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cardiovascular disease genetic risk assessment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936403/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-lean-subjects-characteristics-and-implications
#1
REVIEW
Ramesh Kumar, Shantam Mohan
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is commonly diagnosed in obese subjects; however, it is not rare among lean individuals. Given the absence of traditional risk factors, it tends to remain under-recognised. The metabolic profiles of lean NAFLD patients are frequently comparable to those of obese NAFLD patients. Though results from several studies have been mixed, it has been generally revealed that lean subjects with NAFLD have minor insulin resistance compared to that in obese NAFLD. Several genetic variants are associated with NAFLD without insulin resistance...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912365/d-dimer-in-african-americans-whole-genome-sequence-analysis-and-relationship-to-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-the-jackson-heart-study
#2
Laura M Raffield, Neil A Zakai, Qing Duan, Cecelia Laurie, Joshua D Smith, Marguerite R Irvin, Margaret F Doyle, Rakhi P Naik, Ci Song, Ani W Manichaikul, Yongmei Liu, Peter Durda, Jerome I Rotter, Nancy S Jenny, Stephen S Rich, James G Wilson, Andrew D Johnson, Adolfo Correa, Yun Li, Deborah A Nickerson, Kenneth Rice, Ethan M Lange, Mary Cushman, Leslie A Lange, Alex P Reiner
OBJECTIVE: Plasma levels of the fibrinogen degradation product D-dimer are higher among African Americans (AAs) compared with those of European ancestry and higher among women compared with men. Among AAs, little is known of the genetic architecture of D-dimer or the relationship of D-dimer to incident cardiovascular disease. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We measured baseline D-dimer in 4163 AAs aged 21 to 93 years from the prospective JHS (Jackson Heart Study) cohort and assessed association with incident cardiovascular disease events...
September 14, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888913/the-renaissance-of-lipoprotein-a-brave-new-world-for-preventive-cardiology
#3
REVIEW
Katrina L Ellis, Michael B Boffa, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Marlys L Koschinsky, Gerald F Watts
Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a highly heritable cardiovascular risk factor. Although discovered more than 50 years ago, Lp(a) has recently re-emerged as a major focus in the fields of lipidology and preventive cardiology owing to findings from genetic studies and the possibility of lowering elevated plasma concentrations with new antisense therapy. Data from genetic, epidemiological and clinical studies have provided compelling evidence establishing Lp(a) as a causal risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease...
September 6, 2017: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886926/2017-focused-update-of-the-2016%C3%A2-acc%C3%A2-expert-consensus-decision-pathway-on-the-role-of-non-statin-therapies-for-ldl-cholesterol-lowering-in%C3%A2-the-management-of-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-risk-a-report-of-the-american-college-of-cardiology-task-force
#4
Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Pamela B Morris, Christie M Ballantyne, Kim K Birtcher, David D Daly, Sondra M DePalma, Margo B Minissian, Carl E Orringer, Sidney C Smith
In 2016, the American College of Cardiology published the first expert consensus decision pathway (ECDP) on the role of non-statin therapies for low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol lowering in the management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. Since the publication of that document, additional evidence and perspectives have emerged from randomized clinical trials and other sources, particularly considering the longer-term efficacy and safety of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors in secondary prevention of ASCVD...
August 30, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879656/variability-in-responses-observed-in-human-white-adipose-tissue-models
#5
Rosalyn D Abbott, Francis E Borowsky, Carlo A Alonzo, Adam Zieba, Irene Georgakoudi, David L Kaplan
Obesity is a risk factor for a myriad of diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular dysfunction, cirrhosis and cancer and there is a need for new systems to study how excess adipose tissue relates to the onset of disease processes. This study provides proof of concept patient-specific tissue models of human white adipose tissue to accommodate the variability in human samples. Our 3D tissue engineering approach established lipolytic responses and changes in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake from small volumes of human lipoaspirate, making this methodology useful for patient specific sample source assessments of treatment strategies, drug responses, disease mechanisms and other responses that vary between patients...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870972/ldl-cholesterol-level-in-fifth-grade-school-children-associates-with-stature
#6
Lee A Pyles, Christa Lilly, Charles Mullett, Emily Polak, Eloise Elliott, William A Neal
Short stature is associated with increased LDL- cholesterol levels and coronary artery disease in adults. We investigated the relationship of stature to LDL levels in children in the West Virginia Coronary Artery Risk Detection in Appalachian Communities (CARDIAC) Project to determine if the genetically determined inverse relationship observed in adults will be evident in 5th graders. A cross-sectional survey of schoolchildren was assessed for cardiovascular risk factors. Data collected at school screenings over 18 years in WV schools were analyzed for 63,152 5th graders to determine relationship of LDL to stature with consideration of age, gender and BMI...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869129/-characteristics-and-cardiovascular-events-in-a-general-population-included-in-the-ricarto-riesgo-cardiovascular-toledo-study-data-from-the-first-1-500-individuals-included-in-the-study
#7
G C Rodríguez-Roca, A Segura-Fragoso, A Villarín-Castro, F J Alonso-Moreno, L Rodríguez-Padial, M L Rodríguez-García, J A Fernández-Conde, G A Rojas-Martelo, A Menchén-Herreros, C Escobar-Cervantes, J Fernández-Martín, L M Artigao-Rodenas, J A Carbayo-Herencia, J Hernández-Moreno
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess cardiovascular risk (CVR) by investigating the prevalence of CVR factors (CVRF), target organ damage (TOD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in general population of the health area of Toledo, Spain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Epidemiological and observational study that analysed a sample from the general population aged 18years or older, randomly selected from a database of health cards stratified by age and gender. Clinical history, physical examination, and complementary tests were performed...
August 28, 2017: Semergen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868210/stroke-investigative-research-and-education-network-public-outreach-and-engagement
#8
A Singh, C Jenkins, B Calys-Tagoe, O S Arulogun, S Sarfo, B Ovbiagele, A Akpalu, S Melikam, E Uvere, M O Owolabi
Stroke is becoming a leading cause of disability and death, and a major public health concern in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network (SIREN) seeks to comprehensively characterize the genomic, sociocultural, economic, and behavioral risk factors for stroke and to build effective teams for research to address and decrease the burden of stroke and other non-communicable diseases in SSA. One of the first steps to address this goal was to effectively engage the communities that suffer high burdens of disease in SSA...
April 2017: Journal of Community Medicine & Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842785/effects-of-overfeeding-and-high-fat-diet-on-cardiosomatic-parameters-and-cardiac-structures-in-young-and-adult-zebrafish
#9
Rafael Vargas, Isabel Cristina Vásquez
Obesity is a complex global health problem because it is a risk factor for multiple chronic pathologies such as cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, and neoplastic diseases. It is considered a multicausal disease, and one of the determining factors is nutritional imbalances, which include high-fat diets. In this paper, we use the zebrafish model to assess the impact of overfeeding and a high-fat diet in somatic and cardiac parameters in young and adult zebrafish. The results show that fish receiving a high-fat diet showed greater weight gain compared to fish receiving a standard fat diet...
August 25, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821001/influence-on-serum-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-adma-concentrations-of-human-paraoxonase-1-polymorphism-q192r-and-exposure-to-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-mexican-women-a-gene-environment-interaction
#10
Ángeles C Ochoa-Martínez, Tania Ruíz-Vera, Claudia I Almendarez-Reyna, Sandra T Orta-García, Iván N Pérez-Maldonado
It has been demonstrated that Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) are a consequence of the combination of genetic and environmental factors and/or the interaction between them. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) exposure and PON1 Q192R polymorphism (genetic susceptibility) on serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels in Mexican women (n = 206). Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations (1-OHP; exposure biomarker for PAHs) were quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography technique, PON1 Q192R polymorphism was genotyped using TaqMan probes and serum ADMA concentrations were evaluated using a commercially available ELISA kit...
November 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820077/genetic-variants-of-pear1-are-associated-with-platelet-function-and-antiplatelet-drug-efficacy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Qian Xiang, Shuang Zhou, Joshua P Lewis, Alan R Shuldiner, Guanhua Ren, Yimin Cui
BACKGROUND: Platelet endothelial aggregation receptor 1 (PEAR1) may affect platelet-platelet contact and aggregation. The aim of this study was to assess the association between PEAR1 polymorphisms and risks of platelet aggregation. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, EmBase, and Cochrane Library electronic databases for articles published through November 30th. 2016. Meta-analysis was performed to examine the relationship between PEAR1 and platelet aggregation and sensitivity analysis by removing individual study from meta-analysis...
August 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797250/omega-3-fatty-acids-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-and-their-mechanisms-of-action-on-apolipoprotein-b-containing-lipoproteins-in-humans-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Jan Oscarsson, Eva Hurt-Camejo
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological and genetic studies suggest that elevated triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein levels in the circulation increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Prescription formulations of omega-3 fatty acids (OM3FAs), mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), reduce plasma TG levels and are approved for the treatment of patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Many preclinical studies have investigated the TG-lowering mechanisms of action of OM3FAs, but less is known from clinical studies...
August 10, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779988/impact-of-polymorphism-rs7041-and-rs4588-of-vitamin-d-binding-protein-on-the-extent-of-coronary-artery-disease
#13
V Daffara, M Verdoia, R Rolla, M Nardin, P Marino, G Bellomo, A Carriero, G De Luca
BACKGROUND AND AIM: 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency represents a widespread social problem but also an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Genetic variants of the Vitamin D Binding Protein (VDBP), the main transporter of vitamin D in the bloodstream, have been shown to account for a significant variability in the levels and systemic effects of vitamin D. We investigated whether the single nucleotide polymorphisms, rs7041 and rs4588, of VDBP are associated to the prevalence and extent of coronary artery disease...
September 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768282/increased-non-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-in-children-and-young-adults-with-turner-syndrome-is-not-explained-by-bmi-alone
#14
Jennifer C Kelley, Iris Gutmark-Little, Philippe Backeljauw, Vaneeta Bamba
BACKGROUND: Turner syndrome (TS) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) is a convenient measure of atherogenicity (normal concentration <120 mg/dL) but has not been investigated in TS. We aim to evaluate non-HDL-C patterns in a cohort of pediatric and young adult females with TS. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was used to obtain demographics, body composition, genetic reports, and lipid profiles in females with TS...
August 2, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765276/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-and-ischemic-heart-disease-risk-a-mendelian-randomization-study
#15
Shiu Lun Au Yeung, Hugh Simon Hung San Lam, C Mary Schooling
BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has angiogenic and possibly proatherosclerotic properties. Observationally it is positively associated with cardiovascular disease, although these observations could be confounded or due to reverse causation. We assessed ischemic heart disease (IHD) risk by genetically predicted VEGF, ie, using Mendelian randomization. METHODS AND RESULTS: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) predicting VEGF level, at genome-wide significance, were applied to the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D 1000 Genomes-based genome-wide association study IHD case (n=60 801)-control (n=123 504) study...
August 1, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758155/apol1-renal-risk-variants-do-not-associate-with-incident-cardiovascular-disease-or-mortality-in-the-systolic-blood-pressure-intervention-trial
#16
Barry I Freedman, Michael V Rocco, Jeffrey T Bates, Michel Chonchol, Amret T Hawfield, James P Lash, Vasilios Papademetriou, John R Sedor, Karen Servilla, Paul L Kimmel, Barry M Wall, Nicholas M Pajewski
INTRODUCTION: Relationships between apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) renal-risk variants (RRVs) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) remain controversial. To clarify associations between APOL1 and CVD, 2,568 African American Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) participants were assessed for the incidence of CVD events (primary composite including non-fatal myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome not resulting in myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, non-fatal acute decompensated heart failure, and CVD death), renal outcomes, and all-cause mortality...
July 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749784/concentrations-of-leptin-adiponectin-and-other-metabolic-parameters-in-non-obese-children-with-down-syndrome
#17
Nikhil Tenneti, Devi Dayal, Sheetal Sharda, Inusha Panigrahi, Mohammed Didi, Savita Verma Attri, Naresh Sachdeva, Anil Kumar Bhalla
BACKGROUND: Recent data indicates that adults with Down syndrome (DS) are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that significantly contributes to their morbidity and mortality. Although identification of cardiometabolic risk factors during childhood is desirable to design preventive interventions, the data on such risk factors in children with DS is scarce. The aim of this study was to study the cardiometabolic risk factors such as insulin resistance (IR), leptin and adiponectin concentrations, lipid abnormalities and leptin resistance in non-obese children with DS...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736931/genetic-variants-in-hsd17b3-smad3-and-ipo11-impact-circulating-lipids-in-response-to-fenofibrate-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes
#18
Daniel M Rotroff, Sonja S Pijut, Skylar W Marvel, John R Jack, Tammy M Havener, Aurora Pujol, Agatha Schluter, Greg A Graf, Henry N Ginsberg, Hetal S Shah, He Gao, Mario-Luca Morieri, Alessandro Doria, Josyf C Mychaleckyi, Howard L McLeod, John B Buse, Michael J Wagner, Alison A Motsinger-Reif
Individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and dyslipidemia are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Fibrates are a class of drugs prescribed to treat dyslipidemia, but variation in response has been observed. To evaluate common and rare genetic variants that impact lipid responses to fenofibrate in statin-treated T2D patients, we examined lipid changes in response to fenofibrate therapy using genome-wide association(GWA). Associations were followed-up using gene expression studies in mice. Common variants in SMAD3 and IPO11 were marginally associated with lipid changes in black subjects(p<5x10(-6) )...
July 24, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736719/lipid-profile-in-adult-patients-with-fabry-disease-ten-year-follow-up
#19
Karolina M Stepien, Chris J Hendriksz
BACKGROUND: Fabry disease, an X-linked genetic condition, results from alpha-galactosidase deficiency and increased accumulation of glycosphingolipids in cardiovascular tissues. Clinical manifestation includes vasculature associated complications. Hyperlipidaemia is one of the cardiovascular risk factors however it has never been well defined in Fabry disease. Enzyme Replacement Therapy (ERT) is available but its effect on serum cholesterol is unknown. The aim of this project was to assess the influence of long-term ERT on lipid profile in a large cohort of adult patients with Fabry disease...
December 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720344/apoe-genotype-associates-with-food-consumption-and-body-composition-to-predict-dyslipidaemia-in-brazilian-adults-with-normal-weight-obesity-syndrome
#20
Lana Pacheco Franco, Amanda Gonçalves Zardini Silveira, Rochelle Sobral de Assis Vasconcelos Lima, Maria Aderuza Horst, Cristiane Cominetti
BACKGROUND & AIM: Normal-Weight Obesity Syndrome has been characterized by a normal body mass index and high percentage of body fat. It is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease development. This study aimed to evaluate whether apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes and food consumption are related to the lipid profiles of adults with Normal-Weight Obesity Syndrome. METHODS: Analytical cross-sectional study, including adults with Normal-Weight Obesity Syndrome...
July 11, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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