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TLR -3

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444548/post-effect-of-air-quality-improvement-on-biomarkers-for-systemic-inflammation-and-microparticles-in-asthma-patients-after-the-2008-beijing-olympic-games-a-pilot-study
#1
Jinming Gao, Xiaohua Xu, Zhekang Ying, Lei Jiang, Mianhua Zhong, Aixia Wang, Lung-Chi Chen, Bo Lu, Qinghua Sun
This study's aim was to investigate the post-effect of an air quality improvement on systemic inflammation and circulating microparticles in asthmatic patients during, and 2 months after, the Beijing Olympics 2008. We measured the levels of circulating inflammatory cytokines and microparticles in the peripheral blood from asthma patients and healthy controls during (phase 1), and 2 months after (phase 2) the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. The concentrations of circulating cytokines (including TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) were still seen reduced in phase 2 when compared with those in phase 1...
April 25, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443609/the-hiv-1-viral-synapse-signals-human-foreskin-keratinocytes-to-secrete-thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-facilitating-hiv-1-foreskin-entry
#2
Z Zhou, L Xu, A Sennepin, C Federici, Y Ganor, D Tudor, D Damotte, N Barry Delongchamps, M Zerbib, M Bomsel
The complexity of signal transduction resulting from the contact of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected cells and mucosal cells has hampered our comprehension of HIV-1 mucosal entry. Such process is driven efficiently only by viral synapse contacts, whereas cell-free HIV-1 remains poorly infectious. Using CD4(+) T-cells expressing only HIV-1 envelope inoculated on human adult foreskin tissues, we designed methodologies to identify the signals transduced in foreskin keratinocytes following HIV-1-envelope-dependent viral synapse formation...
April 26, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442574/the-r753q-polymorphism-in-toll-like-receptor-2-tlr2-attenuates-innate-immune-responses-to-mycobacteria-and-impairs-myd88-adapter-recruitment-to-tlr2
#3
Goutham Pattabiraman, Rahul Panchal, Andrei E Medvedev
Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 plays a critical role in host defenses against mycobacterial infections. The Arg753Gln (R753Q) TLR2 polymorphism has been associated with increased incidence of tuberculosis and infections with non-tuberculous mycobacteria in human populations, but the mechanisms by which this polymorphism affects TLR2 signaling are unclear. In this study, we determined the impact of the R753Q TLR2 polymorphism on macrophage sensing of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Upon infection with M. smegmatis, macrophages from knock-in (KI) mice harboring R753Q TLR2 expressed lower levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 compared to cells from wild-type (WT) mice but both R753Q TLR2 and WT mice exhibited comparable bacterial burdens...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440496/pu-1-serves-a-critical-role-in-the-innate-defense-against-aspergillus%C3%A2-fumigatus-via-dendritic-cell-associated-c-type-lectin-receptor-1-and-toll-like-receptors-2-and-4-in-thp-1-derived-macrophages
#4
Chenyang Liu, Min Wang, Wenkui Sun, Feng Cai, Shen Geng, Xin Su, Yi Shi
Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) is one of the most common fungal pathogens of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), which may be life threatening in immunocompromised individuals. The dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin receptor (Dectin-1), toll‑like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-4 are major pattern recognition receptors in alveolar macrophages that recognize A. fumigatus components. The PU.1 transcription factor is known to be important for the transcriptional control of these three receptors in mature macrophages...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439546/inositol-polyphosphate-multikinase-promotes-toll-like-receptor-induced-inflammation-by-stabilizing-traf6
#5
Eunha Kim, Jiyoon Beon, Seulgi Lee, Seung Ju Park, Hyoungjoon Ahn, Min Gyu Kim, Jeong Eun Park, Wooseob Kim, Jae-Min Yuk, Suk-Jo Kang, Seung-Hyo Lee, Eun-Kyeong Jo, Rho Hyun Seong, Seyun Kim
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is tightly controlled to protect hosts from microorganisms while simultaneously preventing uncontrolled immune responses. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a critical mediator of TLR signaling, but the precise mechanism of how TRAF6 protein stability is strictly controlled still remains obscure. We show that myeloid-specific deletion of inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK), which has both inositol polyphosphate kinase activities and noncatalytic signaling functions, protects mice against polymicrobial sepsis and lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammation...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439271/cross-talk-between-inhibitory-immunoreceptor-tyrosine-based-activation-motif-signaling-and-toll-like-receptor-pathways-in-macrophages-and-dendritic-cells
#6
REVIEW
Ivan Hirsch, Vaclav Janovec, Ruzena Stranska, Nathalie Bendriss-Vermare
The innate immune cells sense microbial infection and self-ligands by pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) and regulatory receptors (RRs), associated with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). Rapid activation and concerted action of PRRs signaling and feedback inhibitory mechanisms must be engaged to ensure the host defense functions and to prevent cytotoxicity associated with excessive activation. ITAM-associated RRs can generate stimulatory or, paradoxically, inhibitory signals...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432355/basal-autophagy-prevents-autoactivation-or-enhancement-of-inflammatory-signals-by-targeting-monomeric-myd88
#7
Takeshi Into, Toshi Horie, Megumi Inomata, Jin Gohda, Jun-Ichiro Inoue, Yukitaka Murakami, Shumpei Niida
Autophagy, the processes of delivery of intracellular components to lysosomes, regulates induction of inflammation. Inducible macroautophagy degrades inflammasomes and dysfunctional mitochondria to downregulate inflammatory signals. Nonetheless, the effects of constitutive basal autophagy on inflammatory signals are largely unknown. Here, we report a previously unknown effect of basal autophagy. Lysosomal inhibition induced weak inflammatory signals in the absence of a cellular stimulus and in the presence of a nutrient supply, and their induction was impaired by MyD88 deficiency...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432254/tlr4-defective-c3h-hej-mice-are-not-protected-from-cast-immobilization-induced-muscle-atrophy
#8
Noriaki Kawanishi, Risa Nozaki, Hisashi Naito, Shuichi Machida
Recent studies have shown that activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 signaling may be an important factor in muscle atrophy and excessive inflammatory response associated with immobilization. To examine the role of TLR4 signaling on cast immobilization-induced skeletal muscle atrophy, we tested the hypothesis that muscle atrophy and inflammation after cast immobilization is reduced in TLR4-defective mice. TLR4-defective (C3H/HeJ) and wild type (C3H/HeN) mice were divided into control and cast-immobilization groups...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432147/cutting-edge-a-dual-tlr2-and-tlr7-ligand-induces-highly-potent-humoral-and-cell-mediated-immune-responses
#9
Alice Gutjahr, Laura Papagno, Francesco Nicoli, Alain Lamoureux, Fabienne Vernejoul, Thierry Lioux, Emma Gostick, David A Price, Gérard Tiraby, Eric Perouzel, Victor Appay, Bernard Verrier, Stéphane Paul
TLR agonists are currently being developed and tested as adjuvants in various formulations to optimize the immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunostimulatory properties of a novel compound incorporating covalently linked moieties designed to stimulate both TLR2 and TLR7. This dual TLR2/TLR7 agonist induced the maturation of dendritic cells and primed substantial populations of cytolytic and highly polyfunctional effector CD8(+) T cells in vitro, and safely potentiated the immunogenic properties of a nanoparticulate Ag in vivo, eliciting humoral responses with a balanced TH1/TH2 profile in mice...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431112/long-term-survival-of-the-mouse-es-cell-derived-mast-cell-medmc-brc6-in-mast-cell-deficient-kitw-sh-w-sh-mice
#10
Shohei Shibagaki, Satoko Tahara-Hanaoka, Takashi Hiroyama, Yukio Nakamura, Akira Shibuya
Mast cells (MCs) play pivotal roles in allergic reactions and the host defense against microbial infection through the immunoglobulin E (IgE)-dependent and IgE-independent signaling pathways. MC lines that can be analyzed both in vitro and in vivo would be useful for the study of MC-dependent immune responses. Here we investigated the functional characteristics of a mouse ES cell-derived mast cell-like cell line, MEDMC-BRC6. The cell line expressed FcεRI and c-Kit and showed degranulation and production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokine, including TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1, upon crosslinking FcεRI with IgE...
April 18, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429728/a-formulated-tlr7-8-agonist-is-a-flexible-highly-potent-and-effective-adjuvant-for-pandemic-influenza-vaccines
#11
Neal Van Hoeven, Christopher B Fox, Brian Granger, Tara Evers, Sharvari W Joshi, Ghislain I Nana, Sarah C Evans, Susan Lin, Hong Liang, Li Liang, Rie Nakajima, Philip L Felgner, Richard A Bowen, Nicole Marlenee, Airn Hartwig, Susan L Baldwin, Rhea N Coler, Mark Tomai, James Elvecrog, Steven G Reed, Darrick Carter
Since 1997, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype have been transmitted from avian hosts to humans. The severity of H5N1 infection in humans, as well as the sporadic nature of H5N1 outbreaks, both geographically and temporally, make generation of an effective vaccine a global public health priority. An effective H5N1 vaccine must ultimately provide protection against viruses from diverse clades. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist adjuvant formulations have a demonstrated ability to broaden H5N1 vaccine responses in pre-clinical models...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429188/18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-uptake-on-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-is-associated-with-metastasis-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#12
Misu Lee, Jeong Yong Jeon, Micheal L Neugent, Jung-Whan Kim, Mijin Yun
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Several studies have investigated the relationship between (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake on positron emission tomography and the prognosis of patients with HCC, although the relationship between (18)F-FDG uptake and expression of EMT-related proteins in these patients remains unclear. We retrospectively enrolled 116 patients with HCC treated by curative surgical resection and who underwent (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for preoperative staging...
April 20, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428828/bioinformatics-analysis-of-key-genes-and-latent-pathway-interactions-based-on-the-anaplastic-thyroid-carcinoma-gene-expression-profile
#13
Yun Huang, Yiming Tao, Xinying Li, Shi Chang, Bo Jiang, Feng Li, Zhi-Ming Wang
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is an aggressive malignant disease in older adults with a high mortality rate. The present study aimed to examine several key genes and pathways, which are associated with ATC. The GSE33630 gene expression profile was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, which included 11 ATC and 45 normal thyroid samples. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in ATC were identified using the Limma package in R. The Gene Ontology functions and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways of the selected DEGs were enriched using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery...
January 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426135/tlr-stimulated-eosinophils-mediate-recruitment-and-activation-of-nk-cells-in-vivo
#14
Shaunagh M O'Flaherty, Kripitch Sutummaporn, Walina L Häggtoft, Amy P Worrall, Marzia Rizzo, Viorica Braniste, Petter Höglund, Nadir Kadri, Benedict J Chambers
Eosinophils like many myeloid innate immune cells can provide cytokines and chemokines for the activation of other immune cells upon TLR stimulation. When TLR stimulated eosinophils were inoculated i.p. into wildtype mice, NK cells were rapidly recruited and exhibited anti-tumor cytotoxicity. However when mice depleted of CD11c(+) cells were used, a marked decrease in the number of recruited NK cells was observed. We postulated that CpG or LPS from the injected eosinophils could be transferred to host cells, which in turn could recruit NK cells...
April 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425217/the-release-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-is-mediated-via-map-kinases-rather-than-inflammasome-signaling-pathway-in-keratinocytes
#15
Thomas Ondet, Béatrice Muscatelli-Groux, Cédric Coulouarn, Sacha Robert, Thomas Gicquel, Aude Bodin, Vincent Lagente, Jean-Alexis Grimaud
Toll like receptors (TLRs) are expressed in the skin and airway epithelial tissues, which are the most important sites of host-pathogen interactions. TLRs recognize the three-dimensional structure of pathogen associated molecules and are thus useful markers of the innate immune response. Here, we investigated the role of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in the activation of the TLR and Nod Like Receptors (NLR) pathways in human keratinocytes. Analysis of the inflammasome compounds revealed that NLRP3 and TLR4, both of which are components of inflammasome complexes involved in the activation of IL-1β, were not expressed in keratinocytes...
April 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424405/the-bruton-s-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-ibrutinib-exerts-immunomodulatory-effects-through-regulation-of-tumor-infiltrating-macrophages
#16
Lingyan Ping, Ning Ding, Yunfei Shi, Lixia Feng, Jiao Li, Yalu Liu, Yufu Lin, Cunzhen Shi, Xing Wang, Zhengying Pan, Yuqin Song, Jun Zhu
The Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) inhibitor ibrutinib has demonstrated promising efficacy in a variety of hematologic malignancies. However, the precise mechanism of action of the drug remains to be fully elucidated. Tumor-infiltrating macrophages presented in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to promote development and progression of B-cell lymphomas through crosstalk mediated by secreted cytokines and chemokines. Because Btk has been implicated in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways that regulate macrophage activation and production of proinflammatory cytokines, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of Btk inhibitor on macrophages...
April 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424289/disruption-of-mda5-mediated-innate-immune-responses-by-the-3c-proteins-of-coxsackievirus-a16-coxsackievirus-a6-and-enterovirus-d68
#17
Yajuan Rui, Jiaming Su, Hong Wang, Junliang Chang, Shaohua Wang, Wenwen Zheng, Yong Cai, Wei Wei, James T Gordy, Richard Markham, Wei Kong, Wenyan Zhang, Xiao-Fang Yu
Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16), A6 (CV-A6), and enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) belong to the Picornaviridae family and are major causes of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and pediatric respiratory disease worldwide. The biological characteristics of these viruses, especially their interplay with the host innate immune system, have not been well investigated. In this study, we discovered that the 3C(pro) proteins from CV-A16, CV-A6, and EV-D68 bind MDA5 and inhibit its interaction with MAVS. Consequently, MDA5-triggered type I IFN signaling in the RLR pathway was blocked by CV-A16, CV-A6, and EV-D68 3C(pro) Furthermore, CV-A16, CV-A6, and EV-D68 3C(pro) all cleave TAK1, resulting in inhibition of NF-κB activation, a host response also critical for toll-like receptor (TLR) mediated signaling...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424222/randomized-comparison-of-paclitaxel-eluting-balloon-angioplasty-plus-stenting-versus-standard-balloon-angioplasty-plus-stenting-versus-directional-atherectomy-for-symptomatic-femoral-artery-disease-isar-stath
#18
Ilka Ott, Salvatore Cassese, Philipp Groha, Birgit Steppich, Martin Hadamitzky, Tareq Ibrahim, Sebastian Kufner, Karl Dewitz, Regina V Hiendlmayer, Karl-Ludwig Laugwitz, Heribert Schunkert, Adnan Kastrati, Massimiliano Fusaro
Background -Atherosclerosis in the superficial femoral artery (SFA) is common in patients suffering from peripheral artery disease. Paclitaxel-eluting balloon (PEB) angioplasty, stenting and directional atherectomy (DA) have provided new options for the treatment of SFA disease, however the comparative efficacy remains uncertain. Methods -One hundred and fifty five patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease with de novo SFA stenotic or occlusive lesions were randomized to treatment with plain balloon angioplasty (BA) followed by PEB angioplasty and stenting (n=48), BA followed by stenting (n=52) or directional DA with distal protection and bailout stenting (n=55)...
April 19, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421541/systemic-inflammation-as-a-driver-of-brain-injury-the-astrocyte-as-an-emerging-player
#19
Bruna Bellaver, João Paulo Dos Santos, Douglas Teixeira Leffa, Larissa Daniele Bobermin, Paola Haack Amaral Roppa, Iraci Lucena da Silva Torres, Carlos-Alberto Gonçalves, Diogo Onofre Souza, André Quincozes-Santos
Severe systemic inflammation has strong effects on brain functions, promoting permanent neurocognitive dysfunction and high mortality rates. Additionally, hippocampal damage seems to be directly involved in this process and astrocytes play an important role in neuroinflammation and in the neuroimmune response. However, the contribution of the astrocytes to the pathology of acute brain dysfunction is not well understood. Recently, our group established a protocol for obtaining astrocyte cultures from mature brain to allow the characterization of these cells and their functions under pathologic conditions...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421187/subset-specific-expression-of-toll-like-receptors-by-bovine-afferent-lymph-dendritic-cells
#20
Dirk Werling, Jayne C Hope, Nazneen Siddiqui, Stephanie Widdison, Chris Russell, Paul Sopp, Tracey J Coffey
Within the ruminant system, several possibilities exist to generate dendritic cells migrating out from the tissue into the regional draining lymph nodes as afferent lymph dendritic cells (ALDCs). Here, we analyzed toll-like receptor (TLR) 1-10 mRNA expression by using quantitative real-time PCR in highly purified subsets of bovine ALDC. As TLR expression may be influenced by pathogens or vaccines and their adjuvant, it is necessary to understand what TLRs are expressed in a steady-state system to elucidate specific differences and to potentially optimize targeted vaccines...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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