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Kangkana Kataki, Parikhit Borthakur, Namrata Kumari, Manab Deka, Amal Ch Kataki, Subhash Medhi
BACKGROUND: During Hepatitis B virus infection, the pathogen sensors Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a role in innate immunity system. AIM: The study aimed to investigate mRNA expression levels of TLR2 and TLR3 in Hepatitis B virus (HBV) mediated chronic hepatitis B (CHB), cirrhosis (CIRR) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to correlate viral load with severity of these diseases and expression of TLRs. METHOD: A total of 180 HBV DNA positive samples were selected for the study...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Erica L Heipertz, Jourdan Harper, Wendy E Walker
IFN regulatory factor (IRF)3 plays a detrimental role in the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) mouse model of sepsis. However, it is unclear which pathway activates IRF3 in this context. In this report we investigate two pathways that activate IRF3: the Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) pathway (which senses cytosolic DNA) and the TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) pathway (which sense dsRNA and LPS via Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 and 4). Initially, we examine the impact of these pathways using a severe CLP model (∼90% mortality)...
October 17, 2016: Shock
Semmannan Kalaiyarasu, Manoj Kumar, Dhanapal Senthil Kumar, Sandeep Bhatia, Sandeep Kumar Dash, Sushant Bhat, Rohit K Khetan, Shanmugasundaram Nagarajan
One of the major causes of death in highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection in chicken is due to acute induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine (cytokine storm) which leads to severe pathology and acute mortality. Dendritic cells and macrophages of respiratory tract are the major antigen presenting cells (APCs) getting exposed to mucosal pathogens. We hypothesized that chicken dendritic cells might be a major target for H5N1 HPAIV for induction of cytokine dysregulation. Infection of chMoDCs with H5N1 HPAIV produced high titers of progeny virus with more rounding and cytotoxicity than H9N2 LPAIV...
October 12, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
Nancy Gupta, Satish Vedi, Dennis Y Kunimoto, Babita Agrawal, Rakesh Kumar
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the bacterial cause of tuberculosis, is a leading infectious agent worldwide. The development of a new vaccine against Mtb is essential to control global spread of tuberculosis, since the current vaccine BCG is not very effective and antibiotic resistance is a serious, burgeoning problem. ESAT-6 is a secreted protein of Mtb, which is absent in BCG but has been implicated in inducing protective immunity against Mtb. Peptide based subunit vaccines are attractive due to their safety and high specificity in eliciting immune responses, but small synthetic peptides are usually not very immunogenic...
September 29, 2016: Vaccine
Q Zhang, X L Fu, F H Qian, Q Cao, Z D Mao, J L Bai, Q Du, Y Shi
Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 mediates antivirus immunity and is involved in asthma exacerbation and development. However, the genetic association between TLR3 and asthma remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of polymorphisms within TLR3 on asthma risk and asthma-related phenotypes in the Chinese Han population. A total number of 462 unrelated adult patients with asthma and 398 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. The genotypes of tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR3 gene were determined using multiplex SNaPshot SNP genotyping assays...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Immunogenetics
Fabrizio Conti, Francesca Romana Spinelli, Simona Truglia, Francesca Miranda, Cristiano Alessandri, Fulvia Ceccarelli, Michele Bombardieri, Konstantinos Giannakakis, Guido Valesini
Objective. The study aimed at locating and quantifying Toll Like Receptor (TLR) 3, 7, 8, and 9 expression in kidney of patients with lupus nephritis (LN) and correlating them with clinicopathological features. Methods. Kidney sections from 26 LN patients and 4 controls were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using anti-human TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 polyclonal antibodies; the number of TLR-positive nuclei/mm(2) was evaluated on digitalized images. Results. Compared to controls, LN showed a significantly higher amount of glomerular and tubulointerstitial TLR9 (p = 0...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Funda Orhan, Maria Bhat, Kristian Sandberg, Sara Ståhl, Fredrik Piehl, Camilla Svensson, Sophie Erhardt, Lilly Schwieler
Tryptophan degradation along the kynurenine pathway is of central importance for the immune function. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), representing the first line of immune defense against pathogens, are expressed in various cell types. The most abundant expression is found on monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. The aim of the present study is to investigate if stimulation with different TLR ligands induces the kynurenine pathway in human peripheral monocytes. Cell supernatants were analyzed using a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to measure kynurenine, kynurenic acid (KYNA), quinolinic acid (QUIN) and tryptophan...
September 8, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Remzi Onur Eren, Marta Reverte, Matteo Rossi, Mary-Anne Hartley, Patrik Castiglioni, Florence Prevel, Ricardo Martin, Chantal Desponds, Lon-Fye Lye, Stefan K Drexler, Walter Reith, Stephen M Beverley, Catherine Ronet, Nicolas Fasel
Some strains of the protozoan parasite Leishmania guyanensis (L.g) harbor a viral endosymbiont called Leishmania RNA virus 1 (LRV1). LRV1 recognition by TLR-3 increases parasite burden and lesion swelling in vivo. However, the mechanisms by which anti-viral innate immune responses affect parasitic infection are largely unknown. Upon investigating the mammalian host's response to LRV1, we found that miR-155 was singularly and strongly upregulated in macrophages infected with LRV1+ L.g when compared to LRV1- L...
September 14, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
D Rosales-Martinez, L Gutierrez-Xicotencatl, O Badillo-Godinez, D Lopez-Guerrero, A Santana-Calderon, R Cortez-Gomez, O Ramirez-Pliego, F Esquivel-Guadarrama
Rotavirus is the most common cause of acute infectious diarrhea in human neonates and infants. However, the studies aimed at dissecting the anti-virus immune response have been mainly performed in adults. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in innate and acquired immune responses. Therefore, it is very important to determine the response of neonatal and infant DCs to rotavirus and to compare it to the response of adult DCs. Thus, we determined the response of monocyte-derived DCs from umbilical cord blood (UCB) and adult peripheral blood (PB) to rotavirus in vitro...
October 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Yoichi Imori, Fabrizio D'Ascenzo, Tommaso Gori, Thomas Münzel, Ugo Fabrizio, Gianluca Campo, Enrico Cerrato, L Christian Napp, Mario Iannaccone, Jelena R Ghadri, Elycia Kazemian, Ronald K Binder, Milosz Jaguszewski, Adam Csordas, Piera Capasso, Simone Biscaglia, Fedrico Conrotto, Ferdinando Varbella, Roberto Garbo, Fiorenzo Gaita, Paul Erne, Thomas F Lüscher, Claudio Moretti, Antonio H Frangieh, Christian Templin
BACKGROUND: Safety and efficacy of bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BRS) and the role of postdilatation on outcome in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients compared with those of everolimus-eluting stents (EES) remain unknown. The aim of the study is to compare the safety and efficacy of BRS with EES in ACS and to investigate the role of BRS postdilatation. METHODS: Consecutive ACS patients undergoing BRS implantation in 8 centers were com-pared with those with EES before and after propensity score matching...
2016: Cardiology Journal
Robin P Kraak, Maik J Grundeken, Mariëlla E Hassell, Joëlle Elias, Karel T Koch, José P Henriques, Jan J Piek, Jan Baan, Marije M Vis, Jan G P Tijssen, Robbert J de Winter, Joanna J Wykrzykowska
AIMS: This study presents the two-year clinical outcomes of the Amsterdam ABSORB registry stratified by lesion and patient characteristics complexity (SYNTAX score and ABSORB II study enrolment criteria). METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients treated with BVS were included in this prospective registry and stratified according to the ABSORB II trial inclusion and exclusion criteria and the SYNTAX score. The registry comprises 135 patients (59±11 years, 73% male, 18% diabetic) with 159 lesions...
2016: EuroIntervention
Yu-Lin Hsu, Mei-Yi Wang, Ling-Jun Ho, Jenn-Haung Lai
A marked increase in the rate of dengue virus (DENV) infection has resulted in more than 212 deaths in Taiwan since the beginning of 2015, mostly from fatal outcomes such as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. The pathogenic mechanisms of these fatal manifestations are poorly understood. Cytokines induce an overwhelming immune reaction and thus have crucial roles. Interferon-lambda (IFN-λ), a newly identified IFN subtype, has antiviral effects, but its immunologic effects in DENV infection have not been investigated...
2016: Scientific Reports
M Montazeri, J A Sanchez-Lopez, I Caballero, N Maslehat Lay, S Elliott, A Fazeli
STUDY QUESTION: Is interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) involved in the toll-like receptor 3 (TLR 3)-induced inhibition of trophoblast cells' adhesion to endometrial cells in vitro? SUMMARY ANSWER: IL-1RA mediates the TLR 3-induced inhibition of trophoblast cells' adhesion to endometrial cells in vitro. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: It is well documented that endometrial TLR 3 activation leads to impairment of trophoblast binding to endometrial cells in vitro...
September 2016: Human Reproduction
Huilin Zheng, Weibin Zou, Jiaying Shen, Liang Xu, Shu Wang, Yang-Xin Fu, Weimin Fan
UNLABELLED: : Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) usually promote tumor growth and metastasis. By using a breast tumor 4T1 cell-based animal model, this study determined that coinjection and distant injection of allogeneic bone marrow-derived MSCs with tumor cells could exert different effects on tumor growth. Whereas the coinjection of MSCs with 4T1 cells promoted tumor growth, surprisingly, the injection of MSCs at a site distant from the 4T1 cell inoculation site suppressed tumor growth...
September 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Emine Firat Goktas, Cemal Bulut, Mustafa Tugrul Goktas, Erdem Kamil Ozer, Ragip Ozgur Karaca, Sami Kinikli, Ali Pekcan Demiroz, Atilla Bozkurt
The immunopathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) has not been clarified yet. Toll-like receptors (TLR) are a receptor family that initiates immunity with exogenous-endogenous ligands and plays a role in the pathogenesis of infections. In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of TLR 3 1377C/T (rs3775290) polymorphism and its role in patients with CHB. We included 50 healthy individuals as control group and 73 active and 43 inactive hepatitis B patients. All DNA samples were isolated from blood samples...
July 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Asuka Tada, Hortensia Zelaya, Patricia Clua, Susana Salva, Susana Alvarez, Haruki Kitazawa, Julio Villena
OBJECTIVE: Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) play critical roles in disrupting epithelial homeostasis after Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 activation with genomic rotavirus dsRNA or the synthetic dsRNA analog poly(I:C). The capacity of immunobiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 (Lr1505) or Lactobacillus plantarum CRL1506 (Lp1506) to beneficially modulate IELs response after TLR3 activation was investigated in vivo using a mice model. RESULTS: Intraperitoneal administration of poly(I:C) induced inflammatory-mediated intestinal tissue damage through the increase of inflammatory cells (CD3(+)NK1...
October 2016: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Xinxian Wei, Xiao Zheng Li, Xiaocong Zheng, Peng Jia, Jinjin Wang, Xianle Yang, Li Yu, Xiujie Shi, Guixiang Tong, Hong Liu
Pattern recognition receptor (PRR) toll-like receptors (TLRs), antiviral agent interferon (IFN) and the effector IFN stimulated genes (ISGs) play a fundamental role in the innate immune response against viruses among all vertebrate classes. Common carp is a host for spring viraemia of carp virus (Rhabdovirus carpio, SVCV), which belong to Rhabdoviridae family. The present in-vivo experiment was conducted to investigate the expression of these innate immune factors in early phase as well as during recovery of SVCV infection by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction...
August 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Jung-Yeon Lim, Keon-Il Im, Eun-Sol Lee, Nayoun Kim, Young-Sun Nam, Young-Woo Jeon, Seok-Goo Cho
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess immunomodulatory properties and have potential, however, there have been conflicting reports regarding their effects in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which causes inflammation and destruction of the joints. Through a comparative analysis of regulatory T (Treg) and IL-10-producing type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells, we hypothesized that Tr1 cells enhance the immunoregulatory functions of MSCs, and that a combinatorial approach to cell therapy may exert synergistic immunomodulatory effects in an experimental animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Li-Min Chen, Xue-Gong Fan, Jing Ma, Bo He, Yong-Fang Jiang
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to investigate the T-lymphocyte subpopulation and expression of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), toll-like receptor (TLR)3, TLR4, and interferon (INF)-γ to illustrate the relationship between hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. METHODS: Blood was taken from normal subjects into anticoagulation tubes to separate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The PBMCs were divided into four groups and cultured with various concentrations of HBeAg for 72 h...
May 18, 2016: Hepatology International
Lung-Che Chen, Li-Hong Hu, Mei-Chin Yin
Protective effects of boswellic acid (BA) against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in Balb/ cA mice were examined. BA, at 0.05 or 0.1%, was supplied for 4 weeks. Acute liver injury was induced by APAP treatment. Results showed that BA intake increased hepatic BA bioavailability. APAP treatment decreased glutathione (GSH) level, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) production; and lowered activity and protein expression of glutathione reductase (GR) and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in liver...
June 2016: BioMedicine
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