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toll like receptor 3

Ru Zhang, Shufen Han, Zheng Zhang, Weiguo Zhang, Jing Yang, Zhongxiao Wan, Liqiang Qin
Cereal fiber is associated with decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, whether cereal fiber modulates inflammatory response and improves atherosclerosis remains unclear. This study evaluated the anti-atherosclerotic effect of cereal fibers from oat or wheat bran and explored the potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Male ApoE-/- mice were given a high fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet, HFC diet supplemented with 0.8% oat fiber or wheat bran fiber. After 18 weeks of feeding period, serum lipids and inflammatory cytokines were measured...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yi Yang, Xiaoliang Zhao, Jia Li, Hao Jiang, Xindi Shan, Ya Wang, Wenbang Ma, Jiejie Hao, Guangli Yu
We studied the mechanisms underlying the immunostimulatory effects of aβ-1,3/1,6-glucan (BG136) from Durvillaea Antarctica. Our data showed that BG136 promoted the activation of MAPKs and NF-κB signaling pathways and cytokines production. BG136 did not increase MCP-1 or NO production or phosphorylation of NF-κB and MAPK in TLR4 siRNA knockdown cells, indicating that BG136 activates macrophages through TLR4. Flow cytometry analysis and confocal experiment showed that BG136 bound to TLR4 expressed on RAW264...
July 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Hongbo Yi, Guangda Yang, Yunxia Xiong, Xiaolu Wen, Zhilin Wang, Xuefen Yang, Kaiguo Gao, Li Wang, Zongyong Jiang
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri LR1, a new strain isolated from the feces of weaned pigs, on the growth performance, intestinal morphology, immune responses, and intestinal barrier function in weaned pigs. A total of 144 weaned pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire, 21 d of age) with an initial BW of 6.49 ± 0.02 kg were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments with 8 replicate pens, each of per treatment and 6 pigs. Pigs were fed a basal diet (CON, controls), the basal diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg olaquindox and 75 mg/kg aureomycin (OA) or the basal diet supplemented with 5×1010 cfu/kg L...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Shiqiao Peng, Xuren Sun, Xinyi Wang, Haoyu Wang, Zhongyan Shan, Weiping Teng, Chenyan Li
PURPOSE: Myeloid-related protein (MRP) family plays an important role in the promotion of cell proliferation and the production of inflammatory cytokines. We investigated the expression of MRP6, MRP8 and MRP14 in thyroid tissues, serum, and peripheral blood monocular cells (PBMCs) in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD). METHOD: The expression of MRP6, MRP8, and MRP14 was investigated using immunohistochemical staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in the thyroid glands of 7 patients with Graves' disease (GD), 8 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), and 7 healthy controls (HC)...
April 12, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Jizong Li, Li Mao, Wenliang Li, Fei Hao, Chunyan Zhong, Xing Zhu, Xinqin Ji, Leilei Yang, Wenwen Zhang, Maojun Liu, Jieyuan Jiang
Caprine parainfluenza virus type 3 (CPIV3) is a newly emerging pathogenic respiratory agent infecting both young and adult goats, and it was identified in eastern China in 2013. Cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be important modulators of the intricate virus-host interactions. In order to elucidate the role of miRNAs in madin-darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells during CPIV3 infection. In this study, we performed high-throughput sequencing technology to analyze small RNA libraries in CPIV3-infected and mock-infected MDBK cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Ryan P Vetreno, Colleen J Lawrimore, Pamela J Rowsey, Fulton T Crews
Alcohol abuse and binge drinking are common during adolescence, a developmental period characterized by heightened neuroplasticity. Animal studies reveal that adolescent ethanol exposure decreases hippocampal neurogenesis that persists into adulthood, but the mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. Using a rodent model of adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0 g/kg, i.g., 2-days on/2-days off from postnatal day [P]25 to P55), we tested the hypothesis that AIE-induced upregulation of neuroimmune signaling contributes to the loss of hippocampal neurogenesis in adulthood...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Randall Hyer, Darren K McGuire, Biao Xing, Sam Jackson, Robert Janssen
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus infection remains an important global public health problem. Approved alum-adjuvanted vaccines are well tolerated but require three doses and have reduced immunogenicity in adults. A two-dose vaccine containing hepatitis B surface antigen combined with a novel, Toll-like receptor 9 agonist adjuvant (HBsAg-1018 [HEPLISAV-B®]) has demonstrated significantly higher seroprotection rates than a three dose vaccine. METHODS: A post hoc analysis compared the safety of HBsAg-1018 with HBsAg-Eng (Engerix-B®), in three randomized, observer-blinded, active-controlled, multi-center phase 3 trials in adults...
April 5, 2018: Vaccine
Xingli Zhang, Yan Wang, Jia Yuan, Ni Li, Siyu Pei, Jing Xu, Xuan Luo, Chaoming Mao, Junli Liu, Tao Yu, Shucheng Gan, Qianqian Zheng, Yinming Liang, Weixiang Guo, Ju Qiu, Gabriela Constantin, Jin Jin, Jun Qin, Yichuan Xiao
Histone 3 Lys27 (H3K27) trimethyltransferase Ezh2 is implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune inflammation. Nevertheless, the role of Ezh2 in macrophage/microglial activation remains to be defined. In this study, we identified that macrophage/microglial H3K27me3 or Ezh2, rather than functioning as a repressor, mediates toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced proinflammatory gene expression, and therefore Ezh2 depletion diminishes macrophage/microglial activation and attenuates the autoimmune inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Sebastian E Carrasco, Sishun Hu, Denise M Imai, Ramesh Kumar, George E Sandusky, X Frank Yang, Wilbert A Derbigny
Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital serovars primarily replicate in epithelial cells lining the reproductive tract. Epithelial cells recognize Chlamydia through cell surface and cytosolic receptors, and/or endosomal innate receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Activation of these receptors triggers both innate and adaptive immune mechanisms that are required for chlamydial clearance, but are also responsible for the immunopathology in the reproductive tract. We previously demonstrated that Chlamydia muridarum (Cm) induces IFN-β in oviduct epithelial cells (OE) in a TLR3-dependent manner, and that the synthesis of several cytokines and chemokines are diminished in Cm-challenged OE derived from TLR3-/- 129S1 mice...
2018: PloS One
Dahai Liu, Jingjing Chen, Song Li, Guobin Hu
Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) is responsible for the recognition of bacterial flagellin in mammals and play an important role in innate immunity. In the present study, a TLR5M gene was cloned from turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, and its immune responsive expression was subsequently studied in vivo. The Scophthalmus maximus (Sm)TLR5M gene is 4268 bp in length, consists of four exons and three introns and encodes a peptide of 892 amino acids (aa). The deduced protein possesses a signal peptide sequence, a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain composed of 23 LRR motifs, a transmembrane (TM) domain and a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain...
April 2, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Jing Wang, Chun Zhang, Ping Xu, Zhi-Wen Yang, Cheng-Zhao Weng, Yue-Xing Lai
Phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) has been indicated to serve an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. It was previously demonstrated that the PI3K/Akt inhibitor wortmannin alleviated the severity of inflammation and improved the survival rate in rats with induced severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), which indicates that PI3K/Akt may serve a role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. To date, the mechanism by which PI3K/Akt regulates inflammation has not been elucidated...
March 29, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Si Chen, Wenwei Yin, Kun Bi, Bin Lu
The aim of the present study was to investigate the function and mechanism of microRNA‑497 (miRNA/miR‑149) in the regulation of cerebral infarction. In patients with cerebral infarction, the serum of microRNA‑497 expression was upregulated compared with that in healthy controls. In N2A cells, overexpression of miR‑497 induced cell proliferation, decreased apoptosis and caspase‑3 and caspase‑9 activities, and suppressed Bax protein expression compared with that in the negative control group. Overexpression of miR‑497 reduced inflammation factors, and suppressed the Toll‑like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response protein MyD88 (MyD88) and nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) protein expression of the N2A cells...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Nycolas Willian Preite, Claudia Feriotti, Dhêmerson Souza de Lima, Bruno Borges da Silva, Antônio Condino-Neto, Alessandra Pontillo, Vera Lúcia Garcia Calich, Flávio Vieira Loures
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), which have been extensively studied in the context of the immune response to viruses, have recently been implicated in host defense mechanisms against fungal infections. Nevertheless, the involvement of human pDCs during paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a fungal infection endemic to Latin America, has been scarcely studied. However, pDCs were found in the cutaneous lesions of PCM patients, and in pulmonary model of murine PCM these cells were shown to control disease severity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jingbo Liu, Shanchuan Cao, Ming Liu, Liang Chen, Hongfu Zhang
The low birth weight (LBW) individual had greater risk of developing metabolic dysfunction in adulthood. The aim of this study was to test whether the LBW individual is more prone to glucose intolerance on a high nutrient dense (HND) diet, and to investigate the associated hypothalamic gene expressions using pigs as model. The intake of digestible energy intake, if calculated on a body weight basis, was greater in LBW pigs than that of normal birth weight (NBW) pigs. The LBW pigs fed the HND diet had greater digestible energy intake than those fed the NND diet at adulthood, which did not occur for NBW pigs...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
M Julià, M Consuegra-Fernández, A Guilabert, C Muñoz, A Esteve, N Armiger-Borràs, F Santiago, M T Arias, J Romaní, C Ferrándiz, J M Carrascosa, E Pedrosa, M Alsina-Gibert, F Lozano, J M Mascaró-Galy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 31, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
Lixia Wang, Muzi Wang, Shuai Li, Huimei Wu, Qiying Shen, Shihai Zhang, Lei Fang, Rongyu Liu
Nebulized lidocaine has been suggested to be beneficial in asthma therapy, but the underlying mechanisms are little known. We aimed to investigate whether Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 was involved in the protective effect of lidocaine on allergic airway inflammation. Female C57BL/6 mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). Meanwhile, some of the mice were treated with TLR2 agonist (Pam3CSK4, 100 μg) intraperitoneally in combination with OVA on day 0. Just after allergen provocation, mice were treated with inhaled lidocaine or vehicle for 30 min...
March 30, 2018: Molecular Immunology
AutSaaya Koike, Kenshi Yamasaki, Takeshi Yamauchi, Mai Inoue, Ryoko Shimada-Ohmori, Kenichiro Tsuchiyama, Setsuya Aiba
Because little is known about how the innate immune response influences skin pigmentation, we examined whether Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists participate in melanogenesis and melanosome transportation. We observed that TLR2/2 agonist HKLM and TLR3 agonist Poly(I:C) increased the amount of extracellular melanin from primary human epidermal melanocytes. HKLM, but not Poly(I:C), increased the melanogenic genes such as tyrosinase and dopachrome tautomerase. Poly(I:C) increased the expression of Rab27A, a molecule that facilitates melanosome transport to perimembranous actin filament...
March 30, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Jafar Noori, Adel Spotin, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani, Tohid Kazemi, Ebrahim Sakhinia, Leili Aghebati-Maleki, Firooz Shahrivar
The study of pathogenesis mechanisms of larval stages in the Taeniidae has recently focused on host genetic factors, particularly toll-like receptor (TLR) variations. However, the potential role of TLR4 polymorphism in hydatidosis has not yet been sufficiently elucidated in postoperative patients. In this case-control investigation, 80 patients from Iran, including 40 with acute hydatidosis (AH) and 40 with recurrent hydatidosis (RH), and 80 ethnically matched controls were evaluated from February 2015 to February 2017...
March 30, 2018: Parasitology Research
Marcelo Macedo Rogero, Philip C Calder
Obesity leads to an inflammatory condition that is directly involved in the etiology of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and certain types of cancer. The classic inflammatory response is an acute reaction to infections or to tissue injuries, and it tends to move towards resolution and homeostasis. However, the inflammatory process that was observed in individuals affected by obesity and metabolic syndrome differs from the classical inflammatory response in certain respects. This inflammatory process manifests itself systemically and it is characterized by a chronic low-intensity reaction...
March 30, 2018: Nutrients
Yefeng Dai, Xufei Zhao
The aim of the present study was to examine the combined efficacy of simvastatin and kallistatin treatment for pediatric burn sepsis. A total of 72 pediatric patients with burn sepsis were recruited and randomly divided into 3 groups, receiving simvastatin (40 mg/day), kallistatin (20 mg/day) or combined treatment. ELISA, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and flow cytometry were used to analyze the therapeutic effects of simvastatin and kallistatin. The results revealed that combined treatment in pediatric burn sepsis patients decreased the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin (IL)-1β serum levels, whereas it increased IL-10 and human leukocyte antigen-D related levels...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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