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cardiovascular disease genetic risk assessment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141072/association-of-cetp-gene-variants-with-risk-for-vascular-and-nonvascular-diseases-among-chinese-adults
#1
Iona Y Millwood, Derrick A Bennett, Michael V Holmes, Ruth Boxall, Yu Guo, Zheng Bian, Ling Yang, Sam Sansome, Yiping Chen, Huaidong Du, Canqing Yu, Alex Hacker, Dermot F Reilly, Yunlong Tan, Michael R Hill, Junshi Chen, Richard Peto, Hongbing Shen, Rory Collins, Robert Clarke, Liming Li, Robin G Walters, Zhengming Chen
Importance: Increasing levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol through pharmacologic inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is a potentially important strategy for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Objective: To use genetic variants in the CETP gene to assess potential risks and benefits of lifelong lower CETP activity on CVD and other outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective biobank study included 151 217 individuals aged 30 to 79 years who were enrolled from 5 urban and 5 rural areas of China from June 25, 2004, through July 15, 2008...
November 15, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133521/circulating-total-bilirubin-and-future-risk-of-hypertension-in-the-general-population-the-prevention-of-renal-and-vascular-end-stage-disease-prevend-prospective-study-and-a-mendelian-randomization-approach
#2
Setor K Kunutsor, Lyanne M Kieneker, Stephen Burgess, Stephan J L Bakker, Robin P F Dullaart
BACKGROUND: Circulating total bilirubin is known to be inversely and independently associated with future risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the relationship of circulating total bilirubin with incident hypertension is uncertain. We aimed to assess the association of total bilirubin with future hypertension risk and supplemented this with a Mendelian randomization approach to investigate any causal relevance to the association. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma total bilirubin levels were measured at baseline in the PREVEND (Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease) prospective study of 3989 men and women without hypertension...
November 13, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128340/the-interaction-between-a-hsp-70-gene-variant-with-dietary-calories-in-determining-serum-markers-of-inflammation-and-cardiovascular-risk
#3
Mehrane Mehramiz, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Maryam Mardan-Nik, Alireza Pasdar, Khadijeh Jamialahmadi, Hamid Fiuji, Mehrdad Moetamani-Ahmadi, Seyed Mohammad Reza Parizadeh, Mohsen Moohebati, Alireza Heidari-Bakavoli, Mahmoud Ebrahimi, Gordon A Ferns, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Amir Avan
BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) globally is attributable to an interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Gene × diet interaction studies aim to explore how a modifiable factor interacts with genetic predispositions. Here we have explored the interaction of a heat shock protein (HSP70) gene polymorphism (+1267A > G) with dietary intake and their possible association with serum C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker, that is a major component of CVD risk...
October 24, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114919/circulating-progenitor-cells-in-patients-with-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#4
P B Sandesara, V Ramjee, N Ghasemzadeh, Y Guo, N Bhatia, Q Li, L Vaughn, C Nell-Dybdahl, E K Waller, E A Mahar, K Brigham, P W F Wilson, A Quyyumi, N-A Le, L S Sperling
OBJECTIVE: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disease with very high levels of circulating low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels that leads to accelerated atherosclerosis. Lipoprotein apheresis is an effective treatment option for patients with FH and results in reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Circulating progenitor cells (CPCs) are markers of overall vascular health and diminished levels have been associated with decreased reparative potential and worse outcomes...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110996/atrial-ectopy-as-a-mediator-of-the-association-between-race-and-atrial-fibrillation
#5
Matthew A Christensen, Kaylin T Nguyen, Phyllis K Stein, Raymond B Fohtung, Elsayed Z Soliman, Thomas A Dewland, Eric Vittinghoff, Bruce M Psaty, Susan R Heckbert, Gregory M Marcus
BACKGROUND: Blacks have a lower risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) despite having more AF risk factors, but the mechanism remains unknown. Premature atrial contraction (PAC) burden is a recently identified risk factor for AF. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the burden of PACs explains racial differences in AF risk. METHODS: PAC burden (number per hour) was assessed by 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring in a randomly selected subset of patients in the Cardiovascular Health Study...
October 23, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108839/association-between-a-mir499a-polymorphism-and-diabetic-neuropathy-in-type-2-diabetes
#6
Cinzia Ciccacci, Andrea Latini, Carla Greco, Cristina Politi, Cinzia D'Amato, Davide Lauro, Giuseppe Novelli, Paola Borgiani, Vincenza Spallone
AIMS: Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) affect a large percentage of diabetic people and impact severely on quality of life. As it seems that miRNAs and their variations might play a role in these complications, we investigated whether the rs3746444 SNP in the MIR499A gene could be associated with susceptibility to DPN and/or CAN. METHODS: We analyzed 150 participants with type 2 diabetes. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and genotyping was performed by TaqMan genotyping assay...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100553/translatability-score-revisited-differentiation-for-distinct-disease-areas
#7
REVIEW
Alexandra Wendler, Martin Wehling
BACKGROUND: Translational science supports successful transition of early biomedical research into human applications. In 2009 a translatability score to assess risk and identify strengths and weaknesses of a given project has been designed and successfully tested in case studies. The score elements, in particular the contributing weight factors, are heterogeneous for different disease areas; therefore, the score was individualized for six areas (cardiovascular, oncology, psychiatric, anti-viral, anti-bacterial/fungal and monogenetic diseases)...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082115/using-mendelian-randomization-studies-to-assess-causality-and-identify-new-therapeutic-targets-in-cardiovascular-medicine
#8
Wei Zhao, Jung-Jin Lee, Asif Rasheed, Danish Saleheen
Integration of knowledge generated from genetic studies on intermediate biomarkers and CHD can provide a reliable approach to help assess causal pathways in coronary heart disease. Mendelian Randomization (MR) studies are a powerful tool to assess causal relevance of a range of pathways. These analyses use genetic variants as proxies for soluble biomarkers in association studies of disease risk. MR studies can provide unbiased estimates of causal effects and avoid distortions due to confounding factors arising later in life, because genetic variants are fixed at conception...
December 2016: Current Genetic Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081004/cardiovascular-autonomic-dysfunction-in-patients-with-idiopathic-diabetes-insipidus
#9
Mattia Barbot, Filippo Ceccato, Marialuisa Zilio, Nora Albiger, Riccardo Sigon, Giuseppe Rolma, Marco Boscaro, Carla Scaroni, Franca Bilora
INTRODUCTION: Central diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare disease characterized by the excretion of excessive volumes of dilute urine due to reduced levels of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP), caused by an acquired or genetic defect in the neurohypophysis. The aim of this study was to identify any autonomic dysfunction (AD) in patients with DI as a possible cofactor responsible for their reportedly higher mortality. METHODS: The study involved 12 patients (6 females) with central idiopathic DI and a well-controlled electrolyte balance, and 12 controls matched for age, sex and cardiovascular risk factors, who were assessed using the tilt, lying-to-standing, hand grip, deep breath, Valsalva maneuver and Stroop tests...
October 28, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079493/is-adenosine-associated-with-sudden-death-in-schizophrenia-a-new-framework-linking-the-adenosine-pathway-to-risk-of-sudden-death
#10
REVIEW
Ary Gadelha, André Zugman, Mariana Bendlin Calzavara, Remo Holanda de Mendonça Furtado, Fulvio Alexandre Scorza, Rodrigo Afonsecca Bressan
Schizophrenia is associated with an increased mortality from cardiovascular disease. Relatively few studies have assessed the putative association of schizophrenia pathophysiology with sudden death. Low adenosine levels have been associated with schizophrenia. In cardiology, increased mortality among patients with congestive heart failure has been associated with genetic polymorphisms that potentially lead to lower adenosine levels. Thus, we hypothesize that adenosine could link schizophrenia and cardiovascular mortality, with decreased adenosine levels leading to increased vulnerability to hyperexcitability following hypoxic insults, increasing the odds of fatal arrhythmias...
October 24, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069341/epigenetics-and-precision-medicine-in-cardiovascular-patients-from-basic-concepts-to-the-clinical-arena
#11
Sarah Costantino, Peter Libby, Raj Kishore, Jean-Claude Tardif, Assam El-Osta, Francesco Paneni
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of mortality worldwide and also inflict major burdens on morbidity, quality of life, and societal costs. Considering that CVD preventive medications improve vascular outcomes in less than half of patients (often relative risk reductions range from 12% to 20% compared with placebo), precision medicine offers an attractive approach to refine the targeting of CVD medications to responsive individuals in a population and thus allocate resources more wisely and effectively...
October 23, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050682/effect-of-exceptional-parental-longevity-and-lifestyle-factors-on-prevalence-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-offspring
#12
Sriram Gubbi, Elianna Schwartz, Jill Crandall, Joe Verghese, Roee Holtzer, Gil Atzmon, Rebecca Braunstein, Nir Barzilai, Sofiya Milman
Offspring of parents with exceptional longevity (OPEL) manifest lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the role of lifestyle factors in this unique cohort is not known. Our study tested whether OPEL have lesser prevalence of CVD independent of lifestyle factors. Prevalence of CVD and CVD risk factors was assessed in a population of community-dwelling Ashkenazi Jewish adults aged 65 to 94 years. Participants included OPEL (n = 395), defined as having at least 1 parent living past the age of 95 years, and offspring of parents with usual survival (OPUS, n = 450), defined as having neither parent survive to 95 years...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989980/bone-mineral-density-and-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-and-coronary-heart-disease-a-mendelian-randomization-study
#13
Wei Gan, Robert J Clarke, Anubha Mahajan, Benard Kulohoma, Hidetoshi Kitajima, Neil R Robertson, N William Rayner, Robin G Walters, Michael V Holmes, Zhengming Chen, Mark I McCarthy
Background: Observational studies have demonstrated that increased bone mineral density is associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the relationship with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) is less clear. Moreover, substantial uncertainty remains about the causal relevance of increased bone mineral density for T2D and CHD, which can be assessed by Mendelian randomisation studies.  Methods: We identified 235 independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated at p<5×10 (-8) with estimated heel bone mineral density (eBMD) in 116,501 individuals from the UK Biobank study, accounting for 13...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983063/determinants-of-social-inequalities-in-stroke-incidence-across-europe-a-collaborative-analysis-of-126-635-individuals-from-48-cohort-studies
#14
Marco M Ferrario, Giovanni Veronesi, Frank Kee, Lloyd E Chambless, Kari Kuulasmaa, Torben Jørgensen, Philippe Amouyel, Dominique Arveiler, Martin Bobak, Giancarlo Cesana, Wojciech Drygas, Jean Ferrieres, Simona Giampaoli, Licia Iacoviello, Yuri Nikitin, Andrzej Pajak, Annette Peters, Veikko Salomaa, Stefan Soderberg, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Tom Wilsgaard, Hugh Tunstall-Pedoe
BACKGROUND: Knowledge on the origins of the social gradient in stroke incidence in different populations is limited. This study aims to estimate the burden of educational class inequalities in stroke incidence and to assess the contribution of risk factors in determining these inequalities across Europe. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MORGAM (MOnica Risk, Genetics, Archiving and Monograph) Study comprises 48 cohorts recruited mostly in the 1980s and 1990s in four European regions using standardised procedures for baseline risk factor assessment and fatal and non-fatal stroke ascertainment and adjudication during follow-up...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979779/a-clinical-genetic-approach-to-assessing-cardiovascular-risk-in-patients-with-ckd
#15
Emilio Rodrigo, Sara Pich, Isaac Subirana, Gema Fernandez-Fresnedo, Paloma Barreda, Carles Ferrer-Costa, Ángel Luis M de Francisco, Eduardo Salas, Roberto Elosua, Manuel Arias
BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the primary cause of death in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but current equations for assessing coronary risk have low accuracy in this group. We have reported that the addition of a genetic risk score (GRS) to the Framingham risk function improved its predictive capacity in the general population. The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between this GRS and coronary events in the CKD population and to determine whether the addition of the GRS to coronary risk prediction functions improves the estimation of coronary risk at the earliest possible stages of kidney disease...
October 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975197/association-of-multiorgan-computed-tomographic-phenomap-with-adverse-cardiovascular-health-outcomes-the-framingham-heart-study
#16
Ravi V Shah, Ashish S Yeri, Venkatesh L Murthy, Joe M Massaro, Ralph D'Agostino, Jane E Freedman, Michelle T Long, Caroline S Fox, Saumya Das, Emelia J Benjamin, Ramachandran S Vasan, Christopher J O'Donnell, Udo Hoffmann
Importance: Increased ability to quantify anatomical phenotypes across multiple organs provides the opportunity to assess their cumulative ability to identify individuals at greatest susceptibility for adverse outcomes. Objective: To apply unsupervised machine learning to define the distribution and prognostic importance of computed tomography-based multiorgan phenotypes associated with adverse health outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This asymptomatic community-based cohort study included 2924 Framingham Heart Study participants between July 2002 and April 2005 undergoing computed tomographic imaging of the chest and abdomen...
November 1, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952608/egg-consumption-cardiovascular-diseases-and-type-2-diabetes
#17
REVIEW
N R W Geiker, M Lytken Larsen, J Dyerberg, S Stender, A Astrup
Eggs are rich in nutrients and a source of essential fatty- and amino acids, and the food item with highest cholesterol content. Since the 1970s dietary recommendations have advised limiting egg intake to 2-4 a week for the healthy population, and in those diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) an even more restricted consumption. The aim of the present paper was to assess the recommendation to lower the dietary intake of cholesterol and especially the intake of egg to reduce the risk of CVD and T2D...
September 27, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936403/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-lean-subjects-characteristics-and-implications
#18
REVIEW
Ramesh Kumar, Shantam Mohan
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is commonly diagnosed in obese subjects; however, it is not rare among lean individuals. Given the absence of traditional risk factors, it tends to remain under-recognised. The metabolic profiles of lean NAFLD patients are frequently comparable to those of obese NAFLD patients. Though results from several studies have been mixed, it has been generally revealed that lean subjects with NAFLD have minor insulin resistance compared to that in obese NAFLD. Several genetic variants are associated with NAFLD without insulin resistance...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912365/d-dimer-in-african-americans-whole-genome-sequence-analysis-and-relationship-to-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-the-jackson-heart-study
#19
MULTICENTER STUDY
Laura M Raffield, Neil A Zakai, Qing Duan, Cecelia Laurie, Joshua D Smith, Marguerite R Irvin, Margaret F Doyle, Rakhi P Naik, Ci Song, Ani W Manichaikul, Yongmei Liu, Peter Durda, Jerome I Rotter, Nancy S Jenny, Stephen S Rich, James G Wilson, Andrew D Johnson, Adolfo Correa, Yun Li, Deborah A Nickerson, Kenneth Rice, Ethan M Lange, Mary Cushman, Leslie A Lange, Alex P Reiner
OBJECTIVE: Plasma levels of the fibrinogen degradation product D-dimer are higher among African Americans (AAs) compared with those of European ancestry and higher among women compared with men. Among AAs, little is known of the genetic architecture of D-dimer or the relationship of D-dimer to incident cardiovascular disease. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We measured baseline D-dimer in 4163 AAs aged 21 to 93 years from the prospective JHS (Jackson Heart Study) cohort and assessed association with incident cardiovascular disease events...
November 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888913/the-renaissance-of-lipoprotein-a-brave-new-world-for-preventive-cardiology
#20
REVIEW
Katrina L Ellis, Michael B Boffa, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Marlys L Koschinsky, Gerald F Watts
Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a highly heritable cardiovascular risk factor. Although discovered more than 50 years ago, Lp(a) has recently re-emerged as a major focus in the fields of lipidology and preventive cardiology owing to findings from genetic studies and the possibility of lowering elevated plasma concentrations with new antisense therapy. Data from genetic, epidemiological and clinical studies have provided compelling evidence establishing Lp(a) as a causal risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease...
September 6, 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
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