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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571972/immunoinformatics-approaches-to-design-a-novel-multi-epitope-subunit-vaccine-against-hiv-infection
#1
Rajan Kumar Pandey, Rupal Ojha, Veeranarayanan Surya Aathmanathan, Muthukalingan Krishnan, Vijay Kumar Prajapati
The end goal of HIV vaccine designing requires novel strategies to elicit a strong humoral and cell-mediated immune response. The emergence of drug resistance and the requirement of next line treatment necessitate the finding of the potential and immunogenic vaccine candidate. This study employed a novel immunoinformatics approach to design multi-epitope subunit vaccine against HIV infection. Here, we designed the subunit vaccine by the combination of CTL, HTL and BCL epitopes along with suitable adjuvant and linkers...
March 20, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555782/oncolytic-reovirus-inhibits-immunosuppressive-activity-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-in-a-tlr3-dependent-manner
#2
Yuki Katayama, Masashi Tachibana, Nozomi Kurisu, Yukako Oya, Yuichi Terasawa, Hiroshi Goda, Kouji Kobiyama, Ken J Ishii, Shizuo Akira, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi, Fuminori Sakurai
Oncolytic reovirus, which possesses 10 segments of dsRNA genome, mediates antitumor effects via not only virus replication in a tumor cell-specific manner, but also activation of antitumor immunity; however, the mechanism(s) of reovirus-induced activation of antitumor immunity have not been fully elucidated. Recent studies have demonstrated that overcoming an immunosuppressive environment in tumor-bearing hosts is important to achieve efficient activation of antitumor immunity. Among the various types of cells involved in immunosuppression, it has been revealed that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are significantly increased in tumor-bearing hosts and play crucial roles in the immunosuppression in tumor-bearing hosts...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535024/excavating-chikungunya-genome-to-design-b-and-t-cell-multi-epitope-subunit-vaccine-using-comprehensive-immunoinformatics-approach-to-control-chikungunya-infection
#3
Aruna Narula, Rajan Kumar Pandey, Nazia Khatoon, Amit Mishra, Vijay Kumar Prajapati
Chikungunya infection has been a cause of countless deaths worldwide. Due to lack of permanent treatment and prevention of this disease, the mortality rate remains very high. Therefore, we followed an immunoinformatics approach for the development of multi-epitope subunit vaccine which is able to elucidate humoral, cell-mediated and innate immune responses inside the host body. Both structural and non-structural proteins of chikungunya virus were utilized for prediction of B-cell and T-cell binding epitopes along with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) inducing epitopes...
March 10, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530062/potential-mediators-of-in-ovo-delivered-double-stranded-ds-rna-induced-innate-response-against-low-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-infection
#4
Hanaa Ahmed-Hassan, Mohamed Sarjoon Abdul-Cader, Upasama De Silva Senapathi, Maha Ahmed Sabry, Eman Hamza, Eva Nagy, Shayan Sharif, Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem
BACKGROUND: Toll like receptor (TLR) 3 is a critically important innate pattern recognizing receptor that senses many viral infections. Although, it has been shown that double stranded (ds) RNA can be used for the stimulation of TLR3 signaling pathway in a number of host-viral infection models, it's effectiveness as an antiviral agent against low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) needs further investigation. METHODS: In this study, first, we delivered TLR3 ligand, dsRNA, in ovo at embryo day (ED)18 since in ovo route is routinely used for vaccination against poultry viral and parasitic infections and infected with H4N6 LPAIV 24-h post-treatment...
March 12, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530012/sepsis-increases-perioperative-metastases-in-a-murine-model
#5
Lee-Hwa Tai, Abhirami A Ananth, Rashmi Seth, Almohanad Alkayyal, Jiqing Zhang, Christiano Tanese de Souza, Phillip Staibano, Michael A Kennedy, Rebecca C Auer
BACKGROUND: Cancer surgery can promote tumour metastases and worsen prognosis, however, the effect of perioperative complications on metastatic disease remains unclear. In this study we sought to evaluate the effect of common perioperative complications including perioperative blood loss, hypothermia, and sepsis on tumour metastases in a murine model. METHODS: Prior to surgery, pulmonary metastases were established by intravenous challenge of CT26LacZ colon cancer cells in BALB/c mice...
March 12, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527580/gene-array-analysis-of-pd-1h-overexpressing-monocytes-reveals-a-pro-inflammatory-profile
#6
Preeti Bharaj, Chunting Ye, Sean Petersen, Qianghu Wang, Baoli Hu, N Manjunath, Premlata Shankar, Guohua Yi
We have previously reported that overexpression of Programmed Death -1 Homolog (PD-1H) in human monocytes leads to activation and spontaneous secretion of multiple pro inflammatory cytokines. Here we evaluate changes in monocytes gene expression after enforced PD-1H expression by gene array. The results show that there are significant alterations in 51 potential candidate genes that relate to immune response, cell adhesion and metabolism. Genes corresponding to pro-inflammatory cytokines showed the highest upregulation, 7, 3...
February 2018: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500637/rna-seq-profile-reveals-th-1-and-th-17-type-of-immune-responses-in-mice-infected-systemically-with-aspergillus-fumigatus
#7
Jata Shankar, Gustavo C Cerqueira, Jennifer R Wortman, Karl V Clemons, David A Stevens
With the increasing numbers of immunocompromised hosts, Aspergillus fumigatus emerges as a lethal opportunistic fungal pathogen. Understanding innate and acquired immunity responses of the host is important for a better therapeutic strategy to deal with aspergillosis patients. To determine the transcriptome in the kidneys in aspergillosis, we employed RNA-Seq to obtain single 76-base reads of whole-genome transcripts of murine kidneys on a temporal basis (days 0; uninfected, 1, 2, 3 and 8) during invasive aspergillosis...
March 2, 2018: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486395/targeted-gene-expression-analyses-and-immunohistology-suggest-a-pro-proliferative-state-in-tricuspid-aortic-valve-and-senescence-and-viral-infections-in-bicuspid-aortic-valve-associated-thoracic-aortic-aneurysms
#8
Stefan Blunder, Barbara Messner, Bernhard Scharinger, Christian Doppler, Iris Zeller, Andreas Zierer, Günther Laufer, David Bernhard
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite the potential life-threatening consequences of thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs), the pathogenesis of these diseases is still poorly understood. While some aspects of TAA formation have been elucidated, the role of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in both bicuspid aortic valve (BAV)-associated and degenerative tricuspid aortic valve (TAV)-associated TAAs has not yet been fully unravelled. Thus, this work was aimed at uncovering processes in SMC biology that may contribute to TAA formation...
February 5, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452288/repetitive-tlr-3-activation-in-the-lung-induces-skeletal-muscle-adaptations-and-cachexia
#9
Ted G Graber, Brandy L Rawls, Bing Tian, William J Durham, Camille R Brightwell, Allan R Brasier, Blake B Rasmussen, Christopher S Fry
Due to immunosenescence, older adults are particularly susceptible to lung-based viral infections, with increased severity of symptoms in those with underlying chronic lung disease. Repeated respiratory viral infections produce lung maladaptations, accelerating pulmonary dysfunction. Toll like 3 receptor (TLR3) is a membrane protein that senses exogenous double-stranded RNA to activate the innate immune response to a viral infection. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] mimics double stranded RNA and has been shown to activate TLR3...
February 13, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427596/structural-and-functional-modeling-of-viral-protein-5-of-infectious-bursal-disease-virus
#10
Bhaskar Ganguly, Sunil Kumar Rastogi
Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious and immunosuppressive disease of young chicken. The causative virus (IBDV) is a bi-segmented, double-stranded RNA virus. The virus encodes five major proteins, viral protein (VP) 1-5. VPs 1-4 have been characterized crystallographically. Albeit a rise in the number of studies reporting successful heterologous expression of VP5 in recent times, challenging the notion that rapid death of host cells overexpressing VP5 disallows obtaining sufficiently pure preparations of the protein for crystallographic studies, the structure of VP5 remains unknown and its function controversial...
February 7, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397183/short-communication-probiotic-induction-of-interleukin-10-and-interleukin-12-production-by-macrophages-is-modulated-by-co-stimulation-with-microbial-components
#11
Rumi Kaji, Junko Kiyoshima-Shibata, Satoshi Tsujibe, Masanobu Nanno, Kan Shida
Probiotic lactobacilli stimulate macrophages and dendritic cells to secrete cytokines and thereby regulate the immune responses of the host. The balance of the IL-10 and IL-12 production induced by a probiotic is crucial for determining the direction of the immune response. In the present study, we examined the ability of microbial components to modify IL-10 and IL-12 production induced by a popular probiotic strain, Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS), which itself predominantly induces IL-12 production...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366783/withdrawn-sike1-deficiency-accelerates-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-ir-injury-through-enhancing-toll-like-receptor-3-regulated-inflammation
#12
Xiao-Bo Yang, Hong Jiang, Yao Shi
This article has been withdrawn at the request of the author(s) and/or editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal.
January 31, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360807/anti-proteinuric-effect-of-an-endothelin-1-receptor-antagonist-in-puromycin-aminonucleoside-induced-nephrosis-in-rat
#13
Jiro Kino, Shoji Tsuji, Tetsuya Kitao, Yuko Akagawa, Sohsaku Yamanouchi, Takahisa Kimata, Kazunari Kaneko
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) remains unclear although recent studies suggest endothelin 1 (ET-1) and CD80 of podocytes are involved. We investigated the potential of antagonist to ET-1 receptor type A (ETRA) as therapeutic agent through suppression of CD80 in rat model of INS. METHODS: Puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) was injected to Wister rats to induce proteinuria: some were treated with ETRA antagonist and others were treated with 0...
January 23, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351447/cigarette-smoke-dampens-antiviral-signaling-in-small-airway-epithelial-cells-by-disrupting-tlr3-cleavage
#14
Parker F Duffney, Claire E McCarthy, Aitor Nogales, Thomas H Thatcher, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Richard P Phipps, Patricia J Sime
Cigarette smokers and people exposed to second-hand smoke are at an increased risk for pulmonary viral infections, and yet the mechanism responsible for this heightened susceptibility is not understood. To understand the effect of cigarette smoke on susceptibility to viral infection, we used an air-liquid interface culture system and exposed primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) to whole cigarette smoke, followed by treatment with the viral mimetic polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) or influenza A virus (IAV)...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344995/activation-of-human-cd141-and-cd1c-dendritic-cells-in-vivo-with-combined-tlr-3-and-tlr-7-8-ligation
#15
Frances E Pearson, Karshing Chang, Yoshihito Minoda, Ingrid M Leal Rojas, Oscar L Haigh, Ghazal Daraj, Kirsteen M Tullett, Kristen J Radford
Mice reconstituted with human hematopoietic stem cells are valuable models to study aspects of the human immune system in vivo. We describe a humanized mouse model (hu mice) in which fully functional human CD141+ and CD1c+ myeloid and CD123+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DC) develop from human cord blood CD34+ cells in immunodeficient mice. CD141+ DC are the human equivalents of murine CD8+ /CD103+ DC which are essential for the induction of tumor-inhibitory cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses, making them attractive targets to exploit for the development of new cancer immunotherapies...
January 18, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339104/region-specific-innate-antiviral-responses-of-the-human-epididymis
#16
James A Browne, Shih-Hsing Leir, Scott E Eggener, Ann Harris
Viral infections of the epididymis are associated with epididymitis, which damages the epithelium and impairs fertility. We showed previously that innate immune response genes were differentially expressed in the corpus and cauda region of the human epididymis in comparison to the caput. Here we investigate the antiviral defense response mechanisms of human epididymis epithelial (HEE) cells. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) are enriched in HEE cells from the corpus and cauda region...
January 13, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338314/inflammatory-cytokines-in-the-papillary-tips-and-urine-of-nephrolithiasis-patients
#17
Andrew Y Sun, Bryan Hinck, Benjamin R Cohen, Karen Keslar, Robert L Fairchild, Manoj Monga
INTRODUCTION: Intrarenal inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of nephrolithiasis, with prior work showing increased urine levels of IL-6, IL-8, and CCL-2 in stone patients. However, no studies have assessed for inflammation in the renal papillae. We sought to characterize novel papillary tip and urinary biomarkers in stone patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-two patients with nephrolithiasis undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy were enrolled...
March 2018: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331320/zika-dengue-and-yellow-fever-viruses-induce-differential-anti-viral-immune-responses-in-human-monocytic-and-first-trimester-trophoblast-cells
#18
Huanle Luo, Evandro R Winkelmann, Ildefonso Fernandez-Salas, Li Li, Sandra V Mayer, Rogelio Danis-Lozano, Rosa Ma Sanchez-Casas, Nikos Vasilakis, Robert Tesh, Alan D Barrett, Scott C Weaver, Tian Wang
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus associated with severe neonatal birth defects, but the causative mechanism is incompletely understood. ZIKV shares sequence homology and early clinical manifestations with yellow fever virus (YFV) and dengue virus (DENV) and are all transmitted in urban cycles by the same species of mosquitoes. However, YFV and DENV have been rarely reported to cause congenital diseases. Here, we compared infection with a contemporary ZIKV strain (FSS13025) to YFV17D and DENV-4 in human monocytic cells (THP-1) and first-trimester trophoblasts (HTR-8)...
March 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330675/recognizing-conserved-non-canonical-localization-patterns-of-toll-like-receptors-in-tissues-and-across-species
#19
REVIEW
Glenn Hamonic, J Alex Pasternak, Heather L Wilson
Toll-like receptors (TLR) 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 were originally characterized as exclusively expressed on the cell surface and TLR 3, 7, 8 and 9 were said to be localized to the endosomes. However, continued research in this area shows that TLR localization may be altered across cell-types, and in response to stimulation, age or disease. Mucosal surfaces must remain tolerant to the commensal flora and thus intracellular or basal lateral localization of TLRs at mucosal surfaces may be necessary to prevent induction of an inflammatory response to commensal flora while still allowing the possibility for the receptors to prime an immune response when a pathogen has crossed the epithelial barrier...
April 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289655/construction-immune-protection-and-innate-immune-response-of-shuffled-polyvalent-ompas-vaccines
#20
Sheng-Nan Wang, Zhi-Xue Cheng, Xiao-Peng Ling, Xiao Chu, Xuan-Xian Peng, Hui Li
Our previous studies demonstrated that molecular breeding via DNA shuffling directs the evolution of polyvalent vaccines with desired traits, which leads to generation of polyvalent ompA vaccines using Vibrio alginolyticus VA0764 primers. Here, we replaced VA0764 primers with Edwardsiella tarda ompA primers to generate new polyvalent ompA vaccines by DNA shuffling of the same five ompA genes from four species of bacteria E. tarda, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus and Escherichia coli. We identified four polyvalent vaccine candidates from a eukaryotic expressing library EompAs-FE containing 82 ompAs using active immune protection against V...
March 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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