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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448526/human-alkaline-phosphatase-dephosphorylates-microbial-products-and-is-elevated-in-preterm-neonates-with-a-history-of-late-onset-sepsis
#1
Matthew Pettengill, Juan D Matute, Megan Tresenriter, Julie Hibbert, David Burgner, Peter Richmond, José Luis Millán, Al Ozonoff, Tobias Strunk, Andrew Currie, Ofer Levy
BACKGROUND: A host defense function for Alkaline phosphatases (ALPs) is suggested by the contribution of intestinal ALP to detoxifying bacterial lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) in animal models in vivo and the elevation of ALP activity following treatment of human cells with inflammatory stimuli in vitro. However the activity of ALP in human plasma (primarily tissue-nonspecific ALP; TNAP) on lipopolysaccharide and other microbial products has not been assessed, nor has its expression been studied in preterm newborns, a vulnerable population at high risk of sepsis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422714/toll-like-receptor-3-as-an-immunotherapeutic-target-for-kras-mutated-colorectal-cancer
#2
Radhashree Maitra, Titto Augustine, Yitzchak Dayan, Carol Chandy, Matthew Coffey, Sanjay Goel
New therapeutic interventions are essential for improved management of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). This is especially critical for those patients whose tumors harbor a mutation in the KRAS oncogene (40-45% of all patients). This patient cohort is excluded from receiving anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies that have added a significant therapeutic benefit for KRAS wild type CRC patients. Reovirus, a double stranded (ds) RNA virus is in clinical development for patients with chemotherapy refractory KRAS mutated tumors...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402971/implicating-receptor-activator-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-rank-rank-ligand-signalling-in-microglial-responses-to-toll-like-receptor-stimuli
#3
Anton Kichev, Pascale Eede, Pierre Gressens, Claire Thornton, Henrik Hagberg
Inflammation in the perinatal brain caused by maternal or intrauterine fetal infection is now well established as an important contributor to the development of perinatal brain injury. Exposure to inflammatory products can impair perinatal brain development and act as a risk factor for neurological dysfunction, cognitive disorders, cerebral palsy, or preterm birth. Pre-exposure to inflammation significantly exacerbates brain injury caused by hypoxic/ischaemic insult. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a family of cytokines largely involved in inflammation signalling...
April 13, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388966/vaccination-with-poly-ic-lc-and-peptide-pulsed-autologous-dendritic-cells-in-patients-with-pancreatic-cancer
#4
Shikhar Mehrotra, Carolyn D Britten, Steve Chin, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Colleen A Cloud, Mingli Li, Gina Scurti, Mohamed L Salem, Michelle H Nelson, Melanie B Thomas, Chrystal M Paulos, Andres M Salazar, Michael I Nishimura, Mark P Rubinstein, Zihai Li, David J Cole
BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs) enhance the quality of anti-tumor immune response in patients with cancer. Thus, we posit that DC-based immunotherapy, in conjunction with toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 agonist poly-ICLC, is a promising approach for harnessing immunity against metastatic or locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer (PC). METHODS: We generated autologous DCs from the peripheral blood of HLA-A2(+) patients with PC. DCs were pulsed with three distinct A2-restricted peptides: 1) human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT, TERT572Y), 2) carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA; Cap1-6D), and 3) survivin (SRV...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273893/dengue-virus-infection-increases-microglial-cell-migration
#5
Ming-Kai Jhan, Tsung-Ting Tsai, Chia-Ling Chen, Cheng-Chieh Tsai, Yi-Lin Cheng, Yi-Chao Lee, Chiung-Yuan Ko, Yee-Shin Lin, Chih-Peng Chang, Liang-Tzung Lin, Chiou-Feng Lin
Activated microglial cells are present in dengue virus (DENV)-infected brains; however, the possible effects of DENV on microglia remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated DENV caused infection, including viral entry, RNA replication, viral protein expression, and virus release, in the murine microglial cell line BV2. DENV infection caused an increase in the formation of the multipolar phenotype in vitro and in vivo without affecting cell growth and cytotoxicity. DENV infection considerably increased cell motility and disrupting either actin filaments or clathrin retarded such effect...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266028/triggering-of-tlr-3-4-nod2-and-dc-sign-reduces-viral-replication-and-increases-t-cell-activation-capacity-of-hiv-infected-human-dendritic-cells
#6
Sylvain Cardinaud, Alejandra Urrutia, Angeline Rouers, Pierre-Grégoire Coulon, Jérome Kervevan, Clémence Richetta, Anne Bet, Emmanuel A Maze, Martin Larsen, Maria-Candela Iglesias, Victor Appay, Stéphanie Graff-Dubois, Arnaud Moris
A variety of signals influence the capacity of dendritic cells (DCs) to mount potent antiviral cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) responses. In particular, innate immune sensing by pathogen recognition receptors, such as TLR and C-type lectines, influences DC biology and affects their susceptibility to HIV infection. Yet, whether the combined effects of PPRs triggering and HIV infection influence HIV-specific (HS) CTL responses remain enigmatic. Here, we dissect the impact of innate immune sensing by pathogen recognition receptors on DC maturation, HIV infection, and on the quality of HS CTL activation...
May 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262465/characterization-of-human-fibroblastic-reticular-cells-as-potential-immunotherapeutic-tools
#7
Jaris Valencia, Eva Jiménez, Víctor G Martínez, Beatriz G Del Amo, Laura Hidalgo, Ana Entrena, Lidia M Fernández-Sevilla, Francisco Del Río, Alberto Varas, Ángeles Vicente, Rosa Sacedón
Fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) are essential players during adaptive immune responses not only as a structural support for the encounter of antigen-presenting cells and naive T lymphocytes but also as a source of modulatory signals. However, little is known about this cell population in humans. To address the phenotypical and functional analysis of human FRCs here we established splenic (SP) and mesenteric lymph node (LN) CD45(-)CD31(-)CD90(+)podoplanin(+) myofibroblastic cell cultures. They shared the phenotypical characteristics distinctive of FRCs, including the expression of immunomodulatory factors and peripheral tissue antigens...
May 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258480/the-anti-hsv-1-effect-of-quercetin-is-dependent-on-the-suppression-of-tlr-3-in-raw-264-7-cells
#8
Seulki Lee, Hwan Hee Lee, Yu Su Shin, Hyojeung Kang, Hyosun Cho
Quercetin is a major component of the plant Glycyrrhiza uralensis, which is largely used as a traditional medicine in Asia. Quercetin has been reported to have several biological activities, which include anti-viral and anti-inflammatory effects. We explored the molecular mechanism linking anti-viral and anti-inflammatory activities using an in vitro herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection model. Raw 264.7 cells were infected with HSV-1 in the presence or absence of different concentrations of quercetin and infected cell lysates were harvested 24 h later...
March 3, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251511/herpes-simplex-encephalitis-an-update
#9
REVIEW
John W Gnann, Richard J Whitley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to provide an update on current thinking regarding herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), emphasizing new information about pathogenesis, diagnosis, and immune responses. Specific questions to be addressed are the following: (1) Is there a genetic predisposition to HSE? (2) What clinical approaches have the greatest impact on improving the long-term outcomes in patients with HSE? And (3) are there immune-mediated mechanisms that may account for relapsing HSE? RECENT FINDINGS: Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR 3) plays an important role in innate immune responses, including generation of interferons...
March 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222448/acute-effects-of-viral-exposure-on-p-glycoprotein-function-in-the-mouse-fetal-blood-brain-barrier
#10
Enrrico Bloise, Sophie Petropoulos, Majid Iqbal, Alisa Kostaki, Tania Maria Ortiga-Carvalho, William Gibb, Stephen G Matthews
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Viral infection during pregnancy is known to affect the fetal brain. The toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 is a pattern recognition receptor activated by viruses known to elicit adverse fetal neurological outcomes. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter protects the developing fetus by limiting the transfer of substrates across both the placenta and the fetal blood-brain barrier (BBB). As such, inhibition of P-gp at these blood-barrier sites may result in increased exposure of the developing fetus to environmental toxins and xenobiotics present in the maternal circulation...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210837/toll-like-receptor-3-tlr-3-tlr-4-and-cd80-expression-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-and-urinary-cd80-levels-in-children-with-idiopathic-nephrotic-syndrome
#11
Om P Mishra, Ravindra Kumar, Gopeshwar Narayan, Pradeep Srivastava, Abhishek Abhinay, Rajniti Prasad, Ankur Singh, Vineeta V Batra
BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were (1) to detect toll-like receptor (TLR)-3, TLR-4 and CD80 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and estimate urinary CD80 levels in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome and (2) to investigate the utility of these markers to differentiate between biopsy-proven minimal change disease (MCD) and focal segmental glomeruloscelerosis (FSGS). METHODS: The study included 70 patients with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS), of whom 40 had steroid-sensitive NS (SSNS; 25 with active NS, 15 in remission) and 30 had steroid-resistant NS (SRNS) patients, and 23 healthy controls...
February 16, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192646/higher-expression-of-toll-like-receptors-3-7-8-and-9-in-pityriasis-rosea
#12
Mostafa Abou El-Ela, Mohamed El-Komy, Rania Abdel Hay, Rehab Hegazy, Amin Sharobim, Laila Rashed, Khalda Amr
BACKGROUND: Pityriasis rosea (PR) is a common papulosquamous skin disease in which an infective agent may be implicated. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in immune responses and in the pathophysiology of inflammatory skin diseases. Our aim was to determine the possible roles of TLRs 3, 7, 8, and 9 in the pathogenesis of PR. METHODS: Twenty-four PR patients and 24 healthy individuals (as controls) were included in this case control study. All recruits were subjected to routine laboratory investigations...
March 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138030/the-tlr3-agonist-inhibit-drug-efflux-and-sequentially-consolidates-low-dose-cisplatin-based-chemoimmunotherapy-while-reducing-side-effects
#13
Liang Ding, Jing Ren, Dongya Zhang, Yi Li, XiaoFeng Huang, Jianjian Ji, Qingang Hu, Hui Wang, Yanhong Ni, Yayi Hou
The traditional maximum dose density chemotherapy renders the tumor patients not only the tumor remission but the chemotherapy resistance and more adverse side effects. According to the widely positive expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients (n=166), we here provided an alternative strategy involved the orderly treatment of TLR3 agonist polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (PIC) and low-dose cisplatin. The optimal dose of cisplatin, the novel role of PIC and the side effects of the combined chemotherapy were determined in vitro and in distinct human tumor models in vivo...
January 30, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130499/amino-acid-catabolism-in-multiple-sclerosis-affects-immune-homeostasis
#14
Laura Negrotto, Jorge Correale
Amino acid catabolism has been implicated in immunoregulatory mechanisms present in several diseases, including autoimmune disorders. Our aims were to assess expression and activity of enzymes involved in Trp and Arg catabolism, as well as to investigate amino acid catabolism effects on the immune system of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. To this end, 40 MS patients, 30 healthy control subjects, and 30 patients with other inflammatory neurological diseases were studied. Expression and activity of enzymes involved in Trp and Arg catabolism (IDO1, IDO2, Trp 2,3-dioxygenase [TDO], arginase [ARG] 1, ARG2, inducible NO synthetase) were evaluated in PBMCs...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115681/allergic-environment-enhances-airway-epithelial-pro-inflammatory-responses-to-rhinovirus-infection
#15
Cristan Herbert, Kimchi Do, Vincent Chiu, Linda Garthwaite, Yifan Chen, Paul M Young, Daniela Traini, Rakesh K Kumar
Airway epithelial cells (AEC) exhibit a pro-inflammatory phenotype in patients with allergic asthma. We examined the effect of an allergic cytokine environment on the response of AEC to rhinovirus, the most common trigger of acute exacerbations of asthma. Calu-3 cells, a well-differentiated human AEC line, were cultured with or without the T-helper type 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, then stimulated with a toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 agonist (poly I:C, dsRNA) or a TLR7 agonist (imiquimod), or infected with rhinovirus 16...
January 23, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093541/association-of-toll-like-receptor-3-and-toll-like-receptor-9-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-with-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-hepatic-fibrosis-in-egyptian-patients
#16
Rania A Zayed, Dalia Omran, Doha A Mokhtar, Zinab Zakaria, Sameera Ezzat, Mohamed A Soliman, Lamiaa Mobarak, Hossam El-Sweesy, Ghada Emam
AbstractToll-like receptors (TLRs) are recognized as fundamental contributors to the immune system function against infections. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a global health problem especially in Egypt having the highest HCV prevalence worldwide where HCV infection is a continuing epidemic. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible association between genetic variation in TLR-3 and TLR-9 and HCV infection and hepatic fibrosis in chronic HCV-positive Egyptian patients. The present study included 100 naïve chronic HCV-positive patients and 100 age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
March 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069499/precise-manipulation-of-biophysical-particle-parameters-enables-control-of-proinflammatory-cytokine-production-in-presence-of-tlr-3-and-4-ligands
#17
Yoshinori Kakizawa, Jung Seok Lee, Brendan Bell, Tarek M Fahmy
The biophysical parameters governing nanoparticle (NP)-cell interactions significantly affect biological responses, particularly in the application of NP-based immunotherapeutics. Modulation of the surface biophysical character of NPs can be achieved via introduction of amino acids, which offer the ability to fine tune a range of biophysical parameters of interest. We employed this approach using monodisperse silica NPs coated with numerous poly(amino acid)s (PAAs). The NPs were incubated with dendritic cells (DCs) in conjunction with TLR ligands and production of IL-1β from DCs and IFNγ from T cells primed by these DCs were measured...
January 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061462/identifying-genetic-hypomethylation-and-upregulation-of-toll-like-receptors-in-kawasaki-disease
#18
Ying-Hsien Huang, Sung-Chou Li, Lien-Hung Huang, Pao-Chun Chen, Yi-Yu Lin, Chiung-Chun Lin, Ho-Chang Kuo
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile systemic vasculitis that occurs in children and is characterized by elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) serve as the sensor arm of the innate immune system and induce proinflammatory cytokine expressions.We recruited a total of 18 paired KD patients, before intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and at least 3 weeks after IVIG treatment, 18 healthy controls, and 18 febrile controls. For TLR genes and their cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) markers, we used Affymetrix GeneChip® Human Transcriptome Array 2...
February 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052863/double-stranded-rna-upregulates-the-expression-of-inflammatory-mediators-in-human-aortic-valve-cells-through-the-tlr3-trif-noncanonical-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#19
Qiong Zhan, Rui Song, Fei Li, Lihua Ao, Qingchun Zeng, Dingli Xu, David A Fullerton, Xianzhong Meng
Calcific aortic valve disease is a chronic inflammatory condition, and the inflammatory responses of aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) play a critical role in the disease progression. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) released from damaged or stressed cells is proinflammatory and may contribute to the mechanism of chronic inflammation observed in diseased aortic valves. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of dsRNA on AVIC inflammatory responses and the underlying mechanism. AVICs from normal human aortic valves were stimulated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], a mimic of dsRNA...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042704/development-of-an-in-vitro-immunobiotic-evaluation-system-against-rotavirus-infection-in-bovine-intestinal-epitheliocytes
#20
H Kobayashi, P Kanmani, T Ishizuka, A Miyazaki, J Soma, L Albarracin, Y Suda, T Nochi, H Aso, N Iwabuchi, J-Z Xiao, T Saito, J Villena, H Kitazawa
The bovine intestinal epithelial cell line (BIE cells) expresses the Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 and is able to mount an antiviral immune response after the stimulation with poly(I:C). In the present study, we aimed to further characterise the antiviral defence mechanisms in BIE cells by evaluating the innate immune response triggered by rotavirus (RV) infection. In addition, we attempted to determine whether immunobiotic bifidobacteria are able to confer protection of BIE cells against RV infection by beneficially modulating the antiviral immune response...
January 2, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
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