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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452172/joint-evolution-of-dispersal-propensity-and-site-selection-in-structured-metapopulation-models
#1
Tuomas Nurmi, Kalle Parvinen, Vesa Selonen
We propose a novel mathematical model for a metapopulation in which dispersal occurs on two levels: juvenile dispersal from the natal site is mandatory but it may take place either locally within the natal patch or globally between patches. Within each patch, individuals live in sites. Each site can be inhabited by at most one individual at a time and it may be of high or low quality. A disperser immigrates into a high-quality site whenever it obtains one, but it immigrates into a low-quality site only with a certain probability that depends on the time within the dispersal season...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452160/orchiectomy-and-letrozole-differentially-regulate-synaptic-plasticity-and-spatial-memory-in-a-manner-that-is-mediated-by-src-1-in-the-hippocampus-of-male-mice
#2
Jikai Zhao, Chen Bian, Mengying Liu, Yangang Zhao, Tao Sun, Fangzhou Xing, Jiqiang Zhang
Hippocampal synaptic plasticity is the basis of spatial memory and cognition and is strongly regulated by both testicular androgens (testosterone, T) and hippocampal estrogens (17β-estradiol, E2) converted from T by aromatase, which is inhibited by letrozole (LET), but the contribution of each pathway to spatial memory and the associated mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we first used orchiectomy (ORX) and LET injection to investigate the effects of T and hippocampal E2 on spatial memory and hippocampal synaptic plasticity...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452138/exposure-to-low-level-of-lead-during-preweaning-period-increases-metallothionein-3-expression-and-dysregulates-divalent-cation-levels-in-the-brain-of-young-rats
#3
Abdur Rahman, Khalid M Khan, Muddanna S Rao
Lead (Pb) is a neurotoxic heavy metal, but the mechanism of its neurotoxicity is not clearly understood. Expression of metallothioneins (MTs) is induced in response to heavy metal exposure as a protective mechanism against heavy metal toxicity. There are several isoforms of MTs (MT-1 to 4), of which MT-3 is the neuron specific isoform, which also has neurite growth inhibitory effects. Whereas, the induction of MT-1 and 2 in response to Pb has been reported, the effect of Pb on the expression of MT-3 in the brain has not been documented...
February 13, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451888/ecogeography-of-teosinte
#4
José de Jesús Sánchez González, José Ariel Ruiz Corral, Guillermo Medina García, Gabriela Ramírez Ojeda, Lino De la Cruz Larios, James Brendan Holland, Roberto Miranda Medrano, Giovanni Emmanuel García Romero
Adaptation of crops to climate change has motivated an increasing interest in the potential value of novel traits from wild species; maize wild relatives, the teosintes, harbor traits that may be useful to maize breeding. To study the ecogeographic distribution of teosinte we constructed a robust database of 2363 teosinte occurrences from published sources for the period 1842-2016. A geographical information system integrating 216 environmental variables was created for Mexico and Central America and was used to characterize the environment of each teosinte occurrence site...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451879/dengue-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-and-their-impact-on-community-based-vector-control-in-rural-cambodia
#5
Emmanuelle Kumaran, Dyna Doum, Vanney Keo, Ly Sokha, BunLeng Sam, Vibol Chan, Neal Alexander, John Bradley, Marco Liverani, Didot Budi Prasetyo, Agus Rachmat, Sergio Lopes, Jeffrey Hii, Leang Rithea, Muhammad Shafique, John Hustedt
BACKGROUND: Globally there are an estimated 390 million dengue infections per year, of which 96 million are clinically apparent. In Cambodia, estimates suggest as many as 185,850 cases annually. The World Health Organization global strategy for dengue prevention aims to reduce mortality rates by 50% and morbidity by 25% by 2020. The adoption of integrated vector management approach using community-based methods tailored to the local context is one of the recommended strategies to achieve these objectives...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451787/effect-of-methyl-substitution-on-the-n-h%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-o-interaction-in-complexes-of-pyrrole-with-water-methanol-and-dimethyl-ether-matrix-isolation-infrared-spectroscopy-and-ab-initio-computational-studies
#6
Shubhra Sarkar, Nagarajan Ramanathan, Kalyanasundaram Sundararajan
Hydrogen bonded interactions of pyrrole with water and methanol have been studied using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy and compared with the calculation performed on dimethyl ether. Computations carried out at MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory yielded two minima for the pyrrole-water and pyrrole-methanol complexes. The global and local minima correspond to the N-H∙∙∙O and O-H∙∙∙π complexes, respectively, where the N-H group of pyrrole interacts with oxygen of water/methanol and O-H of water and methanol interacts with the π cloud of pyrrole...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451702/severity-of-cerebral-palsy-and-likelihood-of-adverse-events-after-botulinum-toxin-a-injections
#7
Caitlyn M Swinney, Karen Bau, Karen L Oakley Burton, Stephen J O'Flaherty, Natasha L Bear, Simon P Paget
AIM: To determine the incidence of common adverse events after botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injections in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to identify whether the severity of CP influences the incidence of adverse events. METHOD: This was an observational study of patients attending a BoNT-A clinic at a tertiary paediatric hospital (2010-2014). Data examined included procedural adverse events at the time of injection and at follow-up. Systemic adverse events were defined as lower respiratory tract illnesses, generalized weakness, dysphagia, and death...
February 16, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451591/impact-of-aggressive-periodontitis-and-chronic-periodontitis-on-oral-health-related-quality-of-life
#8
Alexandre Hugo Llanos, Carlos Guillermo Benítez Silva, Karina Tamie Ichimura, Estela Sanches Rebeis, Marcela Giudicissi, Marcelo Munhóes Romano, Luciana Saraiva
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the effect of different forms of periodontal diseases on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL). Fifty-two patients with Aggressive Periodontitis (AP) or Chronic Periodontitis (CP) were included: nine patients with Localized Aggressive Periodontitis (LAP), thirty-three patients with Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis (GAP) and ten patients with Generalized Chronic Periodontitis (GCP). Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaires (OHIP-14) were distributed after a clinical examination that measured the following periodontal parameters: tooth loss, bleeding on probing (BoP), probing depth (PD), gingival recession (REC) and clinical attachment level (CAL)...
2018: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450969/layer-by-layer-decoupling-of-twisted-graphene-sheets-epitaxially-grown-on-a-metal-substrate
#9
Sabina Simon, Elena Voloshina, Julia Tesch, Felix Förschner, Vivien Enenkel, Charlotte Herbig, Timo Knispel, Alexander Tries, Jörg Kröger, Yuriy Dedkov, Mikhail Fonin
The electronic properties of graphene can be efficiently altered upon interaction with the underlying substrate resulting in a dramatic change of charge carrier behavior. Here, the evolution of the local electronic properties of epitaxial graphene on a metal upon the controlled formation of multilayers, which are produced by intercalation of atomic carbon in graphene/Ir(111), is investigated. Using scanning tunneling microscopy and Landau-level spectroscopy, it is shown that for a monolayer and bilayers with small-angle rotations, Landau levels are fully suppressed, indicating that the metal-graphene interaction is largely confined to the first graphene layer...
February 16, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450785/the-role-of-the-alternative-pathway-of-complement-activation-in-glomerular-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Emilia Łukawska, Magdalena Polcyn-Adamczak, Zofia I Niemir
The complement system (CS) has recently been recognized as a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity that constitutes a very complex mechanism controlling the clearance of pathogens, cellular debris, and immune complexes. Out of three known pathways of complement activation, the alternative pathway (AP) plays a critical role in host defense by amplifying the complement response, independently of initiation pathway and continuously maintaining low-level activity in a process called 'thick-over.' A key molecule of the CS is C3, in which the AP is constantly activated...
February 15, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450746/impact-of-habitat-heterogeneity-on-zooplankton-assembly-in-a-temperate-river-floodplain-system
#11
Anita Galir Balkić, Ivančica Ternjej, Irella Bogut
Dissimilar life features of Rotifera, Cladocera and Copepoda enable these organisms to respond differently to changes in the hydrological regime which influence alterations in environmental characteristics. We investigated the effect of habitat heterogeneity (e.g. eupotamal, parapotamal, palaeopotamal) on individual zooplankton group assemblages and biodiversity indices (α, β and γ diversity) during hydro regime change in floodplain waterbodies. Dissolved oxygen and organic nitrogen concentrations changed significantly among hydrological states while water depth was affected by both site and hydro regime replacement...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450473/elevated-blood-viscosity-and-micro-recirculation-linked-to-coronary-stent-malapposition
#12
Eric Poon, Vikas Thondapu, Umair Hayat, Peter Barlis, Chooi Yap, Po Kuo, Qisen Wang, Jiawei Ma, Shuang Zhu, Stephen Moore, Andrew Ooi
One particular complexity of coronary artery is the natural tapering of the vessel with proximal segments having larger caliber and distal tapering as the vessel get smaller. The natural tapering of a coronary artery often leads to proximal incomplete stent apposition (ISA). ISA alters coronary hemodynamics and creates pathological path to develop complications such as in-stent restenosis, and more worryingly, stent thrombosis. By employing state-of-the-art computer-aided design software, generic stent hoops were virtually deployed in an idealized tapered coronary artery with decreasing malapposition distance...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449841/langerhans-cells-sensing-the-environment-in-health-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Julie Deckers, Hamida Hammad, Esther Hoste
In the last few decades, our understanding of Langerhans cells (LCs) has drastically changed based on novel findings regarding the developmental origin and biological functions of these epidermis-specific resident immune cells. It has become clear that LCs not only exert pivotal roles in immune surveillance and homeostasis but also impact on pathology by either inducing tolerance or mediating inflammation. Their unique capabilities to self-renew within the epidermis, while also being able to migrate to lymph nodes in order to present antigen, place LCs in a key position to sample the local environment and decide on the appropriate cutaneous immune response...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449811/hdac6-inhibition-promotes-transcription-factor-eb-activation-and-is-protective-in-experimental-kidney-disease
#14
Angela S Brijmohan, Sri N Batchu, Syamantak Majumder, Tamadher A Alghamdi, Karina Thieme, Sarah McGaugh, Youan Liu, Suzanne L Advani, Bridgit B Bowskill, M Golam Kabir, Laurette Geldenhuys, Ferhan S Siddiqi, Andrew Advani
To contend with the deleterious effects of accumulating misfolded protein aggregates or damaged organelles cells rely on a system of quality control processes, among them the autophagy-lysosome pathway. This pathway is itself controlled by a master regulator transcription factor termed transcription factor EB (TFEB). When TFEB localizes to the cell nucleus it promotes the expression of a number of genes involved in protein clearance. Here, we set out to determine (1) whether TFEB expression is altered in chronic kidney disease (CKD); (2) whether inhibition of the cytosolic deacetylase histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) affects TFEB acetylation and nuclear localization; and (3) whether HDAC6 inhibition, in turn, alters the natural history of experimental CKD...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449673/the-predictive-and-prognostic-potential-of-plasma-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-tert-rna-in-rectal-cancer-patients
#15
Enrica Rampazzo, Paola Del Bianco, Roberta Bertorelle, Caterina Boso, Alessandro Perin, Giovanna Spiro, Francesca Bergamo, Claudio Belluco, Angela Buonadonna, Elisa Palazzari, Sara Leonardi, Antonino De Paoli, Salvatore Pucciarelli, Anita De Rossi
BACKGROUND: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by surgery is the standard care for locally advanced rectal cancer, but tumour response to CRT and disease outcome are variable. The current study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of plasma telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) levels in predicting tumour response and clinical outcome. METHODS: 176 rectal cancer patients were included. Plasma samples were collected at baseline (before CRT=T0), 2 weeks after CRT was initiated (T1), post-CRT and before surgery (T2), and 4-8 months after surgery (T3) time points...
February 15, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449619/chronic-et-a-antagonist-reverses-hypertension-and-impairment-of-structure-and-function-of-peripheral-small-arteries-in-aortic-stiffening
#16
Xiaomei Guo, Huan Chen, Ling Han, Stephan Haulon, Ghassan S Kassab
Arterial stiffness may contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension. The goal of this study is to elucidate the role of Endothelin-1 (ET-1) in aortic stiffening-induced hypertension through ET A receptor activation. An increase in aortic stiffness was created by use of a non-constrictive restraint, NCR on the abdominal aortic surface. A group of rats underwent aortic NCR or sham operation for 12 weeks and were then treated with ET A receptor antagonist BQ-123 for 3 weeks. We found that 12 weeks of aortic NCR significantly increased pulse and mean pressure and altered peripheral flow pattern, accompanied by an increased serum ET-1 level (p < 0...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449124/investigating-pka-rii-specificity-using-analogs-of-the-pka-akap-peptide-inhibitor-stad-2
#17
N George Bendzunas, Sabrina Dörfler, Karolin Autenrieth, Daniela Bertinetti, Erik M F Machal, Eileen J Kennedy, Friedrich W Herberg
Generation of the second messenger molecule cAMP mediates a variety of cellular responses which are essential for critical cellular processes. In response to elevated cAMP levels, cAMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) phosphorylates serine and threonine residues on a wide variety of target substrates. In order to enhance the precision and directionality of these signaling events, PKA is localized to discrete locations within the cell by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). The interaction between PKA and AKAPs is mediated via an amphipathic α-helix derived from AKAPs which binds to a stable hydrophobic groove formed in the dimerization/docking (D/D) domain of PKA-R in an isoform-specific fashion...
February 12, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449119/violence-against-health-care-providers-a-mixed-methods-study-from-karachi-pakistan
#18
Lubna Ansari Baig, Shiraz Shaikh, Maciej Polkowski, Syeda Kausar Ali, Seemin Jamali, Lubna Mazharullah, Marium Soomro, Bhavita Kumari, Sobia Memon, Greesh Maheshwari, Saleema Arif
BACKGROUND: Violence against health care providers (HCPs) remains a significant public health problem in developing countries, affecting their performance and motivation. OBJECTIVES: To report the quantity and perceived causes of violence committed upon HCPs and identify strategies intended to prevent and de-escalate it. METHODS: This was a mixed-methods concurrent study design (QUAN-QUAL). A structured questionnaire was filled in on-site by trained data collectors for quantitative study...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448855/acute-effects-of-blood-flow-restriction-on-exercise-induced-free-radical-production-in-young-and-healthy-subjects
#19
Christoph Centner, Denise Zdzieblik, Patrick Dressler, Bruno Fink, Albert Gollhofer, Daniel König
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the acute local and systemic effects of low-load resistance exercise (30% 1RM) with partial vascular occlusion on exercise-induced free radical production and to compare these effects with other established training methods. Fifteen young and healthy males (25 ± 3 years) performed the following four sessions in a counterbalanced order on separate days: low-load resistance exercise (LI: 30% 1RM), low-load resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (LIBR: 30% 1RM), high-load resistance exercise (HI: 80% 1RM) and an additional session without exercise but blood flow restriction only (BR)...
February 16, 2018: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448767/crystal-nucleation-in-sedimenting-colloidal-suspensions
#20
Stefania Ketzetzi, John Russo, Daniel Bonn
Homogeneous crystal nucleation from a metastable hard-sphere colloidal liquid has been extensively studied in simulations and experiments. A 12 order of magnitude difference between simulated and experimental nucleation rates is observed, the origin of which remains a puzzle. Here, we experimentally study crystal nucleation at the single particle level in suspensions of hard-sphere-like colloids under the influence of sedimentation. We find that sedimentation significantly enhances the nucleation rate, but contrary to what was previously thought, this is not due to simple density fluctuations, as the nucleation barriers become independent of the local density in a sedimentating fluid...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
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