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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550195/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibition-stimulates-distal-tubular-natriuresis-and-increases-in-circulating-sdf-1%C3%AE-1-67-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#1
Julie A Lovshin, Harindra Rajasekeran, Yulyia Lytvyn, Leif E Lovblom, Shajiha Khan, Robel Alemu, Amy Locke, Vesta Lai, Huaibing He, Lucinda Hittle, Weixun Wang, Daniel J Drucker, David Z I Cherney
OBJECTIVE: Antihyperglycemic agents, such as empagliflozin, stimulate proximal tubular natriuresis and improve cardiovascular and renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. Because dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are used in combination with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, we examined whether and how sitagliptin modulates fractional sodium excretion and renal and systemic hemodynamic function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 32 patients with type 2 diabetes in a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial...
May 26, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539704/comparison-of-antidiabetic-medications-during-the-treatment-of-atherosclerosis-in-t2dm-patients
#2
Xiaojie Liu, Tao Mei, Wei Chen, Shandong Ye
Type 2 diabetes is often associated with arterial atherosclerosis in large blood vessels. We set out to elucidate whether commonly used antidiabetic drugs metformin, sitagliptin, and pioglitazone will reduce atherosclerosis in T2DM patients. We enrolled 176 individuals with type 2 diabetes, which were divided into four treatment groups according to different oral drugs: metformin alone, sitagliptin alone, pioglitazone alone, or combination of metformin and sitagliptin. We assessed changes in glycometabolism, lipid metabolism, cytokine released, and carotid artery intima-media thickness as the readout for improvement in atherosclerosis...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516377/the-influence-of-sitagliptin-on-treatment-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-receiving-insulin-treatment-a-prespecified-sub-analysis
#3
Tomoya Mita, Naoto Katakami, Toshihiko Shiraiwa, Hidenori Yoshii, Masahiko Gosho, Hitoshi Ishii, Iichiro Shimomura, Hirotaka Watada
INTRODUCTION: Treatment-related quality of life (QOL) is an important aspect of diabetes management. Here, we investigated the influence of sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, on treatment-related QOL in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with insulin. METHODS: This was a prespecified sub-analysis of the Sitagliptin Preventive Study of Intima-Media Thickness Evaluation (SPIKE). The study population consisted of 71 subjects in the sitagliptin group, and 62 subjects in the conventional group who were treated with insulin...
May 17, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514822/-cardiovascular-effects-of-antidiabetic-therapies
#4
Katharina Laubner, Jochen Seufert
Type 2- diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represents a major risk factor for cardiovascular complications and mortality. Strict glucose control in the early course of the disease prevents cardiovascular complications only in the long run. Non-medical therapies (diet, exercise, body weight reduction) bear little evidence for positive cardiovascular effects.Bariatric surgery is not number one choice in therapy of T2DM. Metformin seems to provide positive cardiovascular effects. Insulin seems to be cardiovascular neutral, as well as the DPP4-inhibitors Saxagliptin, Sitagliptin and Alogliptin...
May 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514518/a-retrosynthesis-approach-for-biocatalysis-in-organic-synthesis
#5
Uwe Bornscheuer, Rodrigo O M A de Souza, Leandro S M Miranda
Lead-In: For the planning of an organic synthesis route, the disconnection approach guided by retrosynthetic analysis of possible intermediates and the chemical reactions involved, back to ready available starting materials, is well established. In contrast, such concepts just get developed for biocatalytic routes. In this review we highlight functional group interconversions catalyzed by enzymes. The article is organized rather by chemical bonds formed - exemplified for C-N, C-O- and C-C-bonds - and not by enzyme classes, covering a broad range of reactions to incorporate the desired functionality in the target molecule...
May 17, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511152/-pathogenetic-substantiation-of-complex-treatment-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-steatosis-in-patients-with-pre-diabetes-and-type-2-diabetes
#6
Іван В Чопей, Віталіна В Івачевська, Ксенія І Чубірко, Тарас І Гряділь, Михайло М Гечко
INTRODUCTION: Thesis is devoted to the optimization of complex treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and steatosis in patients with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes by acting on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as well as providing hepatoprotection. AIM: Optimization of diagnostics and treatment in patients treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and steatosis in patients with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Examination and treatment of 117 patients with NAFLD and pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes was performed...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490565/efficacy-and-safety-of-ipragliflozin-and-metformin-for-visceral-fat-reduction-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-receiving-treatment-with-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-in-japan-a-study-protocol-for-a-prospective-multicentre-blinded-endpoint-phase-iv-randomised
#7
Masaya Koshizaka, Ko Ishikawa, Takahiro Ishikawa, Kazuki Kobayashi, Minoru Takemoto, Takuro Horikoshi, Ryota Shimofusa, Sho Takahashi, Kengo Nagashima, Yasunori Sato, Ichiro Tatsuno, Takashi Terano, Naotake Hashimoto, Nobuichi Kuribayashi, Daigaku Uchida, Koutaro Yokote
INTRODUCTION: In Japan, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are frequently used as the treatment of choice for patients with type 2 diabetes. In some cases, however, poor glycaemic and body weight control issues persist despite treatment with DPP-4 inhibitors. Previous researchers have revealed that sodium-dependent glucose transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors reduce both plasma glucose levels and body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, further investigation regarding the effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors on body composition, especially in the Asian population who tends to have relatively low-to-moderate body mass indices, is required...
May 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490337/effect-of-sitagliptin-on-the-echocardiographic-parameters-of-left-ventricular-diastolic-function-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-subgroup-analysis-of-the-prologue-study
#8
Hirotsugu Yamada, Atsushi Tanaka, Kenya Kusunose, Rie Amano, Munehide Matsuhisa, Hiroyuki Daida, Masaaki Ito, Hiroyuki Tsutsui, Mamoru Nanasato, Haruo Kamiya, Yasuko K Bando, Masato Odawara, Hisako Yoshida, Toyoaki Murohara, Masataka Sata, Koichi Node
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is associated closely with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, including diastolic dysfunction and heart failure that leads to a shortening of life expectancy. It is therefore extremely valuable to evaluate the impact of antidiabetic agents on cardiac function. However, the influence of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors on cardiac function is controversial and a major matter of clinical concern. We therefore evaluated the effect of sitagliptin on echocardiographic parameters of diastolic function in patients with type 2 diabetes as a sub-analysis of the PROLOGUE study...
May 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486736/comparison-of-the-effects-of-mitiglinide-and-glibenclamide-administered-in-combination-with-the-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-inhibitor-sitagliptin-in-rats-with-streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced-type-2-diabetes
#9
Kenji Akahane, Kazuma Ojima, Ayaka Yokoyama, Toshihiro Inoue, Sumiyoshi Kiguchi, Satoshi Tatemichi, Hiroo Takeda, Mamoru Kobayashi
We compared the individual effects of mitiglinide and glibenclamide administered in combination with the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor sitagliptin on plasma DPP-IV activity and blood glucose levels in rats with streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetes (STZ-NA rats). We examined the inhibitory activity of mitiglinide and glibenclamide as well as their combination with sitagliptin on plasma DPP-IV activity in STZ-NA rats. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was used to compare effects of mitiglinide, glibenclamide, and their combination with sitagliptin on blood glucose levels in STZ-NA rats...
May 9, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485557/when-the-treatment-becomes-the-problem
#10
Vivek-Thomas J Sankoorikal, Janet Ricks
A 47-year-old white male with a 5-year history of type 2 diabetes mellitus presented to clinic with uncontrolled hyperglycemia, weight loss, and body aches that impeded his ability to work and sleep. He had initially controlled his diabetes successfully with weight loss and exercise. However, in the previous 6 months he had noticed unintentional weight loss. He was evaluated at another clinic where he was prescribed sitagliptin/metformin (Janumet) for his uncontrolled hyperglycemia. After 6 weeks his blood glucose had not significantly improved, and an endocrinologist prescribed insulin glargine (Lantus) and insulin aspart (NovoLog)...
July 2016: Journal of the Mississippi State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483748/cardiovascular-safety-outcomes-of-new-antidiabetic-therapies
#11
Marlys H LeBras, Arden R Barry, Sheri L Koshman
PURPOSE: The cardiovascular safety outcomes of newer antidiabetic agents were reviewed. SUMMARY: Seven randomized, placebo-controlled trials involving patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with or at risk for cardiovascular disease were reviewed. The trials examined the cardiovascular safety outcomes of the following agents: alogliptin, saxagliptin, and sitagliptin (dipeptidyl peptidase-4 [DPP-4] inhibitors); liraglutide, lixisenatide, and semaglutide (glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists); and empagliflozin (a sodium glucose cotransport-2 inhibitor)...
May 8, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471499/efficacy-and-safety-of-single-drug-or-double-drug-antidiabetic-regimens-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-network-meta-analysis
#12
Xi-Ling Yang, Mi-Ma Duo-Ji, Zi-Wen Long
A network meta-analysis was performed in order compare the efficacy and safety of single-drug or double-drug antidiabetic regimens in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). PubMed and Cochrane Library searches were conducted since inception to February 2017. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of different antidiabetic regimens in the treatment of T2DM were included in this study. Direct and indirect evidences were combined to calculate the odds ratio (OR) or weighted mean difference (WMD) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI), and in order to draw the surface under the cumulative ranking curves (SUCRA)...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459046/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-and-the-risk-of-heart-failure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Subodh Verma, Ronald M Goldenberg, Deepak L Bhatt, Michael E Farkouh, Adrian Quan, Hwee Teoh, Kim A Connelly, Lawrence A Leiter, Jan O Friedrich
BACKGROUND: Given recent discrepant results from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we examined the totality of RCT evidence assessing the association between dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and heart failure. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched without language restrictions to August 2016 for RCTs comparing DPP-4 inhibitors to placebo or no therapy for a period of 24 weeks or more. We included all heart failure outcomes when listed either as a serious adverse event or adverse event...
January 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459027/long-term-efficacy-and-safety-of-empagliflozin-monotherapy-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-in-indian-subgroup-results-from-a-76-week-extension-trial-of-phase-iii-double-blind-randomized-study
#14
Sunil Gupta, Shehla Shaikh, Pooja Joshi, Shraddha Bhure, Viraj Suvarna
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Empagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, was recently evaluated in a randomized, controlled trial (RCT) in drug-naïve Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients managed on diet and exercise therapy. Efficacy and safety of empagliflozin in Indian subgroup of patients from a 76-week extension study of the initial multicentric RCT are reported in this article. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, patients were randomized to empagliflozin 10 mg (E10, n = 24), empagliflozin 25 mg (E25, n = 29), placebo (n = 28) and sitagliptin 100 mg (S100, n = 27)...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449368/a-randomized-placebo-and-sitagliptin-controlled-trial-of-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-omarigliptin-a-once-weekly-dpp-4-inhibitor-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#15
Ira Gantz, Taro Okamoto, Yuka Ito, Kotoba Okuyama, Edward A O'Neill, Keith D Kaufman, Samuel S Engel, Eseng Lai
AIMS: To assess the safety and efficacy of omarigliptin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a 24-week double-blind trial, 414 patients with T2D were randomized to omarigliptin 25 mg once-weekly (q.w.), sitagliptin 50 mg once daily (q.d.) or placebo. The double-blind period was followed by a 28-week open-label extension during which all patients received omarigliptin 25 mg q.w. Efficacy endpoints were HbA1c, 2-hour post-meal glucose (PMG) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG)...
April 27, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442582/lx2761-a-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-1-inhibitor-restricted-to-the-intestine-improves-glycemic-control-in-mice
#16
David R Powell, Melinda G Smith, Deon D Doree, Angela L Harris, Jennifer Greer, Christopher M DaCosta, Andrea Thompson, Sabrina Jeter-Jones, Wendy Xiong, Kenneth G Carson, Nicole C Goodwin, Bryce A Harrison, David B Rawlins, Eric D Strobel, Suma Gopinathan, Alan Wilson, Faika Mseeh, Brian Zambrowicz, Zhi-Ming Ding
LX2761 is a potent sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 inhibitor restricted to the intestinal lumen after oral administration. Studies presented here evaluated the effect of orally administered LX2761 on glycemic control in preclinical models. In healthy mice and rats treated with LX2761, blood glucose excursions were lower and plasma total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels higher after an oral glucose challenge; these decreased glucose excursions persisted even when the glucose challenge occurred 15 hours after LX2761 dosing in ad-lib-fed mice...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440488/dipeptidyl-peptidase%C3%A2-4-inhibitor-sitagliptin-prevents-high-glucose%C3%A2-induced-apoptosis-via-activation-of-amp%C3%A2-activated-protein-kinase-in-endothelial-cells
#17
Chao Wu, Shunying Hu, Nanping Wang, Jianwei Tian
Diabetes mellitus (DM), which is a chronic metabolic disorder, is the primary risk factor of life‑threatening vascular complications. Endothelial apoptosis is important in the development of the initial vascular lesion preceding the diabetic disease. Sitagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase‑4 (DPP‑4) inhibitor and extensively used in the clinical treatment of DM. DPP‑4 inhibitors have been demonstrated to be beneficial in the improvement of endothelial homeostasis, however the molecular mechanism by which they exhibit these effects remains to be elucidated...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433470/daily-supplementation-of-dietary-protein-improves-the-metabolic-effects-of-glp-1-based-pharmacotherapy-in-lean-and-obese-rats
#18
Elizabeth G Mietlicki-Baase, Kieran Koch-Laskowski, Lauren E McGrath, Joanna Krawczyk, Tram Pham, Rinzin Lhamo, David J Reiner, Matthew R Hayes
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone released from intestinal L-cells in response to food entering into the gastrointestinal tract. GLP-1-based pharmaceuticals improve blood glucose regulation and reduce feeding. Specific macronutrients, when ingested, may trigger GLP-1 secretion and enhance the effects of systemic sitagliptin, a pharmacological inhibitor of DPP-IV (an enzyme that rapidly degrades GLP-1). In particular, macronutrient constituents found in dairy foods may act as potent secretagogues for GLP-1, and acute preclinical trials show that ingestion of dairy protein may represent a promising adjunct behavioral therapy in combination with sitagliptin...
April 19, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432754/intraclass-differences-in-the-risk-of-hospitalisazion-for-heart-failure-among-type-2-diabetic-patients-initiating-a-dipeptydil-peptidase-4-inhibitor-or-a-sulphonylurea-results-from-the-osmed-health-db-registry
#19
Gian Paolo Fadini, Stefania Saragoni, Pierluigi Russo, Luca Degli Esposti, Saula Vigili de Kreutzenberg, Mario Melazzini, Angelo Avogaro
AIMS: Heart failure (HF) is frequent in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and several glucose-lowering medications may increase HF risk. In the SAVOR-TIMI trial, patients on Saxagliptin experienced a 27% higher risk of hospitalisation for HF (HHF). In a retrospective study on 127,555 patients, we showed that DPP-4i therapy was associated with a lower HHF risk than sulphonylurea (SU) therapy. We herein re-analyzed such data to evaluate intraclass differences among DPP-4i and SU. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included T2D patients initiating DPP-4i or SU alone or in combination with metformin...
April 21, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432745/safety-of-sitagliptin-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-chronic-kidney-disease-outcomes-from-tecos
#20
Samuel S Engel, Shailaja Suryawanshi, Susanna R Stevens, Robert G Josse, Jan H Cornel, Neli Jakuboniene, Axel Riefflin, Tsvetalina Tankova, Julio Wainstein, Eric D Peterson, Rury R Holman
AIMS: To characterize the incidence of diabetes-associated complications and assess the safety of sitagliptin in participants with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes with Sitagliptin (TECOS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: For participants with baseline eGFR measurements (n = 14,528), baseline characteristics and safety outcomes were compared for the CKD cohort (eGFR <60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) ) versus those without CKD. Within the CKD cohort, the same analyses were performed comparing sitagliptin- and placebo-assigned participants...
April 22, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
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