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toll like receptor 3

Temet M McMichael, Yu Zhang, Adam D Kenney, Lizhi Zhang, Ashley Zani, Mijia Lu, Mahesh Chemudupati, Jianrong Li, Jacob S Yount
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) utilizes a bifurcated cellular entry strategy, fusing either with the plasma membrane or, after endocytosis, with the endosome membrane. Whether cellular factors restrict or enhance either entry pathway is largely unknown. We found that the interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) inhibits hMPV infection to an extent similar to endocytosis-inhibiting drugs, and an IFITM3 variant that accumulates at the plasma membrane in addition to its endosome localization provided increased virus restriction...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Mieke Gouwy, Mieke De Buck, Sara Abouelasrar Salama, Jennifer Vandooren, Sofie Knoops, Noëmie Pörtner, Lotte Vanbrabant, Nele Berghmans, Ghislain Opdenakker, Paul Proost, Jo Van Damme, Sofie Struyf
Serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) is a prototypic acute phase protein, induced to extremely high levels by physical insults, including inflammation and infection. Human SAA and its NH2 -terminal part have been studied extensively in the context of amyloidosis. By contrast, little is known about COOH-terminal fragments of SAA. Intact SAA1 chemoattracts leukocytes via the G protein-coupled receptor formyl peptide receptor like 1/formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2). In addition to direct leukocyte activation, SAA1 induces chemokine production by signaling through toll-like receptor 2...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Isabel M Gimeno, Ayanna Glaize, Aneg L Cortes
The effect of two Marek's disease (MD) vaccines on the chicken embryo immune responses were evaluated. Transcription of interferon (IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-λ, and IFN-γ) and interferon-I receptors (IFN-AR1 and IFN-AR2), as well as transcription of toll like receptors (TLR-3, TLR-7, and TLR-21) were evaluated in the bursa, thymus, spleen and lung of 1-day-old chickens that had been vaccinated with HVT, CVI988, or sham inoculated at embryonic day 18 (ED18). Each vaccine had a unique effect on the transcription of the evaluated genes and it differs among tissues...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Mahsa Naghizadeh, Behzad Baradaran, Maryam Saghafi-Asl, Parichehr Amiri, Dariush Shanehbandi, Nahid Karamzad, Leila Mohamed-Khosroshahi
It is still unclear whether toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and serum levels of inflammatory markers in metabolically unhealthy abdominally obese (MUAO) are due to their obesity and/or their metabolic state. We hypothesized that abdominal obesity is an important mediator of the association of metabolic state with TLR signaling and serum inflammatory markers. Therefore, in this case-control study, we compared the expression levels of TLR4 and Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain containing adaptor protein-inducing interferon β (TRIF) and serum concentrations of interferon β and lipoprotein-binding protein (LBP) in metabolically healthy abdominally obese (MHAO) and MUAO individuals...
July 2018: Nutrition Research
Robert W Wilkinson, Andrew J Leishman
Significant advances have been made to identify effective therapies that either restore or generate de novo a patient's immune response to cancer, so-called immunotherapy or immuno-oncology (IO) therapies. Some tumors overcome immune surveillance by promoting mechanisms to evade or suppress the immune system. This conference report highlights the clinical promise and current challenges of IO therapy, including the use of immune-checkpoint antagonist monoclonal antibodies. Furthermore, this report investigates advances in preclinical modeling of cancer immunobiology and how this is helping our understanding of which patients will receive clinical benefits from current immune-checkpoint treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yasir Abdul, Mohammed Abdelsaid, Weiguo Li, R Clinton Webb, Jennifer C Sullivan, Guangkuo Dong, Adviye Ergul
Diabetes increases the risk of occurrence and poor functional recovery after ischemic stroke injury. Previously, we have demonstrated greater hemorrhagic transformation (HT), edema, and more severe functional deficits after stroke in diabetic animals that also presented with cerebral vasoregression and endothelial cell death in the recovery period. Given that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) activation in microvascular endothelial cells triggers a robust inflammatory response, we hypothesized that inhibition of TLR-4 signaling prevents endothelial cell death and improves outcomes after stroke...
June 16, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Emerson Krock, Magali Millecamps, J Brooke Currie, Laura S Stone, Lisbet Haglund
OBJECTIVE: Intervertebral disc degeneration is a leading cause of chronic low back pain but current treatment is limited. Toll-like receptors (TLR) on disc cells are activated by endogenous extracellular matrix fragments and modulate degeneration in vitro. This study investigated whether inhibiting TLR4 slows disc degeneration and reduces behavioral signs of LBP in vivo. DESIGN: 7-9-month old wild-type and SPARC-null (a model of disc degeneration and LBP) male mice were treated with TAK-242 (TLR4 inhibitor) once, and following a 10-day washout, mice were treated 3 times/week for 8 weeks...
June 14, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
C B Jacometo, A S Alharthi, Z Zhou, D Luchini, J J Loor
Pregnancy and early life are critical periods during which environmental factors such as nutrition can affect development. Rumen-protected methionine (Met; RPM) supplementation during the prepartum period improves not only performance but immune responses in dairy cows. We investigated the effects of enhanced maternal supply of Met via feeding RPM on whole-blood in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0, 0.01, or 5 μg/mL of blood) challenge and targeted microRNA and mRNA abundance in calf blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL)...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Juan Bai, Jinyi Zhao, Dongxiao Cui, Fan Wang, Ying Song, Lianghua Cheng, Kai Gao, Jin Wang, Long Li, Shujun Li, Yanyan Jia, Aidong Wen
This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced acute kidney injury via the TLR4/NF-κB pathway, both in vitro and in vivo. Rats were subjected to removal of the right kidney and I/R injury to the left kidney. Rats subjected to renal I/R injury were treated with HSYA at 0.5 h prior to I/R injury. Renal function, histopathological analysis, and cells apoptosis were measured in vivo. In vitro, proximal renal tubular cells (HK-2) were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Swathi Balaji, Makhdum Ahmed, Elizabeth Lorence, Fangfang Yan, Krystle Nomie, Michael Wang
Mantle cell lymphoma is an aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin B cell lymphoma that is characterized by a poor prognosis determined by Ki67 and Mantle Cell International Prognostic Index scores, but it is becoming increasingly treatable. The majority of patients, especially if young, achieve a progression-free survival of at least 5 years. Mantle cell lymphoma can initially be treated with an anti-CD20 antibody in combination with a chemotherapy backbone, such as VR-CAP (the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab administered with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and prednisone) or R-CHOP (the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab administered with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
Hanan Abdelmawgoud, Asmaa Saleh
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are of increased importance because of their capacity to counteract inflammation and suppress host immune responses. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of MSCs and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Paw swelling was assessed by measuring the thickness of the hind paws using a caliper. Cytokines - interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), and IL-10 - and rheumatoid factor (RF) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits...
June 15, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Alexia F P Lépine, Paul de Vos
SCOPE: Synbiotic effects of dietary fibers and lactobacilli are usually explained by synergistic modulation of gut-microbiota. New insight however has demonstrated that both dietary fibers and lactobacilli can directly stimulate immune cells and benefit consumer-immunity. Here we investigated synergistic effects of immune-active long-chain inulin (lcITF) and L. acidophilus W37 (LaW37) on dendritic cells (DCs). METHODS AND RESULTS: Effects of lcITF and LaW37 alone or combined were studied on Toll-like receptor (TLRs) signaling and cytokine secretion by DCs in the presence and absence of media of intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) exposed to the ingredients...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Yi Yuan, Ling Zhao, Ning Ma, Zhuang Ye, Zhenyu Jiang, Congqiu Chu
Objectives: This study aims to assess the complement 3 (C3) expressions in whole blood cells and verify a pathway toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)/ transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1)/C3 for C3 regulation in mediating thrombocytopenia (TCP) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients and methods: The study included 63 newly diagnosed SLE patients (2 males, 61 females; mean age 39.5 years; range 15 to 67 years). Whole blood messenger ribonucleic acid expression for C3, TLR9 and TGF-β1 were measured by quantitative reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction in SLE patients with TCP (n=38) and age- and sex-matched SLE patients without TCP (n=25) at baseline and in 10 SLE patients with TCP after four weeks of treatment...
December 2017: Archives of Rheumatology
Rajan Kumar Pandey, Rupal Ojha, Amit Mishra, Vijay Kumar Prajapati
The Zika virus is a rapidly spreading Aedes mosquito-borne sickness, which creates an unanticipated linkage birth deformity and neurological turmoil. This study represents the use of the combinatorial immunoinformatics approach to develop a multiepitope subunit vaccine using the structural and nonstructural proteins of the Zika virus. The designed subunit vaccine consists of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte and helper T-lymphocyte epitopes accompanied by suitable adjuvant and linkers. The presence of humoral immune response specific B-cell epitopes was also confirmed by B-cell epitope mapping among vaccine protein...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
David B Bartlett, Leslie H Willis, Cris A Slentz, Andrew Hoselton, Leslie Kelly, Janet L Huebner, Virginia B Kraus, Jennifer Moss, Michael J Muehlbauer, Guillaume Spielmann, William E Kraus, Janet M Lord, Kim M Huffman
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease in which adults have significant joint issues leading to poor health. Poor health is compounded by many factors, including exercise avoidance and increased risk of opportunistic infection. Exercise training can improve the health of patients with RA and potentially improve immune function; however, information on the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in RA is limited. We sought to determine whether 10 weeks of a walking-based HIIT program would be associated with health improvements as measured by disease activity and aerobic fitness...
June 14, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Xiaolei Tang, Yan Dai, Xiaoli Wang, Jian Zeng, Guirong Li
The present study aimed to investigate whether microRNA-27a (miRNA27a) is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism of any potential association. In retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells treated with high glucose, miRNA27a expression, determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, was decreased. Caspase-3/9 activity and B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X (Bax) protein expression was increased in RPE cells subjected to high glucose...
July 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Li-Na Gao, Xin Zhou, Yu-Ren Lu, Kefeng Li, Shan Gao, Chun-Quan Yu, Yuan-Lu Cui
Atherosclerosis is the major worldwide cause of mortality for patients with coronary heart disease. Many traditional Chinese medicine compound prescriptions for atherosclerosis treatment have been tried in patients. Dan-Lou prescription, which is improved from Gualou-Xiebai-Banxia decoction, has been used to treat chest discomfort (coronary atherosclerosis) for approximately 2,000 years in China. Although the anti-inflammatory activities of Dan-Lou prescription have been proposed previously, the mechanism remains to be explored...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Vanesa Stojanovska, Rachel M McQuade, Sarah Fraser, Monica Prakash, Shakuntla Gondalia, Rhian Stavely, Enzo Palombo, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Samy Sakkal, Kulmira Nurgali
Oxaliplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapeutic used for cancer treatment. Its use associates with peripheral neuropathies and chronic gastrointestinal side-effects. Oxaliplatin induces immunogenic cell death by provoking the presentation of damage associated molecular patterns. The damage associated molecular patterns high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein exerts pro-inflammatory cytokine-like activity and binds to toll-like receptors (namely TLR4). Gastrointestinal microbiota may influence chemotherapeutic efficacy and contribute to local and systemic inflammation...
2018: PloS One
Martha J Nelson-Flower, Ryan R Germain, Elizabeth A MacDougall-Shackleton, Sabrina S Taylor, Peter Arcese
Variation in immune gene sequences is known to influence resistance to infectious diseases and parasites, and hence survival and mate choice, across animal taxa. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) comprise one essential gene family in the vertebrate innate immune system, and recognize evolutionarily conserved structures from all major microorganism classes. However, the causes and consequences of TLR variation in passerine birds remain largely unexplored. We examined seven TLR genes in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), a species that is studied across North America...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Yu-Li Lin, Pei-Yun Cheng, Chiao-Li Chin, Li-Min Huang, Shr-Yu Lin, Bor-Luen Chiang
To prevent viral infection at the site of entry, mucosal vaccines are potent tools for inducing IgA secretion for defense. Because Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands serve as strong adjuvants, two ligands that mimic the structure of mycoplasmal and bacterial lipopeptides represent interesting vaccine candidates. Pam3CSK4, a synthetic triacylated lipopeptide, interacts with TLR2/1. Because fibroblast-stimulating lipopeptide-1 (FSL-1), a synthetic diacylated lipopeptide, is recognized by TLR2/6, we targeted the potential immuno-inducibility of Pam3CSK4 and FSL-1 as adjuvants of an enterovirus 71 (EV71) mucosal vaccine...
June 8, 2018: Vaccine
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