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Slow flow

Mara Mather, Julian Thayer
Individuals with high heart rate variability tend to have better emotional well-being than those with low heart rate variability, but the mechanisms of this association are not yet clear. In this paper, we propose the novel hypothesis that by inducing oscillatory activity in the brain, high amplitude oscillations in heart rate enhance functional connectivity in brain networks associated with emotion regulation. Recent studies using daily biofeedback sessions to increase the amplitude of heart rate oscillations suggest that high amplitude physiological oscillations have a causal impact on emotional well-being...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
S Uthicke, M Liddy, F Patel, M Logan, C Johansson, M Lamare
Coral-eating Crown-of-Thorns Sea stars (Acanthaster spp.) are major contributors to coral reef loss in the Indo-Pacific region. A release from food limitation of their planktotrophic larvae through enhanced pelagic productivity is one of the main hypothesis explaining population outbreaks ('nutrient limitation hypothesis'). To improve the understanding of these outbreaks we developed an automated flow- through larvae rearing system that maintained food (microalgae) at set levels over the course of four 15d experiments...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Muhammad Fahad Umer, Muhammad Sher, Yaxin Bi
The next-generation network provides state-of-the-art access-independent services over converged mobile and fixed networks. Security in the converged network environment is a major challenge. Traditional packet and protocol-based intrusion detection techniques cannot be used in next-generation networks due to slow throughput, low accuracy and their inability to inspect encrypted payload. An alternative solution for protection of next-generation networks is to use network flow records for detection of malicious activity in the network traffic...
2018: PloS One
Mark Stenhouse, Peter Zilm, Jithendra Ratnayake, Peter Cathro
BACKGROUND: Calcium hydroxide is a common endodontic medicament and has an anti-microbial effect by increasing the localized pH within the root canal. However, Enterococcus faecalis has shown some resistance to calcium hydroxide. METHOD: A flow cell apparatus was used to grow an E. faecalis biofilm on dentine discs. Following 4 weeks growth in Todd Hewitt Broth, flow cells were exposed to either a rapid or slow increase to pH 11.5 or 12.5. Cellular viability was determined using serial plating and the number of colony forming units was normalised against the cellular protein content...
January 11, 2018: Australian Dental Journal
Dong Yan, John Beardall, Kunshan Gao
Cell size has implications for the package effect in photon absorption as well as for metabolic scaling of metabolism. In this study, we have avoided species-related differences by using isolates of the marine planktonic diatom Coscinodiscus granii with cells of different sizes and grown at different light intensities to investigate their energy allocation strategies. To make full use of incident light, several fold variations in cellular chlorophyll a content were employed across cell size. This modulation of pigment-related light absorbance was deemed effective as similar light absorbing capacities were found in all treatments...
January 10, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
Zhe Jin, Qindong Tan, Bei Sun
Coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) is a coronary microvascular disorder with an increasing morbidity, and currently, available therapies are of limited clinical value for its cure. Hence, it is urgent to find a novel approach to CSFP treatment. Several studies show that endothelial dysfunction plays a critical role in the aetiology of CSFP. Telmisartan (TMST) is a clinically available anti-hypertensive medicine and has shown its potential properties for improving vascular endothelial function. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effect of TMST on endothelial dysfunction in CSFP, Endothelial-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation, serum levels of nitric oxide, adiponectin, and endothelin-1 were surveyed before and after 3 months of TMST treatment...
January 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Flavia Carton, Laura Calderan, Manuela Malatesta
Explanted organs and tissues represent suitable experimental systems mimicking the functional and structural complexity of the living organism, with positive ethical and economic impact on research activities. However, their preservation in culture is generally limited, thus hindering their application as experimental models for biomedical research. In the present study, we investigated the potential of an innovative fluid dynamic culture system to improve the structural preservation in vitro of explanted mouse skeletal muscles (soleus)...
November 28, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Samrat Roy, M K Mathew
Fluid movement within the heart generates substantial shear forces, but the effect of this mechanical stress on the electrical activity of the human heart has not been examined. The fast component of the delayed rectifier potassium currents responsible for repolarization of the cardiac action potential, Ikr, is encoded by the hERG channel. Here, we exposed hERG1a channel-expressing HEK293T cells to laminar shear stress (LSS) and observed that this mechanical stress increased the whole-cell current by 30%-40%...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Christopher Pelar, Karima Greenaway, Hugo Zea, Chun-Hsien Wu, Claudia C Luhrs, Jonathan Phillips
This work demonstrates that a version of the Reduction Expansion Synthesis (RES) process, Cr-RES, can create a micron scale Cr coating on an iron wire. The process involves three steps. I. A paste consisting of a physical mix of urea, chrome nitrate or chrome oxide, and water is prepared. II. An iron wire is coated by dipping. III. The coated, and dried, wire is heated to ~800 °C for 10 min in a tube furnace under a slow flow of nitrogen gas. The processed wires were then polished and characterized, primarily with scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
January 5, 2018: Materials
Jannis Epting, Rebecca M Page, Adrian Auckenthaler, Peter Huggenberger
The presented work illustrates to what extent field investigations as well as monitoring and modeling approaches are necessary to understand the high discharge dynamics and vulnerability of Karst springs. In complex settings the application of 3D geological models is essential for evaluating the vulnerability of Karst systems. They allow deriving information on catchment characteristics, as the geometry of aquifers and aquitards as well as their displacements along faults. A series of Karst springs in northwestern Switzerland were compared and Karst system dynamics with respect to qualitative and quantitative issues were evaluated...
December 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Giulio Dolcetti, Anton Krynkin, Kirill V Horoshenkov
Measurements of the Doppler spectra of airborne ultrasound backscattered by the rough dynamic surface of a shallow turbulent flow are presented in this paper. The interpretation of the observed acoustic signal behavior is provided by means of a Monte Carlo simulation based on the Kirchhoff approximation and on a linear random-phase model of the water surface elevation. Results suggest that the main scattering mechanism is from capillary waves with small amplitude. Waves that travel at the same velocity of the flow, as well as dispersive waves that travel at a range of velocities, are detected, studied, and used in the acoustic Doppler analysis...
December 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Shayne Bennetts, Chun-Chia Chen, Benjamin Pasquiou, Florian Schreck
We demonstrate a continuously loaded ^{88}Sr magneto-optical trap (MOT) with a steady-state phase-space density of 1.3(2)×10^{-3}. This is 2 orders of magnitude higher than reported in previous steady-state MOTs. Our approach is to flow atoms through a series of spatially separated laser cooling stages before capturing them in a MOT operated on the 7.4-kHz linewidth Sr intercombination line using a hybrid slower+MOT configuration. We also demonstrate producing a Bose-Einstein condensate at the MOT location, despite the presence of laser cooling light on resonance with the 30-MHz linewidth transition used to initially slow atoms in a separate chamber...
December 1, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Haiyan Xu, Shuai Zhou, Dechen Jiang, Hong-Yuan Chen
The classic electrochemical analysis of plasma membrane cholesterol at single cells utilizes cholesterol oxidase modified microelectrode that oxidizes local cholesterol efflux from plasma membrane to generate hydrogen peroxide for the electrochemical quantification. In this letter, a mixture of cholesterol oxidase and Triton X-100 was filled in the micro-capillary that could park at Pt layer coated tip due to slow hydrodynamic flow. During the contact of the tip with cellular membrane, Triton X-100 at the tip permeabilized the contacted membrane to release cholesterol for the reaction with cholesterol oxidase...
December 28, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Fenfang Li, Chen Yang, Fang Yuan, Defei Liao, Thomas Li, Farshid Guilak, Pei Zhong
One of the earliest events in cellular mechanotransduction is often an increase in intracellular calcium concentration associated with intracellular calcium waves (ICWs) in various physiologic or pathophysiologic processes. Although cavitation-induced calcium responses are believed to be important for modulating downstream bioeffects such as cell injury and mechanotransduction in ultrasound therapy, the fundamental mechanisms of these responses have not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated mechanistically the ICWs elicited in single HeLa cells by the tandem bubble-induced jetting flow in a microfluidic system...
December 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xue Zou, Yan Lu, Lei Xia, Yating Zhang, Aiyue Li, Hongmei Wang, Chaoqun Huang, Chengyin Shen, Yannan Chu
Detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human urine has potential application value in screening for disease and toxic exposure. However, the current technologies are too slow to get the concentration of VOCs in fresh urine. In this study, we developed a novel ultrasonic nebulization extraction proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (UNE-PTR-MS) technology. The urinary VOCs can be rapidly extracted to gaseous VOCs using the UNE system and then delivered using a carrier gas to the PTR-MS instrument for rapid detection...
December 27, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Yuan Ding, Xiude Hua, He Chen, Fengquan Liu, Gualberto G Gonzalez-Sapienza, Ming-Hua Wang
Phage borne peptides isolated from phage libraries have proven to be valuable reagents for the development of small-molecule immunoassays. However, the large size, low diffusion rate and biological nature of the phage particles create some limitations to their use, and require secondary reagents for its detection. In this work, we explore the use of the Nano luciferase (NanoLuc) as fusion partner to generate recombinant tracers for immunoassay development. The imidaclothiz peptidomimetic C2-15 that specifically binds to the anti-imidaclothiz monoclonal antibody (mAb) 1E7, was fused to NanoLuc, both at the N terminus (C2-15-NanoLuc) and C terminus (NanoLuc-C2-15)...
December 27, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Francesca Pilotto, Christer Nilsson, Lina E Polvi, Brendan G McKie
Although ecological restoration generally succeeds in increasing physical heterogeneity, many projects fail to enhance biota. Researchers have suggested several possible explanations, including insufficient restoration intensity, or time-lags in ecological responses that prevent detection of significant changes in short-term monitoring programs. This study aims to evaluate whether benthic macroinvertebrate communities responded to an expanded set of stream restoration measures within a study period of one to five years after completion of the restoration project...
December 26, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Swomitra Palit, Somayeh Khajehpour Tadavani, Anand Yethiraj
In this work we generate stable and monodisperse water-in-oil emulsions using a co-flowing geometry that produced droplet sizes between 13 μm and 250 μm. The drops survived transfer to NMR tubes and were stable for at least 26 hours, enabling the performance of pulsed-field-gradient NMR experiments in addition to microscopy. The drops sizes achieved as a function of flow rate agree well with a simple model for droplet generation: this yields a precise measure of the interfacial tension. The design of a cell mimetic environment with nano-scale confinement has also been demonstrated with diffusion measurements on macromolecules (PEG and Ficoll70) within droplets that are further structured internally using agarose gel networks...
December 20, 2017: Soft Matter
Ho-Ting D Wu, Louisa A Howse, Ehsan Vaghefi
Purpose: Age-related nuclear cataract is the opacification of the clear ocular lens due to oxidative damage as we age, and is the leading cause of blindness in the world. A lack of antioxidant supply to the core of ever-growing ocular lens could contribute to the cause of this condition. In this project, a computational model was developed to study the sutural fluid inflow of the aging human lens. Methods: Three different SOLIDWORKS computational fluid dynamics models of the human lens (7 years old; 28 years old; 46 years old) were created, based on available literature data...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Fadia Najjar, Francine Rizk, Gilles Carnac, Rim Nassar, Sara Jabak, Anatoly Petrovich Sobolev, Yara Bou Saada, Marwan El Sabban, Aline Hamade
Background and Purpose: Oxidative stress is involved in normal and pathological functioning of skeletal muscle. Protection of myoblasts from oxidative stress may improve muscle contraction and delay aging. Here we studied the effect of R. coriaria sumac fruit extract on human myoblasts and zebrafish embryos in conditions of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. Study Design and Methods: Crude ethanolic 70% extract (CE) and its fractions was obtained from sumac fruits...
2017: PeerJ
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