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Bacteria secretion system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907154/pheromone-recognition-and-selectivity-by-comr-proteins-among-streptococcus-species
#1
Erin Shanker, Donald A Morrison, Antoine Talagas, Sylvie Nessler, Michael J Federle, Gerd Prehna
Natural transformation, or competence, is an ability inherent to bacteria for the uptake of extracellular DNA. This process is central to bacterial evolution and allows for the rapid acquirement of new traits, such as antibiotic resistance in pathogenic microorganisms. For the Gram-positive bacteria genus Streptococcus, genes required for competence are under the regulation of quorum sensing (QS) mediated by peptide pheromones. One such system, ComRS, consists of a peptide (ComS) that is processed (XIP), secreted, and later imported into the cytoplasm, where it binds and activates the transcription factor ComR...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907104/a-new-member-of-the-growing-family-of-contact-dependent-growth-inhibition-systems-in-xenorhabdus-doucetiae
#2
Jean-Claude Ogier, Bernard Duvic, Anne Lanois, Alain Givaudan, Sophie Gaudriault
Xenorhabdus is a bacterial symbiont of entomopathogenic Steinernema nematodes and is pathogenic for insects. Its life cycle involves a stage inside the insect cadaver, in which it competes for environmental resources with microorganisms from soil and the insect gut. Xenorhabdus is, thus, a useful model for identifying new interbacterial competition systems. For the first time, in an entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus doucetiae strain FRM16, we identified a cdi-like locus. The cdi loci encode contact-dependent inhibition (CDI) systems composed of proteins from the two-partner secretion (TPS) family...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907005/intraluminal-flagellin-differentially-contributes-to-gut-dysbiosis-and-systemic-inflammation-following-burn-injury
#3
Logan Grimes, Allie Doyle, Aaron L Miller, Richard B Pyles, Gabor Olah, Csaba Szabo, Sarah Hoskins, Tonyia Eaves-Pyles
Burn injury is associated with a loss of gut barrier function, resulting in systemic dissemination of gut-derived bacteria and their products. The bacterial protein and TLR5 agonist, flagellin, induces non-specific innate immune responses. Because we detected flagellin in the serum of burn patients, we investigated whether gut-derived flagellin was a primary or secondary contributor to intestinal dysfunction and systemic inflammation following burn injury. The apical surface of polarized human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), Caco-2BBe, were exposed to 50 or 500 ng of purified flagellin and 1 x 105 of an intestinal E...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902436/exploring-the-parameters-of-post-segregation-killing-using-heterologous-expression-of-secreted-toxin-barnase-and-antitoxin-barstar-in-an-e-coli-case-study
#4
Dorien S Coray, Brigitta Kurenbach, Jack A Heinemann
Post-segregational killing (PSK) is a phenotype determined by plasmids using a toxin and an antitoxin (TA) gene pair. Loss of the genes depletes the cell's reserve of antitoxin and allows the toxin to act upon the cell. PSK benefits mobile elements when it increases reproductive success relative to other mobile competitors. A side effect of PSK is that plasmids become refractory to displacement from the cell during growth as a monoculture. Most PSK systems use a cytoplasmic toxin, but the external toxins of bacteriocins also have a PSK-like effect...
November 16, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900687/cloning-and-expression-of-metagenomic-dna-in-streptomyces-lividans-and-subsequent-fermentation-for-optimized-production
#5
Yuriy Rebets, Jan Kormanec, Andriy Lutzhetskyy, Kristel Bernaerts, Jozef Anné
The choice of an expression system for the metagenomic DNA of interest is of vital importance for the detection of any particular gene or gene cluster. Most of the screens to date have used the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli as a host for metagenomic gene libraries. However, the use of E. coli introduces a potential host bias since only 40 % of the enzymatic activities may be readily recovered by random cloning in E. coli. To recover some of the remaining 60 %, alternative cloning hosts such as Streptomyces spp...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894646/the-enigmatic-esx-proteins-looking-beyond-mycobacteria
#6
REVIEW
Meera Unnikrishnan, Chrystala Constantinidou, Tracy Palmer, Mark J Pallen
Bacteria export proteins across membranes using a range of transport machineries. Type VII secretion systems (T7SSs), originally described in mycobacteria, are now known to be widespread across diverse bacterial phyla. Recent studies have characterized secretion components and mechanisms of type VII secretion in pathogenic and environmental bacteria. A variety of functions have been attributed to T7SS substrates, including interactions with eukaryotes and with other bacteria. Here, we evaluate the growing body of knowledge on T7SSs, with focus on the nonmycobacterial systems, reviewing their phylogenetic distribution, structure and function in diverse settings...
November 25, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891183/complete-genome-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-forc014-isolated-from-the-toothfish
#7
Sojin Ahn, Han Young Chung, Sooyeon Lim, Kwondo Kim, Suyeon Kim, Eun Jung Na, Kelsey Caetano-Anolles, Ju-Hoon Lee, Sangryeol Ryu, Sang Ho Choi, Heebal Kim
BACKGROUND: Foodborne illness can occur due to various pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and can cause severe gastroenteritis symptoms. In this study, we completed the genome sequence of a foodborne pathogen V. parahaemolyticus FORC_014, which was isolated from suspected contaminated toothfish from South Korea. Additionally, we extended our knowledge of genomic characteristics of the FORC_014 strain through comparative analysis using the complete sequences of other V...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880834/overexpressed-proteins-in-hypervirulent-clade-8-and-clade-6-strains-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-compared-to-e-coli-o157-h7-edl933-clade-3-strain
#8
Natalia Amigo, Qi Zhang, Ariel Amadio, Qunjie Zhang, Wanderson M Silva, Baiyuan Cui, Zhongjian Chen, Mariano Larzabal, Jinlong Bei, Angel Cataldi
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is responsible for severe diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), and predominantly affects children under 5 years. The major virulence traits are Shiga toxins, necessary to develop HUS and the Type III Secretion System (T3SS) through which bacteria translocate effector proteins directly into the host cell. By SNPs typing, E. coli O157:H7 was separated into nine different clades. Clade 8 and clade 6 strains were more frequently associated with severe disease and HUS. In this study, we aimed to identify differentially expressed proteins in two strains of E...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872242/systematic-analysis-of-two-component-systems-in-citrobacter-rodentium-reveals-positive-and-negative-roles-in-virulence
#9
Jenny-Lee Thomassin, Jean-Mathieu Leclerc, Natalia Giannakopoulou, Lei Zhu, Kristiana Salmon, Andrea Portt, France Daigle, Hervé Le Moual, Samantha Gruenheid
Citrobacter rodentium is a murine pathogen used to model intestinal infections caused by the human diarrheal pathogens enterohaemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli During infection bacteria use two-component systems (TCSs) to detect changing environmental cues within the host, allowing for rapid adaptation by altering the expression of specific genes. In this study, 26 TCSs were identified in C. rodentium and qPCR analysis showed that they are all expressed during murine infection. These TCSs were individually deleted and the in vitro and in vivo effects were analyzed to determine the functional consequences...
November 21, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871130/paar-rhs-proteins-harbor-various-c-terminal-toxins-to-diversify-the-antibacterial-pathways-of-type-vi-secretion-systems
#10
Jiale Ma, Min Sun, Wengyang Dong, Zihao Pan, Chengping Lu, Huochun Yao
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) of bacteria plays a key role in competing for specific niches by the contact-dependent killing of competitors. Recently, Rhs proteins with polymorphic C-terminal toxin-domains that inhibit or kill neighboring cells were identified. In this report, we identified a novel Rhs with an MPTase4 (Metallopeptidase-4) domain (designated as Rhs-CT1) that showed an antibacterial effect via T6SS in Escherichia coli. We managed to develop a specific strategy by matching the diagnostic domain-architecture of Rhs-CT1 (Rhs with an N-terminal PAAR-motif and a C-terminal toxin domain) for effector retrieval and discovered a series of Rhs-CTs in E...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859892/discovery-of-the-type-vii-esx-1-secretion-needle
#11
Louis Ates, And Roland Brosch
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of human tuberculosis harbours five ESAT-6/type VII secretion (ESX/T7S) systems. The first esx gene clusters were identified during the genome-sequencing project of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Follow-up studies revealed additional genes playing important roles in ESX/T7S systems. Among the latter genes, one can find those that encode Pro-Glu (PE) and Pro-Pro-Glu (PPE) proteins as well as a gene cluster that is encoded > 260 kb upstream of the esx-1 locus and encodes ESX-1 secretion-associated proteins EspA (Rv3616c), EspC (Rv3615c) and EspD (Rv3614c)...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858524/the-fhab-fhac-two-partner-secretion-system-is-involved-in-adhesion-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-abh12o-a2-strain
#12
A Pérez, M Merino, S Rumbo-Feal, L Álvarez-Fraga, J A Vallejo, A Beceiro, E J Ohneck, J Mateos, P Fernández-Puente, L A Actis, M Poza, G Bou
Acinetobacter baumannii is a hospital-acquired pathogen that shows an extraordinary capacity to stay in the hospital environment. Adherence of the bacteria to eukaryotic cells or to abiotic surfaces is the first step for establishing an infection. The A. baumannii strain AbH12O-A2 showed an exceptional ability to adhere to A549 epithelial cells. The AbFhaB/FhaC two-partner secretion (TPS) system involved in adhesion was discovered after the screening of the recently determined A. baumannii AbH12O-A2 strain genome (CP009534...
November 18, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856117/adaptor-proteins-of-type-vi-secretion-system-effectors
#13
Daniel Unterweger, Benjamin Kostiuk, Stefan Pukatzki
Bacteria use the type VI secretion system (T6SS) to kill neighboring cells. One key feature of the T6SS is the secretion of diverse effectors. Here, we discuss six publications that describe three superfamilies of T6SS proteins, each dedicated to mediate the secretion of cognate effectors.
November 14, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837494/identification-of-the-targets-of-type-iii-secretion-system-inhibitors
#14
Danielle L Jessen Condry, Matthew L Nilles
A type III secretion system (T3SS) Inhibitor can be utilized for study in the research lab but also progressed into drug development. Since many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria utilize this highly conserved system as a virulence factor, the prospect of the T3SS as a drug target is promising. To effectively move a T3SS inhibitor into the route of either research or pharmaceuticals an understanding of the target and mechanism of the inhibitor is required. Several methods can be utilized to identify the target...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837492/expression-and-purification-of-n-terminally-his-tagged-recombinant-type-iii-secretion-proteins
#15
Travis D Alvine, Patrick Osei-Owusu, Danielle L Jessen Condry, Matthew L Nilles
The ability to express and purify recombinant needle proteins from the Type III Secretion System (T3SS) of many gram-negative bacteria has allowed us to develop novel experimental approaches, both in vitro and in vivo, to identify unique roles for T3SS in bacterial pathogenesis. In addition, these purified needle proteins have shown to be promising immunotherapies acting as both protective antigens and adjuvants, presumably due to their immune activating properties. Here, we describe the expression and purification of recombinant T3SS needle proteins...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837491/recombinant-expression-and-purification-of-the-shigella-translocator-ipab
#16
Michael L Barta, Philip R Adam, Nicholas E Dickenson
Type III secretion systems (T3SS) are highly conserved virulence factors employed by a large number of pathogenic gram-negative bacteria. Like many T3SS translocators, recombinant expression of the hydrophobic Shigella protein IpaB requires the presence of its cognate chaperone IpgC. Chaperone-bound IpaB is maintained in a nonfunctional state, which has hampered in vitro studies aimed at understanding molecular structure and function of this important class of T3SS proteins. Herein, we describe an expression and purification protocol that utilizes mild detergents to produce highly purified, homogeneous IpaB of defined oligomeric states...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837489/a-method-for-characterizing-the-type-iii-secretion-system-s-contribution-to-pathogenesis-homologous-recombination-to-generate-yersinia-pestis-type-iii-secretion-system-mutants
#17
Patrick Osei-Owusu, Matthew L Nilles, David S Bradley, Travis D Alvine
The type III (T3S) secretion system of many gram-negative bacteria is a surface-exposed protein secretion apparatus used to directly inject bacterial effector molecules into eukaryotic cells. These effector molecules contribute to bacterial pathogenesis in many ways, and have been shown to be crucial for infectivity. Here, we describe a protocol for using homologous recombination to generate T3S system mutants to assess the role of different T3S system proteins in bacterial pathogenesis.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837488/subcellular-localization-of-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-tomato-effector-proteins-in-plants
#18
Kyaw Aung, Xiufang Xin, Christy Mecey, Sheng Yang He
Animal and plant pathogenic bacteria use type III secretion systems to translocate proteinaceous effectors to subvert innate immunity of their host organisms. Type III secretion/effector systems are a crucial pathogenicity factor in many bacterial pathogens of plants and animals. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 injects a total of 36 protein effectors that target a variety of host proteins. Studies of a subset of Pst DC3000 effectors demonstrated that bacterial effectors, once inside the host cell, are localized to different subcellular compartments, including plasma membrane, cytoplasm, mitochondria, chloroplast, and Trans-Golgi network, to carry out their virulence functions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837487/a-tal-based-reporter-assay-for-monitoring-type-iii-dependent-protein-translocation-in-xanthomonas
#19
Sabine Drehkopf, Jens Hausner, Michael Jordan, Felix Scheibner, Ulla Bonas, Daniela Büttner
Gram-negative plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria use type III secretion (T3S) systems to translocate effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. Type III-dependent delivery of effector proteins depends on a secretion and translocation signal, which is often located in the N-terminal protein region and is not conserved on the amino acid level. Translocation signals in effector proteins have been experimentally confirmed by employing reporter proteins, which are specifically activated inside eukaryotic cells...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837485/fractionation-techniques-to-examine-effector-translocation
#20
Rachel M Olson, Deborah M Anderson
Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens use type III secretion systems to export proteins that act directly on the host and aid in the infectious process. Extracellular bacteria primarily rely upon the type III secretion system to insert or inject effector proteins into the cytosol of their host cell in order to perturb intracellular signaling events and aid in pathogenesis. Intracellular bacteria can also depend on the T3SS translocation of effector proteins from vacuolar compartments into the vacuolar membrane or host cell cytosol where they can modulate intracellular trafficking and/or signaling pathways necessary for their growth and survival...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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