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toll like receptor 3

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452288/repetitive-tlr-3-activation-in-the-lung-induces-skeletal-muscle-adaptations-and-cachexia
#1
Ted G Graber, Brandy L Rawls, Bing Tian, William J Durham, Camille R Brightwell, Allan R Brasier, Blake B Rasmussen, Christopher S Fry
Due to immunosenescence, older adults are particularly susceptible to lung-based viral infections, with increased severity of symptoms in those with underlying chronic lung disease. Repeated respiratory viral infections produce lung maladaptations, accelerating pulmonary dysfunction. Toll like 3 receptor (TLR3) is a membrane protein that senses exogenous double-stranded RNA to activate the innate immune response to a viral infection. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] mimics double stranded RNA and has been shown to activate TLR3...
February 13, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451405/astragalus-polysaccharide-alleviates-lps-induced-inflammation-injury-by-regulating-mir-127-in-h9c2-cardiomyoblasts
#2
Qi Ren, Shaojun Zhao, Changjie Ren, Zhen Ma
Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) has been widely reported to play an important role in inflammatory response. In this study, we aimed to explore the effects and underlying mechanisms of APS on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation injury in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. H9c2 cells were treated with different concentrations of APS, and cell viability was detected by the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Then, the effect of APS on cell viability and apoptosis induced by LPS was determined by CCK-8, flow cytometry, and western blot...
January 2018: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450541/induction-of-ocular-complement-activation-by-inflammatory-stimuli-and-intraocular-inhibition-of-complement-factor-d-in-animal-models
#3
Maura A Crowley, Omar Delgado, Adrian Will-Orrego, Natasha M Buchanan, Karen Anderson, Bruce D Jaffee, Thaddeus P Dryja, Sha-Mei Liao
Purpose: Genome-wide association studies suggest a role for the complement system in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We characterized ocular complement activation and evaluated a complement factor D (FD) neutralizing antibody. Methods: Mice were treated with toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, intravitreal injection (IVT), or corneal debridement. Levels of complement proteins and mRNA were measured. A FD neutralizing antibody was administered IVT into eyes of rabbits that were challenged with LPS (lipopolysaccharide) administered intravenously...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449668/rhinovirus-3c-protease-suppresses-apoptosis-and-triggers-caspase-independent-cell-death
#4
Mark Lötzerich, Pascal S Roulin, Karin Boucke, Robert Witte, Oleg Georgiev, Urs F Greber
Apoptosis and programmed necrosis (necroptosis) determine cell fate, and antagonize infection. Execution of these complementary death pathways involves the formation of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) containing complexes. RIPK1 binds to adaptor proteins, such as TRIF (Toll-IL-1 receptor-domain-containing-adaptor-inducing interferon-beta factor), FADD (Fas-associated-protein with death domain), NEMO (NF-κB regulatory subunit IKKγ), SQSTM1 (sequestosome 1/p62), or RIPK3 (receptor-interacting protein kinase 3), which are involved in RNA sensing, NF-κB signaling, autophagosome formation, apoptosis, and necroptosis...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445128/the-brace-helices-of-mlkl-mediate-interdomain-communication-and-oligomerisation-to-regulate-cell-death-by-necroptosis
#5
Katherine A Davies, Maria C Tanzer, Michael D W Griffin, Yee Foong Mok, Samuel N Young, Rui Qin, Emma J Petrie, Peter E Czabotar, John Silke, James M Murphy
The programmed cell death pathway, necroptosis, relies on the pseudokinase, Mixed Lineage Kinase domain-Like (MLKL), for cellular execution downstream of death receptor or Toll-like receptor ligation. Receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIPK3)-mediated phosphorylation of MLKL's pseudokinase domain leads to MLKL switching from an inert to activated state, where exposure of the N-terminal four-helix bundle (4HB) 'executioner' domain leads to cell death. The precise molecular details of MLKL activation, including the stoichiometry of oligomer assemblies, mechanisms of membrane translocation and permeabilisation, remain a matter of debate...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436632/sparstolonin-b-attenuates-spinal-cord-injury%C3%A2-induced-inflammation-in-rats-by-modulating-tlr4%C3%A2-trafficking
#6
Jianjun Yuan, Xueli Zhang, Rusen Zhu, Zijian Cui, Wei Hu
The present study used a spinal cord injury (SCI) model to evaluate whether sparstolonin B was able to prevent SCI, and to investigate the underlying signaling mechanism. Sparstolonin B attenuated the SCI‑induced Batto, Beattie and Bresnahan score and water content in rats. Sparstolonin B attenuated the mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)‑18, IL‑6, IL‑1β, and IL‑23, decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor‑α and interferon‑γ, and decreased caspase‑3 activity and apoptosis regulator Bax protein expression in SCI rats...
February 6, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436577/rp105-protects-pc12-cells-from-oxygen%C3%A2-glucose-deprivation-reoxygenation-injury-via-activation-of-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#7
Yanpeng Sun, Lu Liu, Jiang Yuan, Qiang Sun, Na Wang, Yunfu Wang
Radioprotective 105 kDa protein (RP105) has been reported to produce favorable outcomes in various cardiovascular disorders via a toll‑like receptor 4‑dependent or ‑independent manner. However, whether RP105 exerts neuroprotective effects against oxygen‑glucose deprivation (OGD)/reoxygenation (OGD/R) injury remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the PC12 neuronal cell line was exposed to 4 h of OGD followed by 24 h of reoxygenation. Adenoviral vectors encoding RP105 were utilized to upregulate the level of RP105 in PC12 cells prior to OGD/R induction...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434744/interleukin-1-receptor-associated-kinase-3-downregulation-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-attenuates-immunosuppression-in-sepsis
#8
Qin Xia, Yupin Zhou, Xi Wang, Shukun Fu
Sepsis is the leading cause of mortality in intensive care units due to complex inflammatory immune responses and immunosuppression. Recent studies have indicated that the negative regulator of toll like receptors, interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 3 (IRAK-3/IRAK-M), serves an important role in immunosuppression during sepsis. In the current study, a cecal ligation puncture model was established in mice using lipopolysaccharide secondary challenge to simulate immunosuppression in sepsis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from this model were then used to evaluate the expression and function of IRAK-M...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434596/insight-into-phosphatidylinositol-dependent-membrane-localization-of-the-innate-immune-adaptor-protein-toll-interleukin-1-receptor-domain-containing-adaptor-protein
#9
Mahesh Chandra Patra, Sangdun Choi
The toll/interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) plays an important role in the toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling pathways. TIRAP anchors to phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) on the plasma membrane and PI (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) on the endosomal membrane and assists in recruitment of the myeloid differentiation primary response 88 protein to activated TLRs. To date, the structure and mechanism of TIRAP's membrane association are only partially understood...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430761/nod-like-receptor-pyrin-domain-containing-3-nlrp3-regulates-inflammation-induced-pro-labor-mediators-in-human-myometrial-cells
#10
Ratana Lim, Martha Lappas
PROBLEM: Inflammation plays a major role in preterm birth. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain-containing-3 (NLRP3) plays a role in inflammatory diseases. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of term labor on the expression of NLRP3 in human myometrium and the effect of NLRP3 silencing on pro-labor mediators in myometrial cells. METHOD OF STUDY: NLRP3 expression was assessed in myometrium from non-laboring and laboring women by qRT-PCR and Western blotting...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429793/soluble-toll-like-receptor-4-a-new-player-in%C3%A2-subclinical-inflammation-and-malnutrition-in-hemodialysis-patients
#11
Pasquale Esposito, Edoardo La Porta, Maria Antonietta Grignano, Daniela Verzola, Samantha Milanesi, Francesca Ansaldo, Marilena Gregorini, Carmelo Libetta, Giacomo Garibotto, Teresa Rampino
OBJECTIVE: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) promotes inflammation in hemodialysis patients (HD). A soluble form of extracellular TLR4 (sTLR4) has been recently characterized, which showed the ability to attenuate TLR4 signalling. In this study, we describe the sTLR4 profile in regular HD patients. SUBJECTS: In a cross-sectional study we enrolled forty prevalent HD patients (68.2 ± 16.3 years, twenty-five males) with a median dialysis vintage of 41 months. Nineteen patients were undergoing standard bicarbonate HD (BHD) and 21 patients on-line hemodiafiltration (HDF)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427596/structural-and-functional-modeling-of-viral-protein-5-of-infectious-bursal-disease-virus
#12
Bhaskar Ganguly, Sunil Kumar Rastogi
Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious and immunosuppressive disease of young chicken. The causative virus (IBDV) is a bi-segmented, double-stranded RNA virus. The virus encodes five major proteins, viral protein (VP) 1-5. VPs 1-4 have been characterized crystallographically. Albeit a rise in the number of studies reporting successful heterologous expression of VP5 in recent times, challenging the notion that rapid death of host cells overexpressing VP5 disallows obtaining sufficiently pure preparations of the protein for crystallographic studies, the structure of VP5 remains unknown and its function controversial...
February 7, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425879/retinal-neuroinflammatory-induced-neuronal-degeneration-role-of-toll-like-receptor-4-and-relationship-with-gliosis
#13
Fredrik Ghosh, Hodan Abdshill, Karin Arnér, Ulrikke Voss, Linnéa Taylor
The purpose of this study was to explore retina-intrinsic neuroinflammatory reactions, effects on neuronal survival, relationship with classic gliosis, and possible role of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). To isolate the adult retina from the systemic immune system, a previously described large animal explant culture model was used in which full-thickness porcine retinal sheets can be kept in vitro for extended time periods. Explants were kept for 5 days in vitro (DIV) and were treated with either; lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) inhibitor (CLI-095), LPS + CLI-095, or solvent vehicle throughout the culture period after which retinal sections were examined with hematoxylin and eosin staining and extensive immunohistochemistry...
February 7, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422901/identification-of-a-potential-common-ancestor-for-mammalian-cross-presenting-dendritic-cells-in-teleost-respiratory-surfaces
#14
Irene Soleto, Uwe Fischer, Carolina Tafalla, Aitor G Granja
Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly specialized antigen-presenting cells that bridge innate and adaptive immune responses in vertebrates, being key modulators in the initiation of specific responses. Although teleost fish present the main elements of a fully developed adaptive immune system, not many studies have focused on identifying specific DC subsets in teleost species. Previous work from our group identified in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin a DC subpopulation co-expressing CD8α and major histocompatibility complex II β on the cell surface...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422316/histological-and-immunological-description-of-the-leishmanin-skin-test-in-ibizan-hounds
#15
L Ordeix, J E Dos S Silva, J Llull, P Quirola, S Montserrat-Sangrà, P Martínez-Orellana, L Solano-Gallego
The leishmanin skin test (LST), a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction to Leishmania infantum, can specifically identify dogs that have made a cell-mediated immune response to L. infantum infection. The Ibizan hound appears to be more resistant to L. infantum infection than other breeds of dog. The aim of this study was to describe the histological and immunohistochemical changes induced by the LST in Ibizan hounds living in an area highly endemic for leishmaniosis. The majority of dogs were apparently healthy, lacked serum antibody to L...
January 2018: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420022/the-transcriptomics-related-mechanisms-of-supplementing-laying-broiler-breeder-hens-with-dietary-daidzein-to-improve-the-immune-function-and-growth-performance-of-offspring
#16
Hao Fan, Zengpeng Lv, Liping Gan, Yuming Guo
Daidzein (DA) is an isoflavone that is primarily extracted from soy plants. This study evaluated the effects of supplementing laying broiler breeder hens with dietary DA on the immune function and growth performance of their offspring and the underlying mechanism. A total of 720 breeders were divided into 3 treatment groups that were fed either a control diet (CON), a DA-low-supplemented diet (DLS, CON+20 mg/kg DA) or a DA-high-supplemented diet (DHS, CON+100 mg/kg DA) for 8 weeks, eggs were collected for hatching during the final week...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417448/atorvastatin-attenuates-cognitive-deficits-and-neuroinflammation-induced-by-a%C3%AE-1-42-involving-modulation-of-tlr4-traf6-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#17
Shan Wang, Xiaowei Zhang, Liuyu Zhai, Xiaona Sheng, Weina Zheng, Hongshan Chu, Guohua Zhang
Inflammatory damage aggravates the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the mechanism of inflammatory damage may provide a new therapeutic window for the treatment of AD. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated signaling can regulate the inflammatory process. However, changes in TLR4 signaling pathway induced by beta-amyloid (Aβ) have not been well characterized in brain, especially in the hippocampus. In the present study, we explored the changes of TLR4 signaling pathway induced by Aβ in the hippocampus and the role of atorvastatin in modulating this signal pathway and neurotoxicity induced by Aβ...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416536/trichinella-spiralis-excretory-secretory-products-induce-tolerogenic-properties-in-human-dendritic-cells-via-toll-like-receptors-2-and-4
#18
Nataša Ilic, Alisa Gruden-Movsesijan, Jelena Cvetkovic, Sergej Tomic, Dragana Bozidar Vucevic, Carmen Aranzamendi, Miodrag Colic, Elena Pinelli, Ljiljana Sofronic-Milosavljevic
Trichinella spiralis, as well as its muscle larvae excretory-secretory products (ES L1), given either alone or via dendritic cells (DCs), induce a tolerogenic immune microenvironment in inbred rodents and successfully ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. ES L1 directs the immunological balance away from T helper (Th)1, toward Th2 and regulatory responses by modulating DCs phenotype. The ultimate goal of our work is to find out if it is possible to translate knowledge obtained in animal model to humans and to generate human tolerogenic DCs suitable for therapy of autoimmune diseases through stimulation with ES L1...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414655/cholinergic-regulation-of-proliferation-of-the-urothelium-in-response-to-e-coli-lipopolysaccharide-exposition
#19
L Podmolíková, M F Mukanyangezi, P Nieto-Marín, D Giglio
How the proliferation of the urothelium is regulated is known to a little degree. E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates the innate immune response of the urinary bladder via the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on the urothelium but induces also urothelial proliferation. We wanted to assess whether muscarinic receptors are involved in the regulation of urothelial proliferation triggered by LPS stimulation. Female Fischer 344 rats were instilled with LPS or saline (control) in the urinary bladder in the absence or presence of muscarinic receptor blockade with atropine and regeneration of the urothelium was assessed 4h and 24h later...
January 27, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414639/oxyresveratrol-prevents-lipopolysaccharide-d-galactosamine-induced-acute-liver-injury-in-mice
#20
Ya-Nan Jia, Hai-Peng Lu, Ya-Lin Peng, Bao-Shun Zhang, Xiao-Bao Gong, Jun Su, You Zhou, Min-Hui Pan, Li Xu
Oxyresveratrol (Oxy) is a natural polyhydroxystilbene abundant in mulberry that has anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant activities. We evaluated the protective effect of Oxy in the context of the lipopolysaccharide and d-galactosamine (LPS/d-GalN) induced acute liver injury. Oxy restricted the development of histopathological changes, markedly reduced the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), which are indicators of impaired liver function. Oxy significantly regulated the contents of oxidative stress related enzymes and products, and inhibited expressions of inflammatory mediators and cytokines...
January 23, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
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