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cardiovascular disease genetic risk assessment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914500/effect-of-l-arginine-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-and-symmetric-dimethylarginine-on-ischemic-heart-disease-risk-a-mendelian-randomization-study
#1
Shiu Lun Au Yeung, Shi Lin Lin, Hung San Hugh Simon Lam, Catherine Mary Schooling
BACKGROUND: l-arginine is a commonly consumed dietary conditional essential amino acid found in food items and supplements, which is closely related to asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA). l-arginine is thought to increase nitric oxide and be cardioprotective, whereas ADMA and SDMA may inhibit nitric oxide synthesis and increase cardiovascular disease risk. Unexpectedly, l-arginine increased mortality in a small trial. To clarify the effects of these potential targets of intervention, we assessed the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) by genetically determined l-arginine, ADMA, and SDMA...
December 2016: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891353/association-of-c-reactive-protein-rs1205-gene-polymorphism-with-susceptibility-to-psoriasis-in-south-indian-tamils
#2
Anjana Sudhesan, Medha Rajappa, Laxmisha Chandrashekar, Palghat Hariharan Ananthanarayanan, Devinder Mohan Thappa, Santhosh Satheesh, Adithan Chandrasekaran, Panneer Devaraju
INTRODUCTION: Psoriasis is a multi-factorial heritable T-helper Th-1/Th-17 mediated inflammatory disease, affecting the skin. It is associated with co-morbidities such as Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is a good inflammatory marker. CRP rs1205 polymorphism is associated with circulating plasma CRP levels. Although there is association between the rs1205 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) and CVD, there are no prior reports regarding the association of CRP rs1205 SNP with psoriasis susceptibility...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882376/plasma-levels-of-the-anti-coagulation-protein-c-and-the-risk-of-ischaemic-heart-disease-a-mendelian-randomisation-study
#3
C Mary Schooling, Yi Zhong
Protein C is an environmentally modifiable anticoagulant, which protects against venous thrombosis, whether it also protects against ischaemic heart disease is unclear, based on observational studies and relatively small genetic studies. It was our study aim to clarify the role of protein C in ischaemic heart disease the risk of coronary artery disease/myocardial infarction (CAD/MI) was assessed according to genetically predicted protein C in very large studies. Associations with lipids and diabetes were similarly assessed to rule out effects via traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors...
November 24, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856457/carriers-of-the-pcsk9-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-9-r46l-variant-are-characterized-by-an-antiatherogenic-lipoprotein-profile-assessed-by-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#4
Rutger Verbeek, Marjorie Boyer, S Matthijs Boekholdt, G Kees Hovingh, John J P Kastelein, Nicholas Wareham, Kay-Tee Khaw, Benoit J Arsenault
OBJECTIVE: Carriers of the PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9) R46L genetic variant (rs11591147) are characterized by low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. We studied the impact of the R46L variant on lipoprotein size and composition. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Lipoprotein size and composition were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 2373 participants of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)-Norfolk study...
November 17, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835692/uric-acid-as-a-marker-of-mortality-and-morbidity-in-fabry-disease
#5
Daniel Rob, Josef Marek, Gabriela Dostálová, Lubor Goláň, Aleš Linhart
BACKGROUND: Serum uric acid (UA) elevation is common in patients with cardiovascular, renal and metabolic diseases. However, no study to date has analysed the role of UA in Fabry disease (FD). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between serum UA levels and mortality and morbidity in FD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a post-hoc analysis of a prospectively followed-up cohort of 124 patients with genetically proven FD. Serum UA levels were acquired at baseline; clinical events and mortality were assessed during regular visits every 6 to 12 months...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833755/measurement-of-overweight-and-obesity-an-urban-slum-setting-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-comparison-of-four-anthropometric-indices
#6
Tilahun Nigatu Haregu, Samuel Oti, Thaddaeus Egondi, Catherine Kyobutungi
BACKGROUND: As a result of both genetic and environmental factors, the body composition and topography of African populations are presumed to be different from western populations. Accordingly, globally accepted anthropometric markers may perform differently in African populations. In the era of rapid emergence of cardio-vascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa, evidence about the performance of these markers in African settings is essential. The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-relationships among the four main anthropometric indices in measuring overweight and obesity in an urban poor African setting...
2016: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820819/premature-adult-death-in-individuals-born-preterm-a-sibling-comparison-in-a-prospective-nationwide-follow-up-study
#7
Kari R Risnes, Kristine Pape, Johan H Bjørngaard, Dag Moster, Michael B Bracken, Pal R Romundstad
BACKGROUND: Close to one in ten individuals worldwide is born preterm, and it is important to understand patterns of long-term health and mortality in this group. This study assesses the relationship between gestational age at birth and early adult mortality both in a nationwide population and within sibships. The study adds to existing knowledge by addressing selected causes of death and by assessing the role of genetic and environmental factors shared by siblings. METHODS: Study population was all Norwegian men and women born from 1967 to 1997 followed using nation-wide registry linkage for mortality through 2011 when they were between 15 and 45 years of age...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811210/a-novel-protein-glycan-derived-inflammation-biomarker-independently-predicts-cardiovascular-disease-and-modifies-the-association-of-hdl-subclasses-with-mortality
#8
Robert W McGarrah, Jacob P Kelly, Damian M Craig, Carol Haynes, Ryan C Jessee, Kim M Huffman, William E Kraus, Svati H Shah
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that systemic inflammation may adversely impact HDL function. In this study we sought to evaluate the independent and incremental predictive performance of glycoprotein acetylation (GlycA)-a novel serum inflammatory biomarker that is an aggregate measure of enzymatically glycosylated acute phase proteins-and HDL subclasses on adverse events in a retrospective observational study of a secondary prevention population and to understand a priori defined potential interactions between GlycA and HDL subclasses...
November 3, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810779/intravenous-transfusion-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-that-overexpress-vitamin-d-receptor-inhibits-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-deficient-mice
#9
Wei Xiang, Zhi-Lan Hu, Xiao-Jie He, Xi-Qiang Dang
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are widely used for angiogenic therapies, as well as predictive biomarkers to assess cardiovascular disease risk. However, it is unknown that whether overexpressed vitamin D receptor (VDR) in EPCs could help EPCs counteracting atherosclerotic risks. Here, we study intravenous transplantation of genetically modified EPCs over-expressing VDR in regulating endothelial dysfunction and spontaneously arising atherosclerotic plaques of ApoE-deficient mice. Firstly, we found that over-expression of VDR in EPCs could reduce atherosclerotic plaque formation in transplanted ApoE-/- mice...
October 27, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784735/homozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemia-in-spain-prevalence-and-phenotype-genotype-relationship
#10
Rosa M Sánchez-Hernández, Fernando Civeira, Marianne Stef, Sofía Perez-Calahorra, Fátima Almagro, Nuria Plana, Francisco J Novoa, Pedro Sáenz-Aranzubía, Daniel Mosquera, Cristina Soler, Francisco J Fuentes, Yeray Brito-Casillas, José T Real, Francisco Blanco-Vaca, Juan F Ascaso, Miguel Pocoví
BACKGROUND: -Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is a rare disease characterized by elevated plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and extremely high risk of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). HoFH is caused by mutations in several genes, including LDL receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (APOB), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), and LDL protein receptor adaptor 1 (LDLRAP1). No epidemiological studies have assessed HoFH prevalence, or the clinical and molecular characteristics of this condition...
October 26, 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758878/correlation-of-angiotensin-i-converting-enzyme-gene-insertion-deletion-polymorphism-with-rheumatic-heart-disease-a-meta-analysis
#11
Yulong Tian, Zhongchun Ge, Yuliang Xing, Yan Sun, Jie Ying
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a serious cardiovascular disorder worldwide. Several articles have reported the effect of angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion (ACE I/D) polymorphism in RHD risk. However, the results still remain inconsistent. The objective of this study was to assess more precise estimations of the relationship between ACE I/D variant and RHD susceptibility. Relevant case-control studies published between January 2000 and 2016 were searched in the electronic databases. The odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was employed to calculate the strength of the effect...
October 10, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757935/impact-of-salt-intake-on-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-hypertension
#12
Petra Rust, Cem Ekmekcioglu
Excessive dietary salt (sodium chloride) intake is associated with an increased risk for hypertension, which in turn is especially a major risk factor for stroke and other cardiovascular pathologies, but also kidney diseases. Besides, high salt intake or preference for salty food is discussed to be positive associated with stomach cancer, and according to recent studies probably also obesity risk. On the other hand a reduction of dietary salt intake leads to a considerable reduction in blood pressure, especially in hypertensive patients but to a lesser extent also in normotensives as several meta-analyses of interventional studies have shown...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724854/association-between-global-leukocyte-dna-methylation-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-postmenopausal-women
#13
Ramon Bossardi Ramos, Vitor Fabris, Sheila Bunecker Lecke, Maria Augusta Maturana, Poli Mara Spritzer
BACKGROUND: Genetic studies to date have not provided satisfactory evidence regarding risk polymorphisms for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Conversely, epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, seem to influence the risk of CVD and related conditions. Because postmenopausal women experience an increase in CVD, we set out to determine whether global DNA methylation was associated with cardiovascular risk in this population. METHODS: In this cross sectional study carried out in a university hospital, 90 postmenopausal women without prior CVD diagnosis (55...
October 10, 2016: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721851/association-of-rs10757274-and-rs2383206-polymorphisms-on-9p21-locus-with-coronary-artery-disease-in-turkish-population
#14
Çağrı Yayla, Kaan Okyay, Akın Yılmaz, Asife Şahinarslan, Atiye Seda Yar Sağlam, Azmi Eyiol, Hasan Ata Bolayır, Burak Sezenöz, Sevda Menevşe, Atiye Çengel
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Genetic predisposition is an important risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of rs10757274 and rs2383206 polymorphisms in chromosome 9p21 on presence and severity of CAD in a Turkish population. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 646 patients who underwent coronary angiography were included in this study. Coronary vessel score and Gensini score were calculated to assess the angiographic severity of CAD...
September 2016: Korean Circulation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704620/the-impact-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-405-c-g-polymorphism-on-long-term-outcome-and-severity-of-coronary-artery-disease
#15
Samira Kalayi Nia, Shayan Ziaee, Mohammad Ali Boroumand, Maryam Sotudeh Anvari, Leyla Pourgholi, Arash Jalali
BACKGROUND: The association between genetic variations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene and the risk for atherosclerosis has been hypothesized. We aimed to assess the relationship between rs2010963 (+405 C/G) polymorphism and presence, severity, and outcome of coronary artery disease (CAD) in an Iranian cohort. METHODS: Genotyping of VEGF rs2010963 polymorphism was performed on 520 individuals, comprising 347 patients with documented coronary artery disease based on angiography report and 173 individuals with normal coronary arteries, using the TaqMan real-time PCR method...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696788/coronary-artery-calcification-and-rheumatoid-arthritis-lack-of-relationship-to-risk-alleles-for-coronary-artery-disease-in-the-general-population
#16
Iván Ferraz-Amaro, Robert Winchester, Peter K Gregersen, Richard J Reynolds, Mary Chester Wasko, Anette Oeser, Cecilia P Chung, C Michael Stein, Jon T Giles, Joan M Bathon
OBJECTIVE: Coronary artery disease (CAD) in the general population is characterized by an increased frequency of particular susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Since CAD is increased in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we sought to determine whether the frequency of these SNPs are increased in RA patients with CAD, hypothesizing that RA could enhance CAD risk by acting through established genetic pathways predisposing to CAD. METHODS: CAD was assessed by coronary artery calcification (CAC) using computed-tomography in 561 patients with RA...
October 1, 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695998/minding-the-genes-a-multidisciplinary-approach-towards-genetic-assessment-of-cardiovascular-disease
#17
Ashley Rhodes, Lindsey Rosman, John Cahill, Jodie Ingles, Brittney Murray, Crystal Tichnell, Cynthia A James, Samuel F Sears
Genetic assessment for inherited cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasingly available, due in part to rapid innovations in genetic sequencing technologies. While genetic testing is aimed at reducing uncertainty, it also produces awareness of potential medical conditions and can leave patients feeling uncertain about their risk, especially if there are ambiguous results. This uncertainty can produce psychological distress for patients and their families undergoing the assessment process. Additionally, patients may experience psychological distress related to living with inherited CVD...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678436/ten-years-of-lipoprotein-apheresis-for-familial-hypercholesterolemia-in-malaysia-a-creative-approach-by-a-cardiologist-in-a-developing-country
#18
Kah Lin Khoo, Michael M Page, Yin Mei Liew, Joep C Defesche, Gerald F Watts
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) leads to premature coronary artery disease and aortic stenosis, with undertreated severe forms causing death at a young age. Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) is often required for lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in severe FH. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to present the first experiences with LA in Malaysia, between 2004 and 2014. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from patient records to assess the effectiveness, adverse effects, patient quality of life, and costs associated with an LA service for genetically confirmed homozygous and heterozygous FH...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677773/patient-centered-interventions-to-improve-adherence-to-statins-a-narrative-synthesis-of-systematically-identified-studies
#19
Magnus Jörntén-Karlsson, Stéphane Pintat, Michael Molloy-Bland, Staffan Berg, Matti Ahlqvist
Poor adherence to statins increases cardiovascular disease risk. We systematically identified 32 controlled studies that assessed patient-centered interventions designed to improve statin adherence. The limited number of studies and variation in study characteristics precluded strict quality criteria or meta-analysis. Cognitive education or behavioural counselling delivered face-to-face multiple times consistently improved statin adherence compared with control groups (7/8 and 3/3 studies, respectively). None of four studies using medication reminders and/or adherence feedback alone reported significantly improved statin adherence...
October 2016: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665230/antisense-oligonucleotides-targeting-apolipoprotein-a-in-people-with-raised-lipoprotein-a-two-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-dose-ranging-trials
#20
Nicholas J Viney, Julian C van Capelleveen, Richard S Geary, Shuting Xia, Joseph A Tami, Rosie Z Yu, Santica M Marcovina, Steven G Hughes, Mark J Graham, Rosanne M Crooke, Stanley T Crooke, Joseph L Witztum, Erik S Stroes, Sotirios Tsimikas
BACKGROUND: Elevated lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) is a highly prevalent (around 20% of people) genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease and calcific aortic valve stenosis, but no approved specific therapy exists to substantially lower Lp(a) concentrations. We aimed to assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of two unique antisense oligonucleotides designed to lower Lp(a) concentrations. METHODS: We did two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials...
November 5, 2016: Lancet
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