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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327704/emerging-nonmetabolic-functions-of-skin-fat
#1
REVIEW
Christian F Guerrero-Juarez, Maksim V Plikus
Although the major white adipose depots evolved primarily to store energy, secrete hormones and thermo-insulate the body, multiple secondary depots developed additional specialized and unconventional functions. Unlike any other fat tissue, dermal white adipose tissue (dWAT) evolved a large repertoire of novel features that are central to skin physiology, which we discuss in this Review. dWAT exists in close proximity to hair follicles, the principal appendages of the skin that periodically grow new hairs. Responding to multiple hair-derived signals, dWAT becomes closely connected to cycling hair follicles and periodically cycles itself...
January 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325851/microbial-population-changes-in-patients-with-medication-related-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw-treated-with-systemic-antibiotics
#2
Lieselotte De Bruyn, Ruxandra Coropciuc, Wim Coucke, Constantinus Politis
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the bacterial population in patients with medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) after treatment with doxycycline and metronidazole. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 38 patients with MRONJ (age range 55-88, mean age 73 + 8.82 standard deviation) treated with doxycycline first and with metronidazole second were enrolled in this study. Two swabs were taken at the margin of the infected MRONJ lesion after applying pressure on the marginal mucosa, and visible pus was secreted...
December 11, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325602/bile-acid-metabolism-in-liver-pathobiology
#3
John Y L Chiang, Jessica M Ferrell
Bile acids facilitate intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary cholesterol secretion to maintain bile acid homeostasis, which is essential for protecting liver and other tissues and cells from cholesterol and bile acid toxicity. Bile acid metabolism is tightly regulated by bile acid synthesis in the liver and bile acid biotransformation in the intestine. Bile acids are endogenous ligands that activate a complex network of nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor and membrane G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 to regulate hepatic lipid and glucose metabolic homeostasis and energy metabolism...
January 11, 2018: Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316737/the-effect-of-lipopolysaccharide-on-noxa-expression-is-mediated-through-irf-1-3-and-7
#4
Sujan Piya, Tae-Hyoung Kim
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria, elicits the secretion of cytokines, such as interferons, that stimulate the host defense system. Previously, we demonstrated that interferons induce interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) 1, 3, and 7 that regulate transcription of Noxa and alter expression profiles of Bcl-2 family proteins in tumors. However, the immediate consequences of LPS stimulation on Noxa and BH3 expression in tumor cells remain uncharacterized. Here, we determined that LPS induced Noxa expression in CT26 cells...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316463/electrochemical-and-microbial-community-responses-of-electrochemically-active-biofilms-to-copper-ions-in-bioelectrochemical-systems
#5
Yaping Zhang, Guanqun Li, Jing Wen, Yangao Xu, Jian Sun, Xun-An Ning, Xingwen Lu, Yujie Wang, Zuoyi Yang, Yong Yuan
Heavy metals play an important role in the conductivity of solution, power generation and activity of microorganisms in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs). However, effect of heavy metal on the process of exoelectrogenesis metabolism and extracellular electron transfer of electrochemically active biofilms (EABs) was poorly understood. Herein, we investigated the impact of Cu2+ at gradually increasing concentration on the morphological and electrochemical performance and bacterial communities of anodic biofilms in mixed-culture BESs...
January 5, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316348/ultrastructural-and-immunohistochemical-study-on-the-lamina-propria-cells-beneath-paneth-cells-in-the-rat-ileum
#6
Youhei Mantani, Miho Nishida, Kyouji Yamamoto, Kazuki Miyamoto, Hideto Yuasa, Natsumi Masuda, Takuya Omotehara, Hiroki Tsuruta, Toshifumi Yokoyama, Nobuhiko Hoshi, Hiroshi Kitagawa
Paneth cells secrete bactericidal substances in response to bacterial proliferation on the mucosal surface without directly contacting bacteria. However, the induction mechanism of this transient secretion has not been clarified, although nervous system and/or immunocompetent cells in the lamina propria (LP) might be involved. In the present study, we ultrastructurally and immunohistochemically investigated which LP cells are localized beneath Paneth cells and examined the relationship between the Paneth cell-derived cellular processes which extended into the LP and the LP cells...
January 6, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314727/molecular-processes-underlying-synergistic-linuron-mineralization-in-a-triple-species-bacterial-consortium-biofilm-revealed-by-differential-transcriptomics
#7
Pieter Albers, Bram Weytjens, René De Mot, Kathleen Marchal, Dirk Springael
The proteobacteria Variovorax sp. WDL1, Comamonas testosteroni WDL7, and Hyphomicrobium sulfonivorans WDL6 compose a triple-species consortium that synergistically degrades and grows on the phenylurea herbicide linuron. To acquire a better insight into the interactions between the consortium members and the underlying molecular mechanisms, we compared the transcriptomes of the key biodegrading strains WDL7 and WDL1 grown as biofilms in either isolation or consortium conditions by differential RNAseq analysis...
January 3, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311425/phylogeny-and-putative-virulence-gene-analysis-of-bartonella-bovis
#8
Sun Tee Tay, Kai Ling Kho, Siew Fen Lye, Yun Fong Ngeow
Bartonella bovis is a small Gram-negative bacterium recognized as an etiological agent for bacteremia and endocarditis in cattle. As few reports are available on the taxonomic position of B. bovis and its mechanism of virulence, this study aims to resolve the phylogeny of B. bovis and investigate putative virulence genes based on whole genome sequence analysis. Genome-wide comparisons based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and orthologous genes were performed in this study for phylogenetic inference of 27 Bartonella species...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311273/translocation-through-the-conjugative-type-4-secretion-system-requires-unfolding-of-its-protein-substrate
#9
Martina Trokter, Gabriel Waksman
Bacterial conjugation, a mechanism of horizontal gene transfer, is the major means by which antibiotic resistance spreads among bacteria (1, 2). Conjugative plasmids are transferred from one bacterium to another through a type IV secretion system (T4SS) in a form of single-stranded DNA covalently attached to a protein called relaxase. The relaxase is fully functional both in a donor cell (prior to conjugation) and recipient cell (after conjugation). Here we demonstrate that the protein substrate has to unfold for efficient translocation through the conjugative T4SS...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305897/cloning-expression-and-purification-of-virb10-protein-of-brucella-melitensis-and-to-evaluate-its-role-as-a-serological-marker-for-brucella-infection-in-experimental-and-natural-hosts
#10
Prachi Pathak, Ashu Kumar, Prabhu Prasad Sarangi, Sameer Bhagyawant, Duraipandian Thavaselvam
Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by various species of the genus Brucella. The control of disease mainly depends on its accurate and early diagnosis. Culture methods employed for diagnosis are time consuming and require well equipped biosafety level 3 laboratories and hence serological tests are favored alternative for brucellosis diagnosis. At present serological diagnosis is based on LPS (lipopolysaccharide) which is less specific as the LPS antigen of Brucella species shows cross reactivity with other gram-negative bacteria...
January 3, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288457/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-secretion-translocation-assays-to-identify-novel-ralstonia-solanacearum-type-3-effectors
#11
Fabien Lonjon, Nemo Peeters, Stéphane Genin, Fabienne Vailleau
Phytopathogenic bacteria have evolved multiple strategies to infect plants. Like many gram-negative bacteria, Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt, possesses a specialized protein secretion machinery to deliver effector proteins directly into the host cells. This type 3 secretion system (T3SS) and the bacterial proteins translocated, called type 3 effectors (T3Es), constitute the main pathogenicity determinants of the R. solanacearum species complex (RSSC). Up to 113 orthologous groups defining T3E genes have been identified among the RSSC strains sequenced to date...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288127/structural-characterization-of-spoiiiab-sporulation-essential-protein-in-bacillus-subtilis
#12
N Zeytuni, K A Flanagan, L J Worrall, S C Massoni, A H Camp, N C J Strynadka
Endospore formation in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis initiates in response to nutrient depletion and involves a series of morphological changes that result in the creation of a dormant spore. Early in this developmental process, the cell undergoes an asymmetric cell division that produces the larger mother cell and smaller forespore, the latter destined to become the mature spore. The mother cell septal membrane then engulfs the forespore, at which time an essential channel, the so-called feeding-tube apparatus, is thought to cross both membranes to create a direct conduit between the cells...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286292/the-phagocytic-function-of-macrophage-enforcing-innate-immunity-and-tissue-homeostasis
#13
REVIEW
Daisuke Hirayama, Tomoya Iida, Hiroshi Nakase
Macrophages are effector cells of the innate immune system that phagocytose bacteria and secrete both pro-inflammatory and antimicrobial mediators. In addition, macrophages play an important role in eliminating diseased and damaged cells through their programmed cell death. Generally, macrophages ingest and degrade dead cells, debris, tumor cells, and foreign materials. They promote homeostasis by responding to internal and external changes within the body, not only as phagocytes, but also through trophic, regulatory, and repair functions...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285573/bacterial-lpx-motif-harboring-virulence-factors-constitute-a-species-spanning-family-of-cell-penetrating-effectors
#14
Stefanie Norkowski, Britta Körner, Lilo Greune, Anne-Sophie Stolle, Marie-Luise Lubos, Philip R Hardwidge, M Alexander Schmidt, Christian Rüter
Effector proteins are key virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria that target and subvert the functions of essential host defense mechanisms. Typically, these proteins are delivered into infected host cells via the type III secretion system (T3SS). Recently, however, several effector proteins have been found to enter host cells in a T3SS-independent manner thereby widening the potential range of these virulence factors. Prototypes of such bacteria-derived cell-penetrating effectors (CPEs) are the Yersinia enterocolitica-derived YopM as well as the Salmonella typhimurium effector SspH1...
December 28, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281838/the-role-of-type-vi-secretion-system-effectors-in-target-cell-lysis-and-subsequent-horizontal-gene-transfer
#15
Peter David Ringel, Di Hu, Marek Basler
Bacteria use type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) to manipulate host cells during pathogenesis or to kill competing bacteria, which, in some cases, increases horizontal gene transfer. These functions largely depend on T6SS regulation, dynamics, and the set of effectors that the system delivers into the target cells. Here, we show that Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 assembles a highly dynamic T6SS capable of killing and lysing bacterial cells. T6SS function depends on conserved T6SS components as well as Acinetobacter-specific genes of unknown function...
December 26, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281743/hdac6-controls-innate-immune-and-autophagy-responses-to-tlr-mediated-signalling-by-the-intracellular-bacteria-listeria-monocytogenes
#16
Olga Moreno-Gonzalo, Marta Ramírez-Huesca, Noelia Blas-Rus, Danay Cibrián, María Laura Saíz, Inmaculada Jorge, Emilio Camafeita, Jesús Vázquez, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid
Recent evidence on HDAC6 function underlines its role as a key protein in the innate immune response to viral infection. However, whether HDAC6 regulates innate immunity during bacterial infection remains unexplored. To assess the role of HDAC6 in the regulation of defence mechanisms against intracellular bacteria, we used the Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) infection model. Our data show that Hdac6-/- bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) have a higher bacterial load than Hdac6+/+ cells, correlating with weaker induction of IFN-related genes, pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitrite production after bacterial infection...
December 27, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277965/novel-insights-into-the-mechanism-of-sepl-mediated-control-of-effector-secretion-in-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#17
Meztlli O Gaytán, Julia Monjarás Feria, Eduardo Soto, Norma Espinosa, Julia M Benítez, Dimitris Georgellis, Bertha González-Pedrajo
Type three secretion systems (T3SSs) are virulence determinants employed by several pathogenic bacteria as molecular syringes to inject effector proteins into host cells. Diarrhea-producing enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) uses a T3SS to colonize the intestinal tract. T3S is a highly coordinated process that ensures hierarchical delivery of three classes of substrates: early (inner rod and needle subunits), middle (translocators), and late (effectors). Translocation of effectors is triggered upon host-cell contact in response to different environmental cues, such as calcium levels...
December 26, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276700/an-updated-view-on-the-rck-invasin-of-salmonella-still-much-to-discover
#18
REVIEW
Julien Mambu, Isabelle Virlogeux-Payant, Sébastien Holbert, Olivier Grépinet, Philippe Velge, Agnès Wiedemann
Salmonella is a facultative intracellular Gram-negative bacterium, responsible for a wide range of food- and water-borne diseases ranging from gastroenteritis to typhoid fever depending on hosts and serotypes. Salmonella thus represents a major threat to public health. A key step in Salmonella pathogenesis is the invasion of phagocytic and non-phagocytic host cells. To trigger its own internalization into non-phagocytic cells, Salmonella has developed different mechanisms, involving several invasion factors...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29263098/the-ca2-induced-two-component-system-cvssr-regulates-the-type-iii-secretion-system-and-the-extracytoplasmic-function-sigma-factor-algu-in-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-tomato-dc3000
#19
Maxwell R Fishman, Johnson Zhang, Philip A Bronstein, Paul Stodghill, Melanie J Filiatrault
Two-component systems (TCSs) of bacteria regulate many different aspects of the bacterial life cycle including pathogenesis. Most TCSs remain uncharacterized with no information about the signal(s) or regulatory targets and/or role in bacterial pathogenesis. Here, we characterized a TCS in the plant-pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pto) composed of the histidine kinase, CvsS, and the response regulator, CvsR. CvsSR is necessary for virulence of Pto, since ΔcvsS and ΔcvsR strains produced fewer symptoms and demonstrated reduced growth on multiple hosts as compared to WT...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258848/exoy-an-actin-activated-nucleotidyl-cyclase-toxin-from-p-aeruginosa-a-minireview
#20
Alexander Belyy, Undine Mechold, Louis Renault, Daniel Ladant
ExoY is one of four well-characterized Pseudomonas aeruginosa type 3 secretion system (T3SS) effectors. It is a nucleotidyl cyclase toxin that is inactive inside the bacteria, but becomes potently activated once it is delivered into the eukaryotic target cells. Recently, filamentous actin was identified as the eukaryotic cofactor that stimulates specifically ExoY enzymatic activity by several orders of magnitude. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the biochemistry of nucleotidyl cyclase activity of ExoY and its regulation by interaction with filamentous actin...
December 16, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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