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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926985/tropical-rainforests-that-persisted-inferences-from-the-quaternary-demographic-history-of-eight-tree-species-in-the-guiana-shield
#1
Stéphanie Barthe, Giorgio Binelli, Bruno Hérault, Caroline Scotti-Saintagne, Daniel Sabatier, Ivan Scotti
How Quaternary climatic and geological disturbances influenced the composition of Neotropical forests is hotly debated. Rain fall and temperature changes during and/or immediately after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are thought to have strongly affected the geographical distribution and local abundance of tree species. The paucity of the fossil records in Neotropical forests prevents a direct reconstruction of such processes. To describe community-level historical trends in forest composition, we turned therefore to inferential methods based on the reconstruction of past demographic changes...
December 7, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926984/involvement-of-chemokine-cxcl11-in-the-development-of-morphine-tolerance-in-rats-with-cancer-induced-bone-pain
#2
Genhua Guo, Yawen Peng, Bingrui Xiong, Daiqiang Liu, Huilian Bu, Xuebi Tian, Hui Yang, Zhen Wu, Fei Cao, Feng Gao
Morphine is viewed as one of the classical treatments for intractable pain, but its role is limited by side effects, including analgesic tolerance. A few chemokines have been reported to be engaged in the mechanisms of morphine tolerance. However, the exact roles of CXCL11 in chronic morphine tolerance remain unknown. In this study, Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells were inoculated into the tibia of rats to provoke cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP). Then morphine was intrathecally administered twice daily for 7 consecutive days to induce drug tolerance...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926948/intrinsic-subtype-switching-and-acquired-erbb2-her2-amplifications-and-mutations-in-breast-cancer-brain-metastases
#3
Nolan Priedigkeit, Ryan J Hartmaier, Yijing Chen, Damir Vareslija, Ahmed Basudan, Rebecca J Watters, Roby Thomas, Jose P Leone, Peter C Lucas, Rohit Bhargava, Ronald L Hamilton, Juliann Chmielecki, Shannon L Puhalla, Nancy E Davidson, Steffi Oesterreich, Adam M Brufsky, Leonie Young, Adrian V Lee
Importance: Patients with breast cancer (BrCa) brain metastases (BrM) have limited therapeutic options. A better understanding of molecular alterations acquired in BrM could identify clinically actionable metastatic dependencies. Objective: To determine whether there are intrinsic subtype differences between primary tumors and matched BrM and to uncover BrM-acquired alterations that are clinically actionable. Design, Setting, and Participants: In total, 20 cases of primary breast cancer tissue and resected BrM (10 estrogen receptor [ER]-negative and 10 ER-positive) from 2 academic institutions were included...
December 7, 2016: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926931/microbial-translocation-and-inflammation-occur-in-hyperacute-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-and-compromise-host-control-of-virus-replication
#4
Adam J Ericsen, Michael Lauck, Mariel S Mohns, Sarah R DiNapoli, James P Mutschler, Justin M Greene, Jason T Weinfurter, Gabrielle Lehrer-Brey, Trent M Prall, Samantha M Gieger, Connor R Buechler, Kristin A Crosno, Eric J Peterson, Matthew R Reynolds, Roger W Wiseman, Benjamin J Burwitz, Jacob D Estes, Jonah B Sacha, Thomas C Friedrich, Jason M Brenchley, David H O'Connor
Within the first three weeks of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, virus replication peaks in peripheral blood. Despite the critical, causal role of virus replication in determining transmissibility and kinetics of progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), there is limited understanding of the conditions required to transform the small localized transmitted founder virus population into a large and heterogeneous systemic infection. Here we show that during the hyperacute "pre-peak" phase of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in macaques, high levels of microbial DNA transiently translocate into peripheral blood...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926869/robust-asymmetric-localization-of-planar-polarity-proteins-is-associated-with-organization-into-signalosome-like-domains-of-variable-stoichiometry
#5
Helen Strutt, Jessica Gamage, David Strutt
In developing epithelia, the core planar polarity proteins physically interact with each other and localize asymmetrically at opposite cell ends, forming intercellular complexes that link the polarity of neighboring cells. Using quantitative imaging to examine the composition of the core protein complex in vivo, we find that complex composition is unexpectedly plastic. The transmembrane proteins Frizzled and Flamingo form a stoichiometric nucleus in the complex, while the relative levels of the other four core proteins can vary independently...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926841/broken-tales-transcription-activator-like-effectors-populate-partly-folded-states
#6
Kathryn Geiger-Schuller, Doug Barrick
Transcription activator-like effector proteins (TALEs) contain large numbers of repeats that bind double-stranded DNA, wrapping around DNA to form a continuous superhelix. Since unbound TALEs retain superhelical structure, it seems likely that DNA binding requires a significant structural distortion or partial unfolding. In this study, we use nearest-neighbor "Ising" analysis of consensus TALE (cTALE) repeat unfolding to quantify intrinsic folding free energies, coupling energies between repeats, and the free energy distribution of partly unfolded states, and to determine how those energies depend on the sequence that determines DNA-specificity (called the "RVD")...
December 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926672/mechanisms-predisposing-factors-and-prognosis-of-intra-operative-vertebral-subluxation-during-pedicle-subtraction-osteotomy-in-surgical-correction-of-thoracolumbar-kyphosis-secondary-to-ankylosing-spondylitis
#7
Bang-Ping Qian, Sai-Hu Mao, Jun Jiang, Bin Wang, Yong Qiu
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the mechanisms, predisposing factors and prognosis of the intraoperative vertebral subluxation (VS) during pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) for thoracolumbar kyphosis secondary to ankylosing spondylitis (AS). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: VS is one of the most daunting challenges that surgeons encounter during PSO closure, especially in AS patients with ankylosed and mostly osteoporotic spine...
December 6, 2016: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925396/arabidopsis-sumo-protease-asp1-positively-regulates-flowering-time-partially-through-regulating-flc-stability
#8
Xiangxiong Kong, Xi Luo, Gao-Ping Qu, Peng Liu, Jing Bo Jin
The initiation of flowering is tightly regulated by the endogenous and environment signals, which is crucial for the reproductive success of flowering plants. It is well known that autonomous and vernalization pathways repress transcription of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a focal floral repressor, but how its protein stability is regulated remains largely unknown. Here, we found that mutations in a novel Arabidopsis SUMO protease 1 (ASP1) resulted in a strong late-flowering phenotype under long-days, but to a lesser extent under short-days...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925351/multispecies-genetic-objectives-in-spatial-conservation-planning
#9
Erica S Nielsen, Maria Beger, Romina Henriques, Kimberly A Selkoe, Sophie von der Heyden
The growing threats to biodiversity and global alteration of habitats and species distributions make it increasingly necessary to consider evolutionary patterns in conservation decision-making. Yet there is no clear-cut guidance on how genetic features can be incorporated into conservation planning processes, with multiple molecular markers and several genetic metrics for each marker type to choose from. Genetic patterns also differ between species, but the potential trade-offs amongst genetic objectives for multiple species in conservation planning are currently understudied...
December 7, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925231/experimental-approach-to-visualize-flow-in-a-stacked-hollow-fiber-bundle-of-an-artificial-lung-with-particle-image-velocimetry
#10
Andreas Kaesler, Peter C Schlanstein, Felix Hesselmann, Martin Büsen, Michael Klaas, Dorothee Roggenkamp, Thomas Schmitz-Rode, Ulrich Steinseifer, Jutta Arens
Flow distribution is key in artificial lungs, as it directly influences gas exchange performance as well as clot forming and blood damaging potential. The current state of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in artificial lungs can only give insight on a macroscopic level due to model simplification applied to the fiber bundle. Based on our recent work on wound fiber bundles, we applied particle image velocimetry (PIV) to the model of an artificial lung prototype intended for neonatal use to visualize flow distribution in a stacked fiber bundle configuration to (i) evaluate the feasibility of PIV for artificial lungs, (ii) validate CFD in the fiber bundle of artificial lungs, and (iii) give a suggestion how to incorporate microscopic aspects into mainly macroscopic CFD studies...
December 7, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925200/production-of-macrophage-inhibitory-factor-mif-by-primary-sertoli-cells-its-possible-involvement-in-migration-of-spermatogonial-cells
#11
M Huleihel, M Abofoul-Azab, Y Abarbanel, I Einav, E Levitas, E Lunenfeld
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a multifunctional molecule. MIF was originally identified as a T-cell-derived factor responsible for the inhibition of macrophage migration. In testicular tissue of adult rats, MIF is constitutively expressed by Leydig cells under physiological conditions. The aim of this study was to examine MIF levels in testicular homogenates from different aged mice, and the capacity of Sertoli cells to produce it. We also examined MIF involvement in spermatogonial cell migration...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925186/up-regulation-of-transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-6-channel-expression-by-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-in-the-presence-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor
#12
Chisa Furukawa, Naoko Fujii, Aya Manabe, Toshiyuki Matsunaga, Satoshi Endo, Hajime Hasegawa, Yoshinori Ito, Masahiko Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro Yamazaki, Akira Ikari
Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) drugs such as erlotinib and gefitinib cause a side effect of hypomagnesemia, but chemotherapy to treat this has not yet been developed. The transient receptor potential melastatin 6 (TRPM6) channel is involved in the reabsorption of Mg(2+) in the renal tubule. We reported previously that the expression of TRPM6 is up-regulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF) in renal tubular epithelial NRK-52E and HEK293 cells. EGF-induced elevation of TRPM6 expression was inhibited by erlotinib, gefitinib, and lapatinib...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925176/pd-l1-expression-of-the-residual-tumor-serves-as-a-prognostic-marker-in-local-advanced-breast-cancer-after-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#13
Sheng Chen, Ruo-Xi Wang, Yin Liu, Wen-Tao Yang, Zhi-Ming Shao
This study sought to investigate the prevalence of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and its prognostic value in patients with residual tumors after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) for locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). A total of 309 patients considered as non-pathological complete responders (non-pCR) after NCT followed by mastectomy were selected. The expression of PD-L1 and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in residual breast cancer cells was assessed by immunohistochemistry in surgical specimens...
December 7, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925134/-leptospirosis-space-time-distribution-and-risk-factors-in-bel%C3%A3-m-par%C3%A3-brazil
#14
Nelson Veiga Gonçalves, Ediane Nunes de Araujo, Alcinês da Silva Sousa, Waltair Maria Martins Pereira, Claudia do Socorro Carvalho Miranda, Pedro Silvestre da Silvia Campos, Mauro Wendel de Souza Matos, Vera Regina da Cunha Menezes Palácios
The occurrence of leptospirosis has defied epidemiology even when using different analysis technologies at local geographical levels. This cross-sectional and descriptive study sought to identify spatial correlations between social and environmental risk factors and leptospirosis in Belém in the State of Pará from 2007 to 2013. Epidemiological data were obtained from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases of the Pará State Department of Public Health and the environmental, demographic and cartographical data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924628/is-it-possible-to-use-biomonitoring-for-the-quantitative-assessment-of-formaldehyde-occupational-exposure
#15
Pieranna Chiarella, Giovanna Tranfo, Daniela Pigini, Damiano Carbonari
The European classification, labeling and packaging classified formaldehyde as human carcinogen Group 1B and mutagen 2, fostering the re-evaluation of the exposure risk in occupational settings. Although formaldehyde exposure is traditionally measured in air, many efforts were made to identify specific exposure biomarkers: urinary formaldehyde, formic acid and DNA damage indicators. Though used in combination, none of these seems satisfactory. The influence of the metabolism on exogenous formaldehyde levels, the exposure to other xenobiotics, the difference in genetic background and metabolism efficiency, misled the relationship between genotoxicity and exposure data...
December 7, 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924616/the-prevalence-of-primary-headache-disorders-in-ethiopia
#16
Mehila Zebenigus, Redda Tekle-Haimanot, Dawit K Worku, Hallie Thomas, Timothy J Steiner
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the epidemiology of primary headache disorders in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains very limited. We performed a population-based survey in rural and urban areas of Ethiopia, using methods similar to those of an earlier study in Zambia and tested in multiple other countries by Lifting The Burden. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey we visited households unannounced in four regions of Ethiopia: the mostly urban populations in Addis Ababa and its environs and rural populations of selected districts in Oromia, Amhara and South Nations Nationalities and People's Regions States (SNNPRS)...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924587/qualitative-and-quantitative-proteome-analysis-of-oral-fluids-in-health-and-periodontal-disease-by-mass-spectrometry
#17
Erdjan Salih
The significance of protein identification and characterization by classical protein chemistry approaches is clearly highlighted by our detailed understanding of the biological systems assembled over a time period of almost a century. The advent of state-of-the-art mass spectrometry (MS) with sensitivity, speed, and global protein analysis capacity without individual protein purification has transformed the classical protein chemistry with premise to accelerate discovery. These combined with the ability of the oral fluids such as whole saliva (WS) and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) to reflect both systemic and locally derived proteins have generated significant interest to characterize these fluids more extensively by MS technology...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924522/expression-of-%C3%AE-catenin-protein-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-its-relationship-with-alpha-fetoprotein
#18
Ya-Jun Ren, Tao Huang, Hong-Lu Yu, Li Zhang, Qian-Jin He, Zhi-Fan Xiong, Hua Peng
This study aimed to investigate the expression of β-catenin in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and its relationship with α-fetoprotein (AFP) in HCC. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of β-catenin in normal liver tissues (n=10), liver cirrhosis tissues (n=20), and primary HCC tissues (n=60). The relationship between β-catenin expression and clinical parameters of HCC was investigated. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression levels of β-catenin in the liver cancer cell line SMMC-7721 transfected with a plasmid encoding AFP, and also the mRNA and protein expression levels of β-catenin were measured in the liver cancer cell line Huh7 before and after the transfection with AFP shRNA plasmids...
December 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924516/carbon-monoxide-inhibits-the-nuclear-cytoplasmic-translocation-of-hmgb1-in-an-in-vitro-oxidative-stress-injury-model-of-mouse-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells
#19
Yu Jia, Lu Wang, Guang-Yuan Zhao, Zhi-Qiang Wang, Song Chen, Gang Chen
Carbon monoxide (CO), as a vital small molecule in signaling pathways, is found to be involved in ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in renal transplantation. CO-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2), a CO-releasing molecule, is a type of metal carbonyl complexes which can quickly release CO in vivo. In this study, an in vitro oxidative stress injury model was established to examine the effect of CORM-2 pretreatment on the nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation of high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) in mouse primary renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTECs)...
December 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924237/an-investigation-of-health-and-safety-measures-in-a-hydroelectric-power-plant
#20
Amevi Acakpovi, Lucky Dzamikumah
BACKGROUND: Occupational risk management is known as a catalyst in generating superior returns for all stakeholders on a sustainable basis. A number of companies in Ghana implemented health and safety measures adopted from international companies to ensure the safety of their employees. However, there exist great threats to employees' safety in these companies. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the level of compliance of Occupational Health and Safety management systems and standards set by international and local legislation in power producing companies in Ghana...
December 2016: Safety and Health At Work
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