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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535416/the-role-of-timing-in-the-treatment-of-spinal-cord-injury
#1
REVIEW
Amene Saghazadeh, Nima Rezaei
Regeneration failure after primary spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to diverse clinical complications in a severity- and level of SCI-dependent manner. The cost of treating both of them (initial regeneration failure and following complications) would be prohibitive, particularly in less developed nations. The well-recognized circumstances arose from primary SCI include excitotoxicity and inflammation. SCI increases concentrations of extracellular amino acids (EAAs) in the severity-dependent manner and the maximum level of EAAs at the injury site will be reduced by distance from the injury site...
May 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535404/placental-inflammation-and-its-relationship-to-cervicovaginal-fetal-fibronectin-in-preterm-birth
#2
Laura van der Krogt, Alexandra E Ridout, Paul T Seed, Andrew H Shennan
OBJECTIVE: Late miscarriage and preterm birth are frequently thought to be associated with inflammation and infection, although in most cases the underlying cause of early delivery remains unknown. The placenta is the organ that links mother and fetus during pregnancy, and postnatal examination may provide useful information about pathophysiology. The relationship between placental pathological lesions and predictive markers of early delivery has not been explored. We sought to characterize preterm deliveries according to placental pathology and relate these to the performance of reliable predictive markers, fetal fibronectin and cervical length...
May 3, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535291/invited-commentary-continuing-to-loosen-the-constraints-on-epidemiology-in-an-age-of-change-a-comment-on-mcmichael-s-prisoners-of-the-proximate
#3
Sandro Galea
Published in 1999, McMichael's "Prisoners of the Proximate: Loosening the Constraints on Epidemiology in an Age of Change" (Am J Epidemiol. 1999;149(10):887-897) outlined an exciting vision for epidemiology as the field that that can help us better understand the drivers of population health so that we may intervene, paving the way for healthier populations. McMichael's paper remains today what it was when it was first published: clear, thoughtful, provocative, and usefully prescriptive in its call to action...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535283/retirement-saving-and-mental-health-in-china
#4
Dong Chen, Dennis Petrie, Kam Tang, Dongjie Wu
The Chinese population is aging rapidly while both the pension system is underdeveloped and the traditional family care arrangement is in retreat. This article's objective is to assess the relationship between concerns over retirement saving sufficiency and the mental health status of middle-aged and older Chinese adults, and identify the socioeconomic and demographic profile of those with insufficient retirement savings. A survey from about 2000 respondents collected information on self-assessed physical and mental health status based on the EQ-5D-5L framework, self-assessed longevity, retirement plans and financial preparedness and socioeconomic status...
May 23, 2017: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535176/invited-commentary-30-year-perspective-on-the-seven-countries-study
#5
Henry Blackburn
In a 1986 article (Am J Epidemiol. 1986;124(6):903-915), Keys et al. described and discussed 15-year findings from 15 cohorts of the Seven Countries Study (SCS), the first systematic study of diet, risk characteristics, disease-specific death rates, and their ecologic and individual associations both among and within whole populations of working men in regions with contrasting traditional diets. The SCS findings included 30-fold cohort differences in rates of death from coronary heart disease and 3-fold differences in rates of death from all causes, along with strong ecologic associations among diet, risk factors, and disease rates...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534997/reduced-expression-of-follicle-stimulating-hormone-receptor-mrna-and-protein-in-pregnancies-complicated-by-pre%C3%A2-eclampsia
#6
Mo Li, Yifan Jia, Yan Ling, Yilu Chen, Lu Zhang, Dan Luo, Lidan Lai, Meijun Guo, Dalei Zhang, Min Ren, Hong Xu, Haibin Kuang
Expression and function of the follicle‑stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) are traditionally thought to be limited to the ovary in females. However, recent studies have indicated that the FSHR is also expressed in endothelial cells of the placental vasculature, and that the haploinsufficiency of the feto‑placental FSHR impaired the growth of the mouse placenta. The aim of the current study was to investigate the placental expression of FSH and FSHR in pregnancies complicated by pre‑eclampsia. Placental tissue samples were collected from 20 pregnancies with pre‑eclampsia and 25 normal pregnancies...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534948/dual-strands-of-pre-mir%C3%A2-150-mir%C3%A2-150%C3%A2-5p-and-mir%C3%A2-150%C3%A2-3p-act-as-antitumor-mirnas-targeting-spock1-in-na%C3%A3-ve-and-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#7
Atsushi Okato, Takayuki Arai, Satoko Kojima, Keiichi Koshizuka, Yusaku Osako, Tetsuya Idichi, Akira Kurozumi, Yusuke Goto, Mayuko Kato, Yukio Naya, Tomohiko Ichikawa, Naohiko Seki
Analysis of our microRNA (miRNA) expression signature in human cancers has shown that guide and passenger strands of pre-miR‑150, i.e., miR‑150‑5p and miR‑150‑3p, are significantly downregulated in cancer tissues. In miRNA biogenesis, the passenger strand of miRNA is degraded and is thought to have no functions. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the functional significance of miR‑150‑5p and miR‑150‑3p in naïve prostate cancer (PCa) and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534709/mdscs-are-involved-in-the-protumorigenic-potentials-of-gm-csf-in-colitis-associated-cancer
#8
Ning Ma, Qilin Liu, Lin Hou, Yalin Wang, Ziling Liu
Chronic inflammation is thought to be a major driving force for the development of colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). As one member of proinflammatory cytokine family, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has been identified to play a key role in CAC pathogenesis recently. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain largely unknown. In this study, we found that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulated increasingly in the lesions during the progression from colitis to cancer, which was critical for CAC formation...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534436/perceptions-of-sport-science-students-on-the-potential-applications-and-limitations-of-blended-learning-in-their-education-a-qualitative-study
#9
Justin W L Keogh, Lisa Gowthorp, Michelle McLean
This study sought to gain insight into blended learning-naive sports science students' understanding and perceptions of the potential benefits and limitations of blended (hybrid) learning, which has been defined as the thoughtful integration of face-to-face and online instructional approaches. Five focus groups, each comprising 3-4 students from either the undergraduate or postgraduate sports science programmes were conducted. The focus groups were facilitated by a researcher who was not involved in sports science...
May 23, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534217/autism-spectrum-disorder-associated-genes-and-the-development-of-dentate-granule-cells
#10
REVIEW
Hidenori Ito, Rika Morishita, Koh-Ichi Nagata
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe clinical symptoms such as the deficiency of the social communication, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors, and restricted interests. Although complex genetic and environmental factors are thought to contribute to the development of ASD, the precise etiologies are largely unknown. Neuroanatomical observations have been made of developmental abnormalities in different brain regions, including dentate gyrus of hippocampus, which is widely accepted as the center for learning and memory...
May 22, 2017: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534161/autoantibodies-to-osteoprotegerin-are-associated-with-low-hip-bone-mineral-density-and-history-of-fractures-in-axial-spondyloarthritis-a-cross-sectional-observational-study
#11
Barbara Hauser, Sizheng Zhao, Micaela R Visconti, Philip L Riches, William D Fraser, Isabelle Piec, Nicola J Goodson, Stuart H Ralston
Osteoporosis is a recognised complication of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and is thought to be due to functional impairment and the osteoclast-activating effects of proinflammatory cytokines. The development of autoantibodies to OPG (OPG-Ab) has been associated with severe osteoporosis and increased bone resorption in rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, we screened for the presence of OPG-Ab in axSpA and reviewed their clinical significance. We studied 134 patients, recruited from two centres in the United Kingdom...
May 22, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534149/joint-effects-of-peer-presence-and-fatigue-on-risk-and-reward-processing-in-late-adolescence
#12
Karol Silva, Jamie Patrianakos, Jason Chein, Laurence Steinberg
Peers are thought to increase adolescents' risk-taking behavior, at least in part, by heightening their sensitivity to rewards. In this study, we investigate whether the effect of peers on late adolescent males is exacerbated when youth are cognitively fatigued, a state characterized by weakened cognitive control and heightened orientation toward rewards, and well established as a factor that compromises decision making. We hypothesized that fatigued adolescents' top-down regulation of reward-related impulses may be compromised, thereby potentially amplifying the effect of peers on reward- and risk-seeking behavior...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533955/among-site-variability-in-the-stochastic-dynamics-of-east-african-coral-reefs
#13
Katherine A Allen, John F Bruno, Fiona Chong, Damian Clancy, Tim R McClanahan, Matthew Spencer, Kamila Żychaluk
Coral reefs are dynamic systems whose composition is highly influenced by unpredictable biotic and abiotic factors. Understanding the spatial scale at which long-term predictions of reef composition can be made will be crucial for guiding conservation efforts. Using a 22-year time series of benthic composition data from 20 reefs on the Kenyan and Tanzanian coast, we developed Bayesian vector autoregressive state-space models for reef dynamics, incorporating among-site variability, and quantified their long-term behaviour...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533948/radiosensitization-effect-of-hsa-mir-138-2-3p-on-human-laryngeal-cancer-stem-cells
#14
Ying Zhu, Li-Yun Shi, Yan-Min Lei, Yan-Hong Bao, Zhao-Yang Li, Fei Ding, Gui-Ting Zhu, Qing-Qing Wang, Chang-Xin Huang
BACKGROUND: Treatments that target cancer stem cells play an important role in the controlling and eliminating of tumor initiation as well as in development, progression, and chemotherapy/radiotherapy resistance. In our previous study, we cultured and harvested human laryngeal cancer stem cells (CSCs) and applied microRNA biochips to screen differentially expressed miRNAs that were related to radiation tolerance in irradiated human laryngeal CSCs. According to the predicted genes and pathways of differential miRNAs target, down-regulated expression of hsa-miR-138-2-3p under radiation was thought to play a key role in enhancing the radio-sensitivity in human laryngeal squamous cancer stem cells...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533824/analysis-of-the-dna-methylation-level-of-cancer-related-genes-in-colorectal-cancer-and-the-surrounding-normal-mucosa
#15
Tamotsu Sugai, Masakazu Yoshida, Makoto Eizuka, Noriyuki Uesugii, Wataru Habano, Kouki Otsuka, Akira Sasaki, Eiichiro Yamamoto, Takayuki Matsumoto, Hiromu Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Two molecular pathways promote the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). One is termed "microsatellite stable" (MSS) whereas the other is characterized by "microsatellite instability" (MSI or MIN). In addition, the CpG island methylation phenotype is known to be an important alteration as a third molecular type. Thus, DNA methylation is thought to provide potential biomarkers for assessment of cancer risk in normal mucosa. In addition, it is also known that colonic location is an important parameter in the development of CRC...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533507/kif4a-mediate-the-accumulation-and-reeducation-of-thp-1-derived-macrophages-via-regulation-of-ccl2-ccr2-expression-in-crosstalking-with-oscc
#16
Yun Zhang, Shaohua Liu, Daiwei Qu, Ketao Wang, Lin Zhang, Xuanxuan Jing, Chen Li, Fengcai Wei, Xun Qu
Crosstalk between tumor infiltrating macrophages and tumor cells is thought to play an indispensable role in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) by induction and maintenance of tolerance microenvironment. High infiltration of M2 macrophages and increasing expression of Kinesin family member 4A (Kif4A) in primary OSCC have been proved to correlate with greater tumoral size and poor clinical outcome. However, linkage between Kif4A and infiltrating macrophages in tumorigenesis and progression remains unclear...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533284/nesprin-1%C3%AE-2-is-essential-for-mouse-postnatal-viability-and-nuclear-positioning-in-skeletal-muscle
#17
Matthew J Stroud, Wei Feng, Jianlin Zhang, Jennifer Veevers, Xi Fang, Larry Gerace, Ju Chen
The position of the nucleus in a cell is controlled by interactions between the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex and the cytoskeleton. Defects in nuclear positioning and abnormal aggregation of nuclei occur in many muscle diseases and correlate with muscle dysfunction. Nesprin 1, which includes multiple isoforms, is an integral component of the LINC complex, critical for nuclear positioning and anchorage in skeletal muscle, and is thought to provide an essential link between nuclei and actin...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533272/chimeric-pd-1-28-receptor-upgrades-low-avidity-t-cells-and-restores-effector-function-of-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-for-adoptive-cell-therapy
#18
Ramona Schlenker, Luis Felipe Olguín-Contreras, Matthias Leisegang, Julia Schnappinger, Anja Disovic, Svenja Rühland, Peter J Nelson, Heinrich Leonhardt, Hartmann Harz, Susanne Wilde, Dolores J Schendel, Wolfgang Uckert, Gerald Willimsky, Elfriede Noessner
Inherent intermediate-to-low affinity T cell receptors (TCR) that develop during the natural course of immune responses may not allow sufficient activation for tumor elimination, making the majority of T cells suboptimal for adoptive T cell therapy (ATT). TCR affinity enhancement has been implemented to provide stronger T cell activity but carries the risk of creating undesired cross-reactivity leading to potential serious adverse effects in clinical application. We demonstrate here that engineering of low-avidity T cells recognizing a naturally processed and presented tumor-associated antigen with a chimeric PD-1:28 receptor increases effector function to levels seen with high-avidity T cells of identical specificity...
May 22, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533178/mucin-and-carbohydrate-stimulated-adhesion-and-subproteome-changes-of-the-probiotic-bacterium-lactobacillus-acidophilus-ncfm
#19
Hasan Ufuk Celebioglu, Sita Vaag Olesen, Kennie Prehn, Sampo J Lahtinen, Susanne Brix, Maher Abou Hachem, Birte Svensson
Adhesion to intestinal mucosa is a crucial property for probiotic bacteria. Adhesion is thought to increase host-bacterial interactions, thus potentially enabling health benefits to the host. Molecular events connected with adhesion and surface proteome changes were investigated for the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM cultured with established or emerging prebiotic carbohydrates as carbon source and in the presence of mucin, the glycoprotein of the epithelial mucus layer. Variation in adhesion to HT29-cells and mucin was associated with carbon source and mucin-induced subproteome abundancy differences...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532965/anorexia-nervosa-atypical-anorexia-nervosa
#20
Lindsay Moskowitz, Eric Weiselberg
Anorexia nervosa has the highest mortality rate among all psychiatric illnesses, as it can result in significant psychopathology along with life-threatening medical complications. Atypical anorexia nervosa is a new variant described in the latest DSM edition, which has much in common with anorexia nervosa and also can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The evolution of the criteria for these illnesses is reviewed, and the two are compared and contrasted in this article. Important labs to monitor for in those with these illnesses, along with an emphasis on the monitoring of vital signs and weight, are reviewed here...
April 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
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