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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929498/dog-skin-parasite-load-tlr-2-il-10-and-tnf-%C3%AE-expression-and-infectiousness
#1
Dandara Camila Morais Pereira-Fonseca, Fernanda Muller de Oliveira-Rovai, Lílian Aparecida Colebrusco Rodas, Carolina Aparecida Carlin Beloti, Rafaela Beatriz Pintor Torrecilha, Píer Kenji Rauschkolb Katsuda Ito, Saulo Vinícius Avanço, Rafael Silva Cipriano, Yuri Tani Utsunomiya, Roberto Mitsuyoshi Hiramoto, Leontides Calvo-Bado, Orin Courtenay, Gisele Fabrino Machado, Valéria Marçal Felix de Lima, Cáris Maroni Nunes
Visceral leishmaniosis is a zoonotic disease that is transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis sandflies. Dogs are the main peri-urban reservoir of the disease, and progression of canine leishmaniosis is dependent on the type of immune response elaborated against the parasite. Type 1 immunity is characterized by effective cellular response, with production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In contrast, Type 2 immunity is predominantly humoral, associated with progression of the disease, and mediated by anti-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 10 (IL-10)...
September 20, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928749/foxo1-regulates-bacteria-induced-neutrophil-activity
#2
Guangyu Dong, Liang Song, Chen Tian, Yu Wang, Fang Miao, Jiabao Zheng, Chanyi Lu, Sarah Alsadun, Dana T Graves
Neutrophils play an essential role in the innate immune response to microbial infection and are particularly important in clearing bacterial infection. We investigated the role of the transcription factor FOXO1 in the response of neutrophils to bacterial challenge with Porphyromonas gingivalis in vivo and in vitro. In these experiments, the effect of lineage-specific FOXO1 deletion in LyzM.Cre(+)FOXO1(L/L) mice was compared with matched littermate controls. FOXO1 deletion negatively affected several critical aspects of neutrophil function in vivo including mobilization of neutrophils from the bone marrow (BM) to the vasculature, recruitment of neutrophils to sites of bacterial inoculation, and clearance of bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928743/the-toll-for-trafficking-toll-like-receptor-7-delivery-to-the-endosome
#3
REVIEW
Carlene Petes, Natalya Odoardi, Katrina Gee
Toll-like receptor (TLR)-7 is an endosomal innate immune sensor capable of detecting single-stranded ribonucleic acid. TLR7-mediated induction of type I interferon and other inflammatory cytokine production is important in antiviral immune responses. Furthermore, altered TLR7 expression levels are implicated in various autoimmune disorders, indicating a key role for this receptor in modulating inflammation. This review is focused on the regulation of TLR7 expression and localization compared to that of the other endosomal TLRs: TLR3, 8, and 9...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927255/innate-immune-response-of-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells-to-mycoplasma-bovis
#4
Satoshi Gondaira, Hidetoshi Higuchi, Hidetomo Iwano, Koji Nishi, Takanori Nebu, Keiichi Nakajima, Hajime Nagahata
Mycoplasma species are contagious bacteria and Mycoplasma bovis mastitis is a serious productivity problem on dairy farms. Bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) play an important role in the elimination of pathogens, but the effect of M. bovis on bMEC has not been fully clarified. To better understand the immune response against intramammary infection by M. bovis, we used microarray analysis to examine and profile mRNA expression in bMEC after stimulation with M. bovis. We also compared the effects of M. bovis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli on immune-related mRNA expression in bMEC...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924347/the-mechanisms-of-graphene-based-materials-induced-programmed-cell-death-a-review-of-apoptosis-autophagy-and-programmed-necrosis
#5
REVIEW
Lingling Ou, Shaoqiang Lin, Bin Song, Jia Liu, Renfa Lai, Longquan Shao
Graphene-based materials (GBMs) are widely used in many fields, including biomedicine. To date, much attention had been paid to the potential unexpected toxic effects of GBMs. Here, we review the recent literature regarding the impact of GBMs on programmed cell death (PCD). Apoptosis, autophagy, and programmed necrosis are three major PCDs. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that the mitochondrial pathways and MAPKs (JNK, ERK, and p38)- and TGF-β-related signaling pathways are implicated in GBMs-induced apoptosis...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924177/loss-of-mapk-activated-protein-kinase-2-enables-potent-dendritic-cell-driven-anti-tumour-t-cell-response
#6
Klara Soukup, Angela Halfmann, Barbara Dillinger, Fiona Poyer, Katharina Martin, Bernadette Blauensteiner, Maximilian Kauer, Mario Kuttke, Gernot Schabbauer, Alexander M Dohnal
Maintaining dendritic cells (DC) in a state of dysfunction represents a key mechanism by which tumour cells evade recognition and elimination by the immune system. Limited knowledge about the intracellular mediators of DC dysfunction restricts success of therapies aimed at reactivating a DC-driven anti-tumour immune response. Using a cell type-specific murine knock-out model, we have identified MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) as a major guardian of a suppressive DC phenotype in the melanoma tumour microenvironment...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924041/irak4-kinase-activity-controls-toll-like-receptor-induced-inflammation-through-the-transcription-factor-irf5-in-primary-human-monocytes
#7
Leah Cushing, Aaron Winkler, Scott A Jelinsky, Katherine Lee, Wouter Korver, Rachael Hawtin, Vikram R Rao, Margaret Fleming, Lih-Ling Lin
Interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) plays a critical role in innate immune signaling by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and loss of IRAK4 activity in mice and humans increases susceptibility to bacterial infections and causes defects in TLR and IL1 ligand sensing. However, the mechanism by which IRAK4 activity regulates the production of downstream inflammatory cytokines is unclear. Using transcriptomic and biochemical analyses of human monocytes treated with a highly potent and selective inhibitor of IRAK4, we show that IRAK4 kinase activity controls the activation of the transcription factor IRF5, a transcription factor implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple autoimmune diseases...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921471/tlr-agonists-as-adjuvants-for-cancer-vaccines
#8
Ji-Kun Li, Jesse J Balic, Liang Yu, Brendan Jenkins
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are one of the best characterised families of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and play a critical role in the host defence to infection. Accumulating evidence indicates that TLRs also participate in maintaining tissue homeostasis by controlling inflammation and tissue repair, as well as promoting antitumour effects via activation and modulation of adaptive immune responses. TLR agonists have successfully been exploited to ameliorate the efficacy of various cancer therapies. In this chapter, we will discuss the rationales of using TLR agonists as adjuvants to cancer treatments and summarise the recent findings of preclinical and clinical studies of TLR agonist-based cancer therapies...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921466/roles-of-hdacs-in-the-responses-of-innate-immune-cells-and-as-targets-in-inflammatory-diseases
#9
Yiqun Hu, Bandar Ali Suliman
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are an emerging class of molecules involved in the epigenetic regulation of innate immune responses through Toll-like receptor (TLR) and interferon (IFN) signaling pathways. HDACs are also key drivers of inflammatory diseases via epigenetic regulation through chromatin DNA and histone modification by methylation and acetylation, among other mechanisms, which control innate immune cell gene expression. Importantly, these epigenetic changes are reversible, and HDACs may also be targeted by small-molecule HDAC inhibitors, which have been used in clinical settings for cancer therapy...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921464/posttranslational-modification-control-of-inflammatory-signaling
#10
Yibo Si, Yunlu Zhang, Zijuan Chen, Ruixue Zhou, Yihua Zhang, Doudou Hao, Dapeng Yan
Inflammation is usually the defensive reaction of the immune system to the invasion of pathogen and the exogenous objects. The activation of inflammation helps our body to eliminate pathogenic microbe, virus, and parasite harming our health, while under many circumstances inflammation is the direct cause of the pathological damage in tissues and dysfunction of organs. The posttranslational modification (PTM) of the inflammatory pathways, such as TLR pathways, RLR pathways, NLR pathway, intracellular DNA sensors, intracellular RNA sensors, and inflammasomes, is crucial in the regulation of these signaling trails...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921377/basophils-activated-via-tlr-signaling-may-contribute-to-pathophysiology-of-type-1-autoimmune-pancreatitis
#11
Masato Yanagawa, Kazushige Uchida, Yugo Ando, Takashi Tomiyama, Takashi Yamaguchi, Tsukasa Ikeura, Toshiro Fukui, Akiyoshi Nishio, Yoshiko Uemura, Takayuki Miyara, Hiroyuki Okamoto, Souhei Satoi, Kazuichi Okazaki
BACKGROUND: Pathophysiology of type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is still unclear. We previously reported that M2 macrophages might play an important role in type 1 AIP. Recently, it has been reported that basophils regulate differentiation to M2 macrophages. In this study, we investigated basophils from the pancreatic tissue and peripheral blood of individuals with type 1 AIP. METHODS: By using immunohistochemistry, we investigated basophils in pancreatic tissue from 13 patients with type 1 AIP and examined expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs) by these cells...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919708/alginate-oligosaccharide-indirectly-affects-toll-like-receptor-signaling-via-the-inhibition-of-microrna-29b-in-aneurysm-patients-after-endovascular-aortic-repair
#12
Yong Yang, Zhenhuan Ma, Guokai Yang, Jia Wan, Guojian Li, Lingjuan Du, Ping Lu
Endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) is often followed by aneurysm recurrence. Alginate oligosaccharide (AOS) has potential antitumor properties as a natural product while the related mechanisms remain unclear. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is associated with inflammatory activity of aneurysm and may be affected by miR-29b. Thus, inhibitory function of AOS on aneurysms was explored by measuring the important molecules in TLR4 signaling. After EVAR, a total of 248 aortic aneurysm patients were recruited and randomly assigned into two groups: AOS group (AG, oral administration 10-mg AOS daily) and control group (CG, placebo daily)...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916728/association-between-tlr-9-gene-rs187084-polymorphism-and-knee-osteoarthritis-in-a-chinese-population
#13
Mingfeng Zheng, Shiyuan Shi, Qi Zheng, Yifan Wang, Xiaozhang Ying, Yanghui Jin
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex disease that is induced by many genetic risk variants and other factors. To examine the role of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9) in OA patients, we conducted a case-control study involving 215 knee OA (KOA) patients and 215 controls in a Chinese population. Genotyping with a custom-by-design 48-Plex single nucleotide polymorphism Scan™ Kit showed the TLR-9 gene rs187084 polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of KOA. Stratification analyses further validated this finding among old people (age ≥ 55y)...
September 15, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912881/immune-regulation-of-mir-30-on-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-induced-tlr-myd88-signaling-pathway-in-thp-1-cells
#14
Yuqing Wu, Qi Sun, Liang Dai
The present study aimed to examine the expression of microRNA (miR)-30 family members in THP-1 human monocytes cells during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) H37Rv infection, and to investigate the role of miR-30 in the regulation of MTB-induced Toll-like receptor (TLR)/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) activation and cytokine expression. The THP-1 cells were infected with MTB H37Rv and the expression of miR-30 family members was determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912808/association-of-polymorphisms-in-toll-like-receptors-4-and-9-with-autoimmune-thyroid-disease-in-korean-pediatric-patients
#15
Won Kyoung Cho, Jung-Pil Jang, Eun-Jeong Choi, Moonbae Ahn, Shin Hee Kim, Kyoung Soon Cho, So Hyun Park, In Cheol Baek, Min Ho Jung, Tai-Gyu Kim, Byung-Kyu Suh
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been suggested to be associated with the development of AITD. METHODS: Fifteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 7 TLR genes were analyzed in 104 Korean children (girls = 86, boys = 18) with AITD (Hashimoto disease (HD) = 44, Graves' disease (GD) = 60, thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) = 29, and non-TAO = 31) with 183 controls. RESULTS: GD showed higher frequencies of the TLR4 rs1927911 C allele than control...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912382/versican-is-produced-by-trif-and-type-i-interferon-dependent-signaling-in-macrophages-and-contributes-to-fine-control-of-innate-immunity-in-lungs
#16
Mary Y Chang, Inkyung Kang, Michael Gale, Anne M Manicone, Michael G Kinsella, Kathleen R Braun, Tara Wigmosta, William C Parks, William A Altemeier, Thomas N Wight, Charles W Frevert
Growing evidence suggests that versican is important in the innate immune response to lung infection. Our goal was to understand the regulation of macrophage-derived versican and the role it plays in innate immunity. We first defined the signaling events that regulate versican expression using bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) from mice lacking specific Toll-like receptors (TLR), TLR adaptor molecules or the type I interferon receptor (IFNAR1). We show that LPS and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [Poly(I:C)] trigger a signaling cascade involving TLR3 or 4, the Trif adaptor, Type I interferons and IFNAR1, leading to increased expression of versican by macrophages and implicating versican as an interferon-stimulated gene...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911368/systemic-adiponectin-treatment-reverses-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-like-features-in-an-animal-model
#17
Anusha Singh, Puran Bora, Amitabh Krishna
The present study examined the efficacy of adiponectin for regulating the reproductive, metabolic and fertility status of mice with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS was induced in prepubertal (21- to 22-day-old) mice using dehydroepiandrosterone (6mg 100g-1day-1 for 25days), after which mice were administered either a low or high dose of adiponectin (5 or 15µgmL-1, s.c., respectively). PCOS mice exhibited typical features, including the presence of numerous cystic follicles, increased circulating androgens, increased body mass, altered steroidogenesis, decreased insulin receptor expression and increased serum triglycerides, serum glucose, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 (a marker of inflammation) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; a marker of angiogenesis)...
September 15, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910320/differential-gene-expression-following-tlr-stimulation-in-rag1-mutant-zebrafish-tissues-and-morphological-descriptions-of-lymphocyte-like-cell-populations
#18
Preeti J Muire, Larry A Hanson, Robert Wills, Lora Petrie-Hanson
In the absence of lymphocytes, rag1-/- mutant zebrafish develop protective immunity to bacteria. In mammals, induction of protection by innate immunity can be mediated by macrophages or natural killer (NK) cells. To elucidate potential responsive cell populations, we morphologically characterized lymphocyte-like cells (LLCs) from liver, spleen and kidney hematopoietic tissues. In fish, these cells include NK cells and Non-specific cytotoxic cells (NCCs). We also evaluated the transcriptional expression response of select genes that are important indicators of NK and macrophage activation after exposure to specific TLR ligands...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906208/pattern-recognition-receptors-signaling-pathways-and-dysregulation-in-canine-chronic-enteropathies-brief-review
#19
Romy M Heilmann, Karin Allenspach
Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) are expressed by innate immune cells and recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) as well as endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules. With a large potential for synergism or convergence between their signaling pathways, PRRs orchestrate a complex interplay of cellular mediators and transcription factors, and thus play a central role in homeostasis and host defense. Aberrant activation of PRR signaling, mutations of the receptors and/or their downstream signaling molecules, and/or DAMP/PAMP complex-mediated receptor signaling can potentially lead to chronic auto-inflammatory diseases or development of cancer...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905155/association-of-tlr4-gene-polymorphisms-with-childhood-henoch-sch%C3%A3-nlein-purpura-in-a-chinese-population
#20
Hui Xu, Guizhen Jiang, Hongqiang Shen, Wei Li, Jianhua Mao, Yanxiang Pan
Recent studies demonstrated that aberrant activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 was involved in the pathogenesis of Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP). In this study, we evaluated the association between TLR4 gene polymorphisms and the risk of childhood HSP in a Chinese population. A total of 175 HSP patients and 186 controls were recruited in this case-control study. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the TLR4 gene (rs1927914, rs10759932 and rs1927907) were genotyped using the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and Sequenom MassARRAY system...
September 13, 2017: Rheumatology International
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