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TLR -3

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098883/developmental-expression-of-toll%C3%A2-like-receptors-in-the-guinea-pig-lung
#1
Lingjie Ma, Jiali Yang, Li Yang, Juan Shi, Jing Xue, Yong Li, Xiaoming Liu
The guinea pig is a useful model for investigating infectious and non‑infectious lung diseases due to the sensitivity of its respiratory system and susceptibility to infectious agents. Toll‑like receptors (TLRs) are important components of the innate immune response and are critical for lung immune function. In the present study, the differentiation of epithelial cells in the guinea pig lung was examined during gestation by studying anatomic morphology and the major epithelial cell types using cell type‑specific markers...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098138/scimp-is-a-transmembrane-non-tir-tlr-adaptor-that-promotes-proinflammatory-cytokine-production-from-macrophages
#2
Lin Luo, Nilesh J Bokil, Adam A Wall, Ronan Kapetanovic, Natalie M Lansdaal, Faustine Marceline, Belinda J Burgess, Samuel J Tong, Zhong Guo, Kirill Alexandrov, Ian L Ross, Margaret L Hibbs, Jennifer L Stow, Matthew J Sweet
Danger signals activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs), thereby initiating inflammatory responses. Canonical TLR signalling, via Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor domain (TIR)-containing adaptors and proinflammatory transcription factors such as NF-κB, occurs in many cell types; however, additional mechanisms are required for specificity of inflammatory responses in innate immune cells. Here we show that SCIMP, an immune-restricted, transmembrane adaptor protein (TRAP), promotes selective proinflammatory cytokine responses by direct modulation of TLR4...
January 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096963/effect-of-a-769662-a-direct-ampk-activator-on-tlr-4-expression-and-activity-in-mice-heart-tissue
#3
Maryam Rameshrad, Nasrin Maleki-Dizaji, Hamid Soraya, Negisa Seyed Toutounchi, Abolfazl Barzegari, Alireza Garjani
OBJECTIVES: TLR-4 activates a number of inflammatory signaling pathways. Also, AMPK could be involved in anti-inflammatory signaling. The aim of this study was to identify whether stimulation of AMPK could inhibit LPS-induced Tlr-4 gene expression in mice hearts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Heart AMPK activity and/or Tlr-4 expression was stimulated in different mice groups, using respectively IP injection of A-769662 (10 mg/kg) and LPS (2 mg/kg) or a combination of both agents...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096525/toll-like-receptor-4-signaling-in-high-mobility-group-box-1-protein-1-mediated-the-suppression-of-regulatory-t-cells
#4
Chunyan Luo, Huiting Liu, Hu Wang, Jiajun Wang
BACKGROUND Treg cells play a central role in the suppression of immune response, and their suppressive capacity can be modulated by toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. However, the detailed pathway of TLR ligand modulation is still unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the high mobility group box-1 protein 1 (HMGB1) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on Treg cells through TLR4 signaling. MATERIAL AND METHODS Treg cells were purified from healthy human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by magnetic-bead activity cell sorting (MACS), blocked by anti-TLR4 monoclonal antibody, and then incubated with different concentration of LPS or HMGB1...
January 18, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095323/pattern-recognitions-receptors-in-immunodeficiency-disorders
#5
Esameil Mortaz, Ian M Adcock, Payam Tabarsi, Ilad Alavi Darazam, Masoud Movassaghi, Johan Garssen, Hamidreza Jamaati, Aliakbar Velayati
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize common microbial or host-derived macromolecules and have important roles in early activation and response of the immune system. Initiation of the innate immune response starts with the recognition of microbial structures called pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Recognition of PAMPs is performed by germline-encoded receptors expressed mainly on immune cells termed pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Several classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are involved in the pathogenesis of diseases, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), and Nod-like receptors (NLRs)...
January 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093922/toll-like-receptors-and-their-soluble-forms-differ-in-the-knee-and-thumb-basal-osteoarthritic-joints
#6
Goncalo Barreto, Jerker Sandelin, Abdelhakim Salem, Dan C Nordström, Eero Waris
Background and purpose - Although the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) is not well understood, chondrocyte-mediated inflammatory responses (triggered by the activation of innate immune receptors by damage-associated molecules) are thought to be involved. We examined the relationship between Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and OA in cartilage from 2 joints differing in size and mechanical loading: the first carpometacarpal (CMC-I) and the knee. Patients and methods - Samples of human cartilage obtained from OA CMC-I and knee joints were immunostained for TLRs (1-9) and analyzed using histomorphometry and principal component analysis (PCA)...
January 17, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093691/middle-age-enhances-expression-of-innate-immunity-genes-in-a-female-mouse-model-of-pulmonary-fibrosis
#7
Marcin Golec, Matthias Wielscher, Marta Kinga Lemieszek, Klemens Vierlinger, Czesława Skórska, Sophia Huetter, Jolanta Sitkowska, Barbara Mackiewicz, Anna Góra-Florek, Rolf Ziesche, Hagai Yanai, Vadim E Fraifeld, Janusz Milanowski, Jacek Dutkiewicz
The lungs are highly sensitive to tissue fibrosis, with a clear age-related component. Among the possible triggers of pulmonary fibrosis are repeated inhalations of fine organic particles. How age affects this response, is still far from being fully understood. We examined the impact of middle-age on gene expression in pulmonary fibrosis, using the novel "inhalation challenge set" mouse model. Our results demonstrate that the response of female mice to exposure of Pantoea agglomerans extract primarily involves various immune-related pathways and cell-cell/cell-extracellular matrix interactions...
January 16, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093679/effect-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-of-toll-like-receptor-4-tlr-4-on-reproductive-performance-and-immune-function-in-dairy-cows
#8
Takashi Shimizu, Yurie Kawasaki, Yuka Aoki, Fumie Magata, Chiho Kawashima, Akio Miyamoto
In dairy cows, inflammatory diseases caused by infection with pathogenic bacteria post calving affect ovarian functions. This study examined the relationship between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), reproductive performances [the number of artificial insemination (AI) application and days open], and immune cell functions (apoptosis and migration). Two hundred Holstein cows from the Obihiro University farm were included. The SNPs of TLR4 were genotyped by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method...
January 16, 2017: Biochemical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093526/cathepsin-k-deficiency-ameliorates-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-like-manifestations-in-faslpr-mice
#9
Yi Zhou, Huimei Chen, Li Liu, Xueqing Yu, Galina K Sukhova, Min Yang, Vasileios C Kyttaris, Isaac E Stillman, Bruce Gelb, Peter Libby, George C Tsokos, Guo-Ping Shi
Cysteinyl cathepsin K (CatK) is expressed in osteoclasts to mediate bone resorption, but is also inducible under inflammatory conditions. Fas(lpr) mice on a C57BL/6 background develop spontaneous systemic lupus erythematosus-like manifestations. Although normal mouse kidneys expressed negligible CatK, those from Fas(lpr) mice showed elevated CatK expression in the glomeruli and tubulointerstitial space. Fas(lpr) mice also showed elevated serum CatK levels. CatK deficiency in Fas(lpr) mice reduced all tested kidney pathologies, including glomerulus and tubulointerstitial scores, glomerulus complement C3 and IgG deposition, chemokine expression and macrophage infiltration, and serum autoantibodies...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093456/effect-of-lipid-bound-apolipoprotein-a-i-cysteine-mutant-on-atf3-in-raw264-7-cells
#10
Yunlong Wang, Yanhui Wang, Shaoyou Jia, Qingzhe Dong, Yuanbin Chen, Shulai Lu, Lin Hou
Activating Transcription Factor3 (ATF3) is a TLR-induced repressor that plays an important role in the inhibition of specific inflammatory signals. We previously constructed recombinant high density lipoproteins (including rHDLwt, rHDLM, rHDL228, and rHDL74) and found that rHDL74 had a strong anti-inflammatory ability. Here, we investigate of recombinant Apolipoprotein A-I (rHDLwt) and its cysteine mutant HDLs (rHDLM, rHDL228, and rHDL74) on ATF3 function in RAW264.7 cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. Our results showed that compared with the LPS group, rHDL74 can decrease the level of TNF-ɑ and IL-6, whereas rHDL228 increases their expression levels...
January 16, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093114/in-vitro-effects-of-the-toll-like-receptor-agonists-monophosphoryl-lipid-a-and-cpg-rich-oligonucleotides-on-cytokine-production-by-equine-cells
#11
A Ziegler, V Gerber, E Marti
Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an equine allergic dermatitis to Culicoides spp. antigens. Attempts at using allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) as a treatment for IBH have so far proven unsuccessful. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists can promote a shift in the immune response from the allergy-promoting T helper cell 2 (Th2) response towards a Th1 and/or regulatory response. The aim of this study was to evaluate two immunomodulatory TLR agonists in vitro as potential vaccine adjuvants for a more efficacious AIT in IBH...
January 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093098/tlr-induced-immunomodulatory-cytokine-expression-by-human-gingival-stem-progenitor-cells
#12
Mohamed K Mekhemar, Sabine Adam-Klages, Dietrich Kabelitz, Christof E Dörfer, Karim M Fawzy El-Sayed
During therapeutic application, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may interact with their environment via their expressed toll-like-receptors (TLRs) leading to pro- or anti-inflammatory immune responses. The present study aimed to describe the gingival margin-derived stem/progenitor cells' (G-MSCs) TLR-induced immune regulatory response to specific TLR agonists. Gingival cells were obtained, immunomagnetically sorted via anti-STRO-1 antibodies and seeded out to achieve colony forming units (CFUs). G-MSCs were investigated for stem cell characteristics and TLR expression...
January 10, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092772/the-expression-of-endothelin-1-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-is-controlled-by-epigenetic-mechanisms-and-extracellular-stimuli
#13
Silvia Martinelli, Rossana Maffei, Stefania Fiorcari, Chiara Quadrelli, Patrizia Zucchini, Stefania Benatti, Leonardo Potenza, Mario Luppi, Roberto Marasca
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a hormone peptide widely expressed and is involved in several biological processes, important not only for normal cell function but also for tumor development, including cell proliferation, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis and osteogenesis. In accordance, ET-1 was already shown to contribute to the growth and progression of many different solid cancers. We recently demonstrated that ET-1 has a role in the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) where it is abnormally expressed...
December 30, 2016: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090274/the-role-of-m2000-as-an-anti-inflammatory-agent-in-toll-like-receptor-2-microrna-155-pathway
#14
Fatemeh Pourgholi, Mahsa Hajivalili, Rasoul Razavi, Shadi Esmaeili, Behzad Baradaran, Ali Akbar Movasaghpour, Sanam Sadreddini, Hamidreza Goodarzynejad, Abbas Mirshafiey, Mehdi Yousefi
BACKGROUND: M2000 is a newly designed and safe Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of M2000 on expression levels of Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-1 (SOCS-1) and Src Homology-2 domain-containing inositol-5'-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) proteins via Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 2/microRNA-155 pathway. METHODS: HEK293 TLR2 cell line and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) were treated by different concentrations of M2000 in MTT assay...
January 2017: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090010/long-term-outcomes-after-percutaneous-lower-extremity-arterial-interventions-with-atherectomy-vs-balloon-angioplasty%C3%A3-propensity-score-matched-registry
#15
Adam Janas, Piotr P Buszman, Krzysztof P Milewski, Szymon Wiernek, Ksenia Janas, Maciej Pruski, Wojciech Wojakowski, Aleksandra Błachut, Wojciech Picheta, Pawel Buszman, Stefan Kiesz
BACKGROUND: The impact of endovascular revascularization of the lower extremity arteries with atherectomy (AT) compared with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is still unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to compare long-term outcomes after percutaneous PTA and AT in patients requiring endovascular revascularization.Methods and Results:This was a single-center, retrospective registry of obstructive and symptomatic PAD patients who underwent endovascular revascularization...
January 14, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089910/glioblastoma-cancer-stem-cells-evade-innate-immune-suppression-of-self-renewal-through-reduced-tlr4-expression
#16
Alvaro G Alvarado, Praveena S Thiagarajan, Erin E Mulkearns-Hubert, Daniel J Silver, James S Hale, Tyler J Alban, Soumya M Turaga, Awad Jarrar, Ofer Reizes, Michelle S Longworth, Michael A Vogelbaum, Justin D Lathia
Tumors contain hostile inflammatory signals generated by aberrant proliferation, necrosis, and hypoxia. These signals are sensed and acted upon acutely by the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to halt proliferation and activate an immune response. Despite the presence of TLR ligands within the microenvironment, tumors progress, and the mechanisms that permit this growth remain largely unknown. We report that self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSCs) in glioblastoma have low TLR4 expression that allows them to survive by disregarding inflammatory signals...
December 27, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089548/nanoformulation-of-synergistic-tlr-ligands-to-enhance-vaccination-against-entamoeba-histolytica
#17
Mayuresh M Abhyankar, Zannatun Noor, Mark A Tomai, James Elvecrog, Christopher B Fox, William A Petri
Diarrheal infectious diseases represent a major cause of global morbidity and mortality. There is an urgent need for vaccines against diarrheal pathogens, especially parasites. Modern subunit vaccines rely on combining a highly purified antigen with an adjuvant to increase their efficacy. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of a nanoliposome adjuvant system to trigger a strong mucosal immune response to the Entamoeba histolytica Gal/GalNAc lectin LecA antigen. CBA/J mice were immunized with alum, emulsion or liposome based formulations containing synthetic TLR agonists...
January 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089357/localization-of-toll-like-receptor-tlr-2-and-tlr4-mrna-in-the-colorectal-mucosa-of-miniature-dachshunds-with-inflammatory-colorectal-polyps
#18
N Yokoyama, H Ohta, J Yamazaki, Y Kagawa, O Ichii, N Khoirun, T Morita, T Osuga, S Y Lim, N Sasaki, K Morishita, K Nakamura, M Takiguchi
Inflammatory colorectal polyps (ICRPs) are characterized by the formation of multiple or solitary polyps with marked neutrophil infiltration in the colorectal area, and are speculated to be a novel form of breed-specific canine idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In human IBD, toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA in the colorectal mucosa of dogs with ICRPs by in-situ hybridization using an RNAscope assay...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089340/activation-of-nk-cell-cytotoxicity-by-aerosolized-cpg-odn-poly-i-c-against-lung-melanoma-metastases-is-mediated-by-alveolar-macrophages
#19
Michele Sommariva, Valentino Le Noci, Chiara Storti, Francesca Bianchi, Elda Tagliabue, Andrea Balsari, Lucia Sfondrini
Controversies remain about NK cells direct responsiveness to Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists or dependence on macrophages. In a melanoma lung metastasis model, aerosolized TLR9 and TLR3 agonists have been reported to induce antitumor immunity through NK cells activation. In the current study, we demonstrated that in vitro TLR9/TLR3 stimulation induced IFN-γ secretion by NK cells, but an increase in their cytotoxicity was detected only after NK cells co-culture with in vitro TLR9/TLR3 agonists pretreated alveolar macrophages...
January 5, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089248/triggering-receptor-expressed-on-myeloid-cells-1-trem-1-deficiency-augments-baff-production-to-promote-lupus-progression
#20
Chi-Jui Liu, Chang-Youh Tsai, Ssu-Hsuan Chiang, Shye-Jye Tang, Nien-Jung Chen, Tak Wah Mak, Guang-Huan Sun, Kuang-Hui Sun
Sensing of nucleic acids by pattern recognition receptors is the key for the initiation and development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is a novel innate immune receptor, which can amplify Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced inflammatory responses. Although patients with lupus exhibit increased serum levels of soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1), the role of TREM-1 in SLE remains unknown. In current study, we found serum sTREM-1 levels were significantly increased in lupus patients and positively correlated with disease activity...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
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