swelling relating to her carious dentition, clinical assessment from the maxillofacial team identified that the patient had a unilateral facial palsy, later diagnosed as Bell’s palsy. Her delayed presentation was due to initial misdiagnoses in primary care...
March 2017: Dental Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163133/frequency-specific-abnormalities-of-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-strength-among-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#19
Fangjun Li, Fuqing Zhou, Muhua Huang, Honghan Gong, Renshi Xu
The classical concept that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative disorder characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons is agreed. However, more and more studies have suggested the involvement of some extra-motor regions. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency-related alteration pattern of intrinsic functional connectivity strength (FCS) at the voxel-wise level in the relatively early-stage of ALS on a whole brain scale. In this study, 21 patients with ALS and 21 well-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled to examine the intrinsic FCS in the different frequencies (slow-4: 0...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154925/membrane-cholesterol-depletion-in-cortical-neurons-highlights-altered-nmda-receptor-functionality-in-a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#20
Alessia Antonini, Silvia Caioli, Luana Saba, Giulia Vindigni, Silvia Biocca, Nadia Canu, Cristina Zona
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease affecting upper and lower motor neurons, with unknown aetiology. Lipid rafts, cholesterol enriched microdomains of the plasma membrane, have been linked to neurodegenerative disorders like ALS. The NMDA-receptor subcellular localization in lipid rafts is known to play many roles, from modulating memory strength to neurotoxicity. In this study, performed on the widely used G93A mouse model of ALS, we have shown an equal content of total membrane cholesterol in Control and G93A cortical cultures...
November 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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