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Hailong Pei, Wentao Hu, Ziyang Guo, Huaiyuan Chen, Ji Ma, Weidong Mao, Bingyan Li, Aiqing Wang, Jianmei Wan, Jian Zhang, Jing Nie, Guangming Zhou, Tom K Hei
The dynamic interchange between monomeric globular actin (G-actin) and polymeric filamentous actin filaments (F-actin) is fundamental and essential to many cellular processes including cytokinesis and maintenance of genomic stability. Here we report that the long non-coding RNA LNC CRYBG3 directly binds G-actin to inhibit its polymerization and formation of contractile rings, resulting in M-Phase cell arrest. Knockdown of LNC CRYBG3 in tumor cells enhanced their malignant phenotypes. Nucleotide sequence 228-237 of the full-length LNC CRYBG3 and the ser14 domain of beta-actin are essential for their interaction, and mutation of either of these sites abrogated binding of LNC CRYBG3 to G-actin...
June 22, 2018: Cancer Research
Cleide Adriane Signor Tirloni, Rhanany Alan Calloi Palozi, Maysa Isernhagen Schaedler, Aline Aparecida Macedo Marques, Lucas Pires Guarnier, Gabriel Selonke Dos Santos, Emerson Luiz Botelho Lourenço, Lauro Mera de Souza, Arquimedes Gasparotto Junior
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Luehea divaricata Mart. (Malvaceae) is an important medicinal species that is widely used as a diuretic in the Brazilian Pantanal region. An ethanolic supernatant that was obtained from an infusion of leaves of this species (ESLD) was recently shown to exert hypotensive and diuretic activity. Nevertheless, the secondary metabolites that are responsible for this activity and the molecular mechanisms of pharmacological action remain unknown. AIM: We performed a detailed study to identify possible active metabolites that are present in different ESLD fractions and investigated their effects on renal and peripheral arteriolar tone...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
S Raeder, D Ackermann, H Backe, R Beerwerth, J C Berengut, M Block, A Borschevsky, B Cheal, P Chhetri, Ch E Düllmann, V A Dzuba, E Eliav, J Even, R Ferrer, V V Flambaum, S Fritzsche, F Giacoppo, S Götz, F P Heßberger, M Huyse, U Kaldor, O Kaleja, J Khuyagbaatar, P Kunz, M Laatiaoui, F Lautenschläger, W Lauth, A K Mistry, E Minaya Ramirez, W Nazarewicz, S G Porsev, M S Safronova, U I Safronova, B Schuetrumpf, P Van Duppen, T Walther, C Wraith, A Yakushev
Until recently, ground-state nuclear moments of the heaviest nuclei could only be inferred from nuclear spectroscopy, where model assumptions are required. Laser spectroscopy in combination with modern atomic structure calculations is now able to probe these moments directly, in a comprehensive and nuclear-model-independent way. Here we report on unique access to the differential mean-square charge radii of ^{252,253,254}No, and therefore to changes in nuclear size and shape. State-of-the-art nuclear density functional calculations describe well the changes in nuclear charge radii in the region of the heavy actinides, indicating an appreciable central depression in the deformed proton density distribution in ^{252,254}No isotopes...
June 8, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Michał Stasiowski, Marek Zuber, Radosław Marciniak, Michał Kolny, Ewa Chabierska, Przemysław Jałowiecki, Aleksandra Pluta, Anna Missir
BACKGROUND: Horner's syndrome is comprised of a set of symptoms caused by a permanent or transient ipsilateral sympathetic trunk lesion or paralysis. It may occur after numerous pathologies in the cervical region, epidural, spinal anaesthesia, and interscalene, transscalene, supraclavicular, or infraclavicular brachial plexus block. The aim of this randomised, prospective clinical study was to evaluate the effect of the interscalene brachial plexus block (IBPB) technique on the occurrence rate of Horner's syndrome and identify contributing risk factors...
June 22, 2018: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
Xin Di, Bharat B Biswal
Human brain anatomical and resting-state functional connectivity have been comprehensively portrayed using MRI, which are termed anatomical and functional connectomes. A systematic examination of tasks modulated whole brain functional connectivity, which we term as task connectome, is still lacking. We analyzed 6 block-designed and 1 event-related designed functional MRI data, and examined whole-brain task modulated connectivity in various task domains, including emotion, reward, language, relation, social cognition, working memory, and inhibition...
June 21, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Korgün Ökmen, Burcu Metin Ökmen, Serra Topal
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic techniques are commonly used in surgical operations of the gallbladder. There are very few regional anesthesia methods used to achieve this goal. We aimed to investigate the effect of ultrasound-guided posterior quadratus lumborum block (QLB), administered bilaterally on pain scores after laparoscopic cholecystectomy operations. DESIGN: Prospective, double blind, randomized controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Single-institution, tertiary hospital...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Omar Zakary, Mostafa Rachik, Ilias Elmouki
First, we devise in this paper, a multi-regions discrete-time model which describes the spatial-temporal spread of an epidemic which starts from one region and enters to regions which are connected with their neighbors by any kind of anthropological movement. We suppose homogeneous Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) populations, and we consider in our simulations, a grid of colored cells, which represents the whole domain affected by the epidemic while each cell can represent a sub-domain or region. Second, in order to minimize the number of infected individuals in one region, we propose an optimal control approach based on a travel-blocking vicinity strategy which aims to control only one cell by restricting movements of infected people coming from all neighboring cells...
August 2017: Infectious Disease Modelling
Yuzuru Satake, Yuki Kuwano, Tatsuya Nishikawa, Kinuyo Fujita, Saki Saijo, Miki Itai, Hiroki Tanaka, Kensei Nishida, Kazuhito Rokutan
Transcribed-ultraconserved regions (T-UCRs), which contain conserved sequences with 100% identity across human, rat and mouse species, are a novel category of functional RNAs. The human transformer 2β gene ( TRA2B ) encodes a UCR that spans exon 2 (276 bp) and its neighboring introns. Among five spliced RNA variants ( TRA2β1-5 ) transcribed from the TRA2B gene, only TRA2β4 contains the conserved exon 2. TRA2β4 is overexpressed in colon cancer cells and accelerates cell growth by blocking the transcription of CDKN1A ...
June 1, 2018: Oncotarget
Ali Soltani, Samira MafiMoghaddam, Atena Oladzad-Abbasabadi, Katelynn Walter, Patrick J Kearns, Jose Vasquez-Guzman, Sujan Mamidi, Rian Lee, Ashley L Shade, Janette L Jacobs, Martin I Chilivers, David B Lowry, Phillip McClean, Juan M Osorno
Climate change models predict temporal and spatial shifts in precipitation resulting in more frequent incidents of flooding, particularly in regions with poor soil drainage. In these flooding conditions, crop losses are inevitable due to exposure of plants to hypoxia and the spread of root rot diseases. Improving the tolerance of bean cultivars to flooding is crucial to minimize crop losses. In this experiment, we evaluated the phenotypic responses of 277 genotypes from the Andean Diversity Panel to flooding at germination and seedling stages...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Danfeng Lu, Zhuoran Li, Lingling Li, Liping Yang, Guijun Chen, Deying Yang, Yue Zhang, Vikrant Singh, Sheryl Smith, Yu Xiao, Erlin Wang, Yunshuang Ye, Wei Zhang, Lei Zhou, Yikang Rong, Jumin Zhou
Chromatin insulators or boundary elements protect genes from regulatory activities from neighboring genes or chromatin domains. In the Drosophila Abdominal-B (Abd-B) locus, the deletion of such elements, such as Frontabdominal-7 (Fab-7) or Fab-8 led to dominant gain of function phenotypes, presumably due to the loss of chromatin barriers. Homologous chromosomes are paired in Drosophila, creating a number of pairing dependent phenomena including transvection, and whether transvection may affect the function of Polycomb response elements (PREs) and thus contribute to the phenotypes are not known...
2018: PloS One
Jiangxia Cheng, Pengfei Zhu, Han Qin, Xia Li, Hai Yu, Hui Yu, Xiaohong Peng
Objective The sedative dexmedetomidine plays a role in multi-organ protection by inhibiting toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 expression in ischemia/reperfusion injury. The present study investigated whether the neuroprotective effects of dexmedetomidine could be blocked by the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide. Methods We established a cerebral ischemia/reperfusion model in neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats through bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 20 minutes followed by a 2-hour reperfusion. Rats were assigned to four groups: Sham operation, ischemia/reperfusion, ischemia/reperfusion preceded by dexmedetomidine treatment (10 µg/kg), and ischemia/reperfusion preceded by dexmedetomidine (10 µg/kg) and lipopolysaccharide (500 µg/kg) treatments...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Erica J Weinstein, Jacob L Levene, Marc S Cohen, Doerthe A Andreae, Jerry Y Chao, Matthew Johnson, Charles B Hall, Michael H Andreae
BACKGROUND: Regional anaesthesia may reduce the rate of persistent postoperative pain (PPP), a frequent and debilitating condition. This review was originally published in 2012 and updated in 2017. OBJECTIVES: To compare local anaesthetics and regional anaesthesia versus conventional analgesia for the prevention of PPP beyond three months in adults and children undergoing elective surgery. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase to December 2016 without any language restriction...
June 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Yun-Xia Liu, Jin-Yan Feng, Ming-Ming Sun, Bo-Wen Liu, Guang Yang, Ya-Nan Bu, Man Zhao, Tian-Jiao Wang, Wei-Ying Zhang, Hong-Feng Yuan, Xiao-Dong Zhang
Aspirin can efficiently inhibit liver cancer growth, but the mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, we report that aspirin modulates glucose uptake through downregulating glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), leading to the inhibition of hepatoma cell proliferation. Our data showed that aspirin significantly decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glucose consumption in hepatoma cells. Interestingly, we identified that GLUT1 and HIF1α could be decreased by aspirin. Mechanically, we demonstrated that the -1008/-780 region was the regulatory element of transcriptional factor NF-κB in GLUT1 promoter by luciferase report gene assays...
June 20, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Anastasia A Proskuryakova, Anastasia I Kulemzina, Polina L Perelman, Natalia A Serdukova, Oliver A Ryder, Alexander S Graphodatsky
There are differences in number and localization of nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) in genomes. In mammalian genomes, NORs are located on autosomes, which are often situated on short arms of acrocentric chromosomes and more rarely in telomeric, pericentromeric, or interstitial regions. In this work, we report the unique case of active NORs located on gonоsomes of a eutherian mammal, the Javan mouse-deer ( Tragulus javanicus ). We have investigated the position of NORs by FISH experiments with ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences (18S, 5...
June 20, 2018: Genes
Victoria Khoronenko, Danil Baskakov, Marc Leone, Anna Malanova, Andrey Ryabov, Oleg Pikin, Maksim Golovashchenko
PURPOSE: Our study aimed to assess whether the type of regional anesthesia influenced the incidence of chronic postthoracotomy pain syndrome (CPTPS). METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized study that included 300 patients undergoing lung cancer resection using thoracotomy. They were randomized into three groups: paravertebral nerve block (PVB), thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA), and intercostal nerve block (INB). General anesthesia was similar in the groups...
June 20, 2018: Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Jeong Yoon Lee, Ji Sun Lee, Emma C Materne, Rahul Rajala, Ashrafali M Ismail, Donald Seto, David W Dyer, Jaya Rajaiya, James Chodosh
Adenovirus infections in humans are common and sometimes lethal. Adenovirus-derived vectors are also commonly chosen for gene therapy in human clinical trials. We have shown in previous work that homologous recombination between adenoviral genomes of human adenovirus species D (HAdV-D), the largest and fastest growing HAdV species, is responsible for the rapid evolution of this species. Because adenovirus infection initiates in mucosal epithelia, particularly at the gastrointestinal, respiratory, genitourinary, and ocular surfaces, we sought to determine a possible role for mucosal microbiota in adenovirus genome diversity...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
Gillian Elliott, Kathleen Pheasant, Katja Ebert-Keel, Julianna Stylianou, Ashley Franklyn, Juliet Jones
The HSV1 virion host shutoff (vhs) protein is an endoribonuclease that binds to the cellular translation initiation machinery and degrades associated mRNAs, resulting in shut-off of host protein synthesis. Hence its unrestrained activity is considered to be lethal, and it has been proposed that vhs is regulated by two other virus proteins, VP22 and VP16. We have found that during infection, translation of vhs requires VP22 but not the VP22-VP16 complex. Moreover, in the absence of VP22, vhs is not overactive against cellular or viral transcripts...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Virology
Jing Qu, Lanyan Zhu, Zijing Zhou, Ping Chen, Shuyan Liu, Morgan L Locy, Victor J Thannickal, Yong Zhou
RATIONALE: Desmoplakin (DSP), the most abundant component of desmosomes which maintain the mechanical integrity of epithelium, is a GWAS-identified genetic risk locus in human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). IPF subjects express a significantly higher level of DSP than control subjects. OBJECTIVES: Determine potential mechanisms by which DSP is regulated in lung fibrosis Methods: Matrigel-coated soft and stiff polyacrylamide gels were made to simulate the stiffness of normal and fibrotic lungs...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Tetsuya Hattori, Toru Itagaki, Hirotaka Uji, Shunsaku Kimura
Two kinds of amphiphilic polypeptides having different types of hydrophilic polypeptoids, poly(sarcosine)-b-(L-Leu-Aib)6 (ML12) and poly(N-ethyl glycine)-b-(L-Leu-Aib)6 (EL12), were self-assembled via two paths to phase-separated nanotubes. One path was via sticking ML12 nanotubes with EL12 nanotubes, and the other was a preparation from a mixture of ML12 and EL12 in solution. In either case, nanotubes showed temperature-induced phase separation along the long axis, which was observed by two methods of labeling one phase with gold nanoparticles and fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the components...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Julie C Savage, Katherine Picard, Fernando González-Ibáñez, Marie-Ève Tremblay
The first electron microscope was constructed in 1931. Several decades later, techniques were developed to allow the first ultrastructural analysis of microglia by transmission electron microscopy (EM). In the 50 years that followed, important roles of microglia have been identified, specifically due to the ultrastructural resolution currently available only with EM. In particular, the addition of electron-dense staining using immunohistochemical EM methods has allowed the identification of microglial cell bodies, as well as processes, which are difficult to recognize in EM, and to uncover their complex interactions with neurons and synapses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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