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Slow flow

Abeer H A Mohamed-Ahmed, Alastair Lockwood, Hala Fadda, Shivam Madaan, Peng T Khaw, Steve Brocchini, Kersti Karu
Ilomastat is a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor (MMPi) that has shown the potential to inhibit scarring (fibrosis) by mediating healing after injury or surgery. A long lasting ocular implantable pharmaceutical formulation of ilomastat is being developed to mediate the healing process to prevent scarring after glaucoma filtration surgery. The ilomastat implant was coated with water permeable and biocompatible phosphoryl choline polymer (PC1059) displayed extended slow release of ilomastat in vitro and in vivo...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Hyungjoon Soh, Meesoon Ha, Hawoong Jeong
We revisit the slow-bond (SB) problem of the one-dimensional (1D) totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) with modified hopping rates. In the original SB problem, it turns out that a local defect is always relevant to the system as jamming, so that phase separation occurs in the 1D TASEP. However, crossover scaling behaviors are also observed as finite-size effects. In order to check if the SB can be irrelevant to the system with particle interaction, we employ the condensation concept in the zero-range process...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Akshay Bhatnagar, Anupam Gupta, Dhrubaditya Mitra, Rahul Pandit
We present an extensive numerical study of the time irreversibility of the dynamics of heavy inertial particles in three-dimensional, statistically homogeneous, and isotropic turbulent flows. We show that the probability density function (PDF) of the increment, W(τ), of a particle's energy over a time scale τ is non-Gaussian, and skewed toward negative values. This implies that, on average, particles gain energy over a period of time that is longer than the duration over which they lose energy. We call this slow gain and fast loss...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Kevin Breslin, John Joseph Wade, KongFatt Wong-Lin, Jim Harkin, Bronac Flanagan, Harm Van Zalinge, Steve Hall, Matthew Walker, Alexei Verkhratsky, Liam McDaid
A biophysical model that captures molecular homeostatic control of ions at the perisynaptic cradle (PsC) is of fundamental importance for understanding the interplay between astroglial and neuronal compartments. In this paper, we develop a multi-compartmental mathematical model which proposes a novel mechanism whereby the flow of cations in thin processes is restricted due to negatively charged membrane lipids which result in the formation of deep potential wells near the dipole heads. These wells restrict the flow of cations to "hopping" between adjacent wells as they transverse the process, and this surface retention of cations will be shown to give rise to the formation of potassium (K+) and sodium (Na+) microdomains at the PsC...
May 18, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Nicla Settembre, Mario D'Oria, Lucie DekerlE, Charbel Saba, Zakariyae Bouziane, Serguei Malikov
Venous malformations are the most common slow-flow vascular malformations; they are not prone to volume decrease over time and invasive treatment is usually required. There are two main techniques to address the definitive therapy of these lesions: sclerotherapy and surgical excision, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. We report the case of a 56 year-old man who came to our attention with persistent pain after multiple unsuccessful attempts to treat a large venous malformation located in the area of the right knee...
May 14, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Milad Hobbi Mobarhan, Geir Halnes, Pablo Martínez-Cañada, Torkel Hafting, Marianne Fyhn, Gaute T Einevoll
Visually evoked signals in the retina pass through the dorsal geniculate nucleus (dLGN) on the way to the visual cortex. This is however not a simple feedforward flow of information: there is a significant feedback from cortical cells back to both relay cells and interneurons in the dLGN. Despite four decades of experimental and theoretical studies, the functional role of this feedback is still debated. Here we use a firing-rate model, the extended difference-of-Gaussians (eDOG) model, to explore cortical feedback effects on visual responses of dLGN relay cells...
May 17, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Roger Krenger, Thomas Lehnert, Martin A M Gijs
Basal heat production is a key phenotype for assessing the metabolic activity of small living organisms. Here, we present a new nanocalorimetric system, based on thin film thermopile sensors combined with microfluidic chips for measuring metabolic heat signals generated by Caenorhabditis elegans larval populations (60 to 220 organisms). In addition to versatile on-chip fluidic manipulation, our microfluidic approach allows confining worm populations close to the sensor surface, thus increasing the sensitivity of the assays...
May 17, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Gang Hou, Huiqing Zhao, Haijun Teng, Pei Li, Wenbin Xu, Junbin Zhang, Lulu Lv, Zhiliang Guo, Li Wei, Hui Yao, Yichun Xu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a potential etiology of disc degeneration. N-cadherin (N-CDH) helps maintain the cell viability, cell phenotype and matrix biosynthesis of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. Here, we mainly aimed to investigate whether N-CDH can attenuate high glucose-induced NP cell senescence and its potential mechanism. METHODS: Rat NP cells were cultured in a base culture medium and base culture medium with a 0.2 M glucose concentration. Recombinant lentiviral vectors were used to enhance N-CDH expression in NP cells...
May 11, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Shuangpo Ren, Andrew D Parsekian, Ye Zhang, Bradley J Carr
In granite aquifers, fractures can provide both storage volume and conduits for groundwater. Characterization of fracture hydraulic conductivity (K) in such aquifers is important for predicting flow rate and calibrating models. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well logging is a method to quickly obtain near-borehole hydraulic conductivity (i.e., KNMR ) at high vertical resolution. On the other hand, FLUTe flexible liner technology can produce a K profile at comparable resolution but requires a fluid driving force between borehole and formation...
May 15, 2018: Ground Water
Tapan K Khan
Almost all Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutic trials have failed in recent years. One of the main reasons for failure is due to designing the disease-modifying clinical trials at the advanced stage of the disease when irreversible brain damage has already occurred. Diagnosis of the preclinical stage of AD and therapeutic intervention at this phase, with a perfect target, are key points to slowing the progression of the disease. Various AD biomarkers hold enormous promise for identifying individuals with preclinical AD and predicting the development of AD dementia in the future, but no single AD biomarker has the capability to distinguish the AD preclinical stage...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Joshua D Moss, Erin E Flatley, Andrew D Beaser, John H Shin, Hemal M Nayak, Gaurav A Upadhyay, Martin C Burke, Valluvan Jeevanandam, Nir Uriel, Roderick Tung
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to report mechanisms of ventricular tachycardia (VT) and outcomes of VT ablation in patients with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) as destination therapy. BACKGROUND: Continuous flow LVAD implantation plays a growing role in the management of end-stage heart failure, and VT is common. There are limited reports of VT ablation in patients with a destination LVAD. METHODS: Patients with a continuous-flow LVAD referred for VT ablation from 2010 to 2016 were analyzed retrospectively...
December 11, 2017: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
Asger Bolet, Gaute Linga, Joachim Mathiesen
In low-permeability rock, fluid and mineral transport occur in pores and fracture apertures at the scale of micrometers and below. At this scale, the presence of surface charge, and a resultant electrical double layer, may considerably alter transport properties. However, due to the inherent nonlinearity of the governing equations, numerical and theoretical studies of the coupling between electric double layers and flow have mostly been limited to two-dimensional or axisymmetric geometries. Here, we present comprehensive three-dimensional simulations of electrohydrodynamic flow in an idealized fracture geometry consisting of a sinusoidally undulated bottom surface and a flat top surface...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
B V Guerrero, L A Pugnaloni, C Lozano, I Zuriguel, A Garcimartín
We experimentally explore the vibration-induced unclogging of arches halting the flow in a two-dimensional silo. The endurance of arches is determined by carrying out a survival analysis of their breaking times. By analyzing the dynamics of two morphological variables, we demonstrate that arches evolve toward less regular structures and it seems that there may exist a certain degree of irregularity that the arch reaches before collapsing. Moreover, we put forward that σ (the standard deviation of all angles between consecutive beads) describes faithfully the morphological evolution of the arch...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Sara R Knigge, Birgit Glasmacher
A lot of research has been done in the field of magnesium-based implant material. This study is focused on finding an explanation for the large disparity in results from similar experiments in literature. The hypothesis is that many different measurement protocols are used to quantify magnesium degradation and this leads to inconsistent results. Cylindrical, pure magnesium samples were used for this study. The degradation took place in revised simulated body fluid at 37°C. Hydrogen evolution was measured to quantify the degradation...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Alvaro Reyes, Adrián Castillo, Javiera Castillo, Isabel Cornejo
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of an inspiratory versus and expiratory muscle-training program on voluntary and reflex peak cough flow in patients with Parkinson disease. DESIGN: A randomized controlled study. SETTING: Home-based training program. PARTICIPANTS: In all, 40 participants with diagnosis of Parkinson's disease were initially recruited in the study and randomly allocated to three study groups. Of them, 31 participants completed the study protocol (control group, n = 10; inspiratory training group, n = 11; and expiratory training group, n = 10) Intervention: The inspiratory and expiratory group performed a home-based inspiratory and expiratory muscle-training program, respectively (five sets of five repetitions)...
May 1, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
Jacques P Bothma, Matthew R Norstad, Simon Alamos, Hernan G Garcia
Embryonic cell fates are defined by transcription factors that are rapidly deployed, yet attempts to visualize these factors in vivo often fail because of slow fluorescent protein maturation. Here, we pioneer a protein tag, LlamaTag, which circumvents this maturation limit by binding mature fluorescent proteins, making it possible to visualize transcription factor concentration dynamics in live embryos. Implementing this approach in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, we discovered stochastic bursts in the concentration of transcription factors that are correlated with bursts in transcription...
April 26, 2018: Cell
V Vasilaki, E I P Volcke, A K Nandi, M C M van Loosdrecht, E Katsou
Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to investigate the dependencies and underlying patterns between N2 O emissions and online operational variables (dissolved oxygen and nitrogen component concentrations, temperature and influent flow-rate) during biological nitrogen removal from wastewater. The system under study was a full-scale reactor, for which hourly sensor data were available. The 15-month long monitoring campaign was divided into 10 sub-periods based on the profile of N2 O emissions, using Binary Segmentation...
April 26, 2018: Water Research
Shuai Yang, Xinyi Cheng, Zhenyu Jin, Aiguo Xia, Lei Ni, Rongrong Zhang, Fan Jin
Exponentially growing bacteria in a well-mixed planktonic culture are generally assumed to be physiologically and phenotypically uniform, and distinct from their genetically identical counterparts living in biofilms. Using a combination of high spatiotemporal microscopy and a bacterial tracking algorithm, in this study, we showed that the planktonic cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa differently attach to surfaces even when they remained in the exponential phase. We consistently observed that fast- and slow-attaching phenotypes coexist in planktonic cells, regardless of their growth phase...
May 11, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
J Y Ma, J J Guo, L Hou, F Zhang, K Yao, D Huang, H Lu, Y X Dai, C G Li, S F Chang, Q Qin, L Ge, J Y Qian, J B Ge
Objective: To investigate the safety and efficacy of rotational atherectomy in the interventional treatment of coronary chronic total occlusion lesions. Methods: In this retrospective study,a total of 31 consecutive patients with coronary chronic total occlusion(CTO) lesions underwent rotational atherectomy in our hospital from February 2004 to December 2016 were enrolled,and the clinical features were analyzed. Coronary atherectomy was performed if balloon failed to cross the CTO lesions or balloon could not be fully dilated in the CTO lesions after wire crossing...
April 24, 2018: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
Chong Chen, Kang Zhao, Jianying Shang, Chongxuan Liu, Jin Wang, Zhifeng Yan, Kesi Liu, Wenliang Wu
Natural aquifers typically exhibit a variety of structural heterogeneities. However, the effect of mineral colloids and natural organic matter on the transport behavior of uranium (U) in saturated heterogeneous media are not totally understood. In this study, heterogeneous column experiments were conducted, and the constructed columns contained a fast-flow domain (FFD) and a slow-flow domain (SFD). The effect of kaolinite, humic acid (HA), and kaolinite/HA mixture on U(VI) retention and release in saturated heterogeneous media was examined...
May 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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