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Slow flow

Anne-Pauline Bellanger, Valentine Mougey, Jean-Rene Pallandre, Houssein Gbaguidi-Haore, Yann Godet, Laurence Millon
Alveolar echinococcosis is a severe chronic helminthic disease that mimics slow-growing liver cancer. The immune evasion strategy of Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the impact of E. multilocularis vesicular fluid (Em-VF) on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and on natural killer (NK) cells. PBMC and NK cells were exposed to Em-VF (1 µg/ml) during six days. The effect of Em-VF was assessed on CD69, viability and proliferation, and on and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin 17 (IL-17) and interleukin 10, using flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively...
August 25, 2017: Folia Parasitologica
Juan Carlos Gomez Martin, Claire Seaton, Marcelo Pessoa De Miranda, John Maurice Campbell Plane
We report the first direct kinetic study of the gas-phase reaction NaOH + H → Na + H2O, which is central to the chemistry of sodium in the upper atmosphere and in flames. The reaction was studied in a fast flow tube where NaOH was observed by multi-photon ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry, yielding k(NaOH + H, 230 - 298 K) = (3.8 ± 0.8)  10-11 cm3 molecule -1 s-1 (at 2σ confidence level), showing no significant temperature dependence over the indicated temperature range and essentially in agreement with previous estimates of the rate constant in hydrogen-rich flames...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Shayan Bahadori, Tikki Immins, Thomas W Wainwright
The laser speckle contrast imager (LSCI) provides a powerful yet simple technique for measuring microcirculatory blood flow. Ideal for blood dynamic responses, the LSCI is used in the same way as a conventional Laser Doppler Imager (LDI). However, with a maximum skin depth of approximately 1 mm, the LSCI is designed to focus on mainly superficial blood flow. It is used to measure skin surface areas of up to 15 cm x 20 cm. The new technique introduced in this paper accounts for alternating speeds of microcirculations; i...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
S Alonge, M Melandri, L Fanciullo, G M Lacalandra, G Aiudi
Power Doppler sonography (PD) can accurately depict tissue perfusion, recognize slow flows, and is relatively angle independent. The monitoring of local blood flow by Doppler ultrasonography is helpful in differentiating prostatic physio-pathological conditions, but the recognizing of physiological variables that could affect it is crucial to apply this technique in clinical practice. This study aimed to evaluate if ejaculation affects blood flow to the prostate and to state how long this effect lasts. Serial PD examinations of prostate were performed in 18 dogs (1-5 years, 6-40 kg) immediately before (T0) and after (T1) the ejaculation, and repeated 6 (T2), 18 (T3) and 24 (T4) hours later...
September 11, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Peter H Tang, Mark J Pierson, Neal D Heuss, Dale S Gregerson
BACKGROUND: Studies of antigen presentation in retina using mice that expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) from a transgenic CD11c promoter found that retinal GFP(hi) cells possessed antigen presentation function. Subsequent studies found that these high GFP(hi) cells preferentially localized to sites of retinal injury, consistent with their APC function. Interest in the roles of macrophages in degenerative CNS diseases led us to study the GFP(hi) cells in a retinal model of neurodegeneration...
September 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Yusuke Watanabe, Kenichi Sakakura, Yousuke Taniguchi, Kei Yamamoto, Hiroshi Wada, Hideo Fujita, Shin-Ichi Momomura
Slow flow is a serious complication in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided PCI may improve clinical outcomes after drug-eluting stent implantation. The purpose of this study was to seek the factors of slow flow following stent implantation, including factors related to IVUS-guided primary PCI. The study population consisted of 339 ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients, who underwent stent deployment with IVUS...
September 8, 2017: Heart and Vessels
M Sastre-Ibáñez, A Barreiro-González, R Gallego-Pinazo, R Dolz-Marco, B García-Armendariz
Geographic atrophy is characterized by severe visual deficit whose etiology and pathophysiology are yet to be elucidated. As a working hypothesis, oxidative damage could trigger a chronic inflammation in Bruch's membrane-RPE-choriocapillaris complex, mostly due to complement pathway overactivation. Some individuals with mutations in the complement system and other factors have diminished capacity in the modulation of the inflammatory response, which results in cell damage and waste accumulation. This accumulation of intracellular and extracellular waste products manifests as drusen and pigmentary changes that precede the atrophy of photoreceptors, RPE, choriocapillaris with an ischemic process with decreased choroid flow...
September 5, 2017: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
Junhua Wang, Yumeng Kong, Ting Fu, Joshua Stipancic
This paper presents the use of the Aimsun microsimulation program to simulate vehicle violating behaviors and observe their impact on road traffic crash risk. Plugins for violations of speeding, slow driving, and abrupt stopping were developed using Aimsun's API and SDK module. A safety analysis plugin for investigating probability of rear-end collisions was developed, and a method for analyzing collision risk is proposed. A Fuzzy C-mean Clustering algorithm was developed to identify high risk states in different road segments over time...
2017: PloS One
Aura Ontiveros-Valencia, Chen Zhou, Zehra Esra Ilhan, Louis Cornette de Saint Cyr, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown, Bruce E Rittmann
Molecular microbiology tools (i.e., 16S rDNA gene sequencing) were employed to elucidate changes in the microbial community structure according to the total electron acceptor loading (controlled by influent flow rate and/or medium composition) in a H2-based membrane biofilm reactor evaluated for removal of hexavalent uranium. Once nitrate, sulfate, and dissolved oxygen were replaced by U(VI) and bicarbonate and the total acceptor loading was lowered, slow-growing bacteria capable of reducing U(VI) to U(IV) dominated in the biofilm community: Replacing denitrifying bacteria Rhodocyclales and Burkholderiales were spore-producing Clostridiales and Natranaerobiales...
August 29, 2017: Water Research
Mihori Ryorin, Takato Morioka, Nobuya Murakami, Satoshi O Suzuki, Nobuko Kawamura
BACKGROUND: Sinus pericranii (SP) is a rare venous anomaly involving an abnormal connection of the intracranial dural sinuses with the extracranial veins. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) with MR venography can detect the typically congested intra- and extracranial venous components of SP. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: We report a rare case of lateral SP associated with the superior sagittal sinus, which might had already developed almost total thrombosis of the SP at the first MRI...
September 6, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Sayak Mukherjee, David Stewart, William Stewart, Lewis L Lanier, Jayajit Das
Single-cell responses are shaped by the geometry of signalling kinetic trajectories carved in a multidimensional space spanned by signalling protein abundances. It is, however, challenging to assay a large number (more than 3) of signalling species in live-cell imaging, which makes it difficult to probe single-cell signalling kinetic trajectories in large dimensions. Flow and mass cytometry techniques can measure a large number (4 to more than 40) of signalling species but are unable to track single cells...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Barbara Tavares, Raquel Jacinto, Pedro Sampaio, Sara Pestana, Andreia Pinto, Andreia Vaz, Mónica Roxo-Rosa, Rui Gardner, Telma Lopes, Britta Schilling, Ian Henry, Leonor Saúde, Susana Santos Lopes
Foxj1a is necessary and sufficient to specify motile cilia. Using transcriptional studies and slow-scan two-photon live imaging capable of identifying the number of motile and immotile cilia, we now established that the final number of motile cilia depends on Notch signalling (NS). We found that despite all left-right organizer (LRO) cells express foxj1a and the ciliary axonemes of these cells have dynein arms some cilia remain immotile. We identified that this decision is taken early in development in the Kupffer's Vesicle (KV) precursors the readout being her12 transcription...
September 5, 2017: ELife
Daniel Andrén, Lei Shao, Nils Odebo Länk, Srdjan S Aćimović, Peter Johansson, Mikael Käll
Plasmonic gold nanorods are prime candidates for a variety of biomedical, spectroscopy, data storage and sensing applications. It was recently shown that gold nanorods optically trapped by a focused circularly polarized laser beam can function as extremely efficient nanoscopic rotary motors. The system holds promise for applications ranging from nanofluidic flow control and nanorobotics to biomolecular actuation and analysis. However, to fully exploit this potential, one needs to be able to control and understand heating effects associated with laser trapping...
September 5, 2017: ACS Nano
Catherine Allan, Robyn J Watts
Managers of land, water, and biodiversity are working with increasingly complex social ecological systems with high uncertainty. Adaptive management (learning from doing) is an ideal approach for working with this complexity. The competing social and environmental demands for water have prompted interest in freshwater adaptive management, but its success and uptake appear to be slow. Some of the perceived "failure" of adaptive management may reflect the way success is conceived and measured; learning, rarely used as an indicator of success, is narrowly defined when it is...
September 4, 2017: Environmental Management
Roman Řemínek, Lucie Slezáčková, Jan Schejbal, Zdeněk Glatz
Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, afflicting over 34 million patients worldwide. Since β-secretase is a rate-limiting enzyme of the production of neurotoxic β-amyloid peptide oligomers abnormally accumulated in the affected brain tissue, its specific inhibition appears to be a promising approach to slowing down or even stopping the progression of the disease. Hence two on-line capillary electrophoretic methods for studies of β-secretase activity based on the principles of transverse diffusion of laminar flow profiles and electrophoretically mediated microanalysis were developed, both using a simple unlabeled peptide substrate and UV detection...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Oscar H Mayer, Mika Leinonen, Christian Rummey, Thomas Meier, Gunnar M Buyse
BACKGROUND: Patients with DMD experience progressive restrictive respiratory disease and eventual respiratory failure. Standard of care guidelines command changes in disease management when forced vital capacity percent of predicted (FVC% p) falls below clinically relevant thresholds. The Phase 3 DELOS trial in patients with DMD demonstrated that idebenone reduces the loss of peak expiratory flow and FVC compared to placebo (Buyse GM, et al.; Lancet 2015; 385 : 1748-57). OBJECTIVE: Post-hoc analyses were conducted to assess whether treatment with idebenone could reduce the risk of patients dropping below clinically meaningful thresholds of FVC% p...
2017: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
Wu Shang, Chen-Yu Tsao, Xiaolong Luo, Mairan Teodoro, Ryan McKay, David N Quan, Hsuan-Chen Wu, Gregory F Payne, William E Bentley
We have developed a user-friendly microfluidic device for the study of gradient-mediated bacterial behaviors, including chemotaxis. This device rapidly establishes linear concentration gradients by exploiting solute diffusion through porous membranes in the absence of convective flows. As such, the gradients are created rapidly and can be sustained for long time periods (e.g., hours), sufficient to evaluate cell phenotype. The device exploits a unique simple bilayer configuration that enables rapid setup and quick reproducible introduction of cells...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Aron H Blaesi, Nannaji Saka
In recent studies, we have introduced melt-processed polymeric cellular dosage forms to achieve both immediate drug release and predictable manufacture. Dosage forms ranging from minimally-porous solids to highly porous, open-cell and thin-walled structures were prepared, and the drug release characteristics investigated as the volume fraction of cells and the excipient molecular weight were varied. In the present study, both minimally-porous solid and cellular dosage forms consisting of various weight fractions of Acetaminophen drug and polyethylene glycol (PEG) excipient are prepared and analyzed...
November 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Jennifer L Kelley, Peter M Davies, Shaun P Collin, Pauline F Grierson
In fishes, alterations to the natural flow regime are associated with divergence in body shape morphology compared with individuals from unaltered habitats. However, it is unclear whether this morphological divergence is attributable to evolutionary responses to modified flows, or is a result of phenotypic plasticity. Fishes inhabiting arid regions are ideal candidates for studying morphological plasticity as they are frequently exposed to extreme natural hydrological variability. We examined the effect of early exposure to flows on the development of body shape morphology in the western rainbowfish (Melanotaenia australis), a freshwater fish that is native to semiarid northwest Australia...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Ran Arieli
Decompression illness (DCI) occurs following a reduction in ambient pressure. Decompression bubbles can expand and develop only from pre-existing gas micronuclei. The different hypotheses hitherto proposed regarding the nucleation and stabilization of gas micronuclei have never been validated. It is known that nanobubbles form spontaneously when a smooth hydrophobic surface is submerged in water containing dissolved gas. These nanobubbles may be the long sought-after gas micronuclei underlying decompression bubbles and DCI...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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