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Bacteria secretion system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918137/reticulo-rumen-mass-epithelium-gene-expression-and-systemic-biomarkers-of-metabolism-and-inflammation-in-holstein-dairy-cows-fed-a-high-energy-diet
#1
J M Arroyo, A Hosseini, Z Zhou, A Alharthi, E Trevisi, J S Osorio, J J Loor
Feeding a higher-energy diet by increasing cereal grains at the expense of forage during the last 3 to 4 wk prepartum is a traditional approach to help the rumen "adapt" to the traditional diets fed at the onset of lactation. Increasing grain/concentrate in the diet changes ruminal fermentation and in sheep and goats elicits marked changes in mRNA expression of immune-related genes in ruminal epithelium. Whether such changes at the epithelial and systemic levels occur in dairy cows when the dietary energy content increases at a fixed level of concentrate is unknown...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917834/hexameric-assembly-of-membrane-fusion-protein-yknx-of-the-sporulation-delaying-efflux-pump-from-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens
#2
Yongbin Xu, Inseong Jo, Lulu Wang, Jinli Chen, Shengdi Fan, Yuesheng Dong, Chun-Shan Quan, Nam-Chul Ha
Membrane fusion proteins (MFPs) play an essential role in the action of the drug efflux pumps and protein secretion systems in bacteria. The sporulation delaying protein (SDP) efflux pump YknWXYZ has been identified in diverse Bacillus species. The MFP YknX requires the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter YknYZ and the Yip1 family protein YknW to form a functional complex. To date, the crystal structure, molecular function and mechanism of action of YknX remain unknown. In this study, to characterize the structural and biochemical roles of YknX in the functional assembly of YknWXYZ from B...
September 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916522/viral-infection-sensitizes-human-fetal-membranes-to-bacterial-lipopolysaccharide-by-mertk-inhibition-and-inflammasome-activation
#3
Sarah N Cross, Julie A Potter, Paulomi Aldo, Ja Young Kwon, Mary Pitruzzello, Mancy Tong, Seth Guller, Carla V Rothlin, Gil Mor, Vikki M Abrahams
Chorioamnionitis, premature rupture of fetal membranes (FMs), and subsequent preterm birth are associated with local infection and inflammation, particularly IL-1β production. Although bacterial infections are commonly identified, other microorganisms may play a role in the pathogenesis. Because viral pandemics, such as influenza, Ebola, and Zika, are becoming more common, and pregnant women are at increased risk for associated complications, this study evaluated the impact that viral infection had on human FM innate immune responses...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912123/type-vi-secretion-system-mix-effectors-carry-both-antibacterial-and-anti-eukaryotic-activities
#4
Ann Ray, Nika Schwartz, Marcela de Souza Santos, Junmei Zhang, Kim Orth, Dor Salomon
Most type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) described to date are protein delivery apparatuses that mediate bactericidal activities. Several T6SSs were also reported to mediate virulence activities, although only few anti-eukaryotic effectors have been described. Here, we identify three T6SSs in the marine bacterium Vibrio proteolyticus and show that T6SS1 mediates bactericidal activities under warm marine-like conditions. Using comparative proteomics, we find nine potential T6SS1 effectors, five of which belong to the polymorphic MIX-effector class...
September 14, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904996/environmental-and-genetic-determinants-of-biofilm-formation-in-paracoccus-denitrificans
#5
Santosh Kumar, Stephen Spiro
The genome of the denitrifying bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans predicts the expression of a small heme-containing nitric oxide (NO) binding protein, H-NOX. The genome organization and prior work in other bacteria suggest that H-NOX interacts with a diguanylate cyclase that cyclizes GTP to make cyclic di-GMP (cdGMP). Since cdGMP frequently regulates attached growth as a biofilm, we first established conditions for biofilm development by P. denitrificans. We found that adhesion to a polystyrene surface is strongly stimulated by the addition of 10 mM Ca(2+) to rich media...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904757/social-dilemma-in-the-external-immune-system-of-the-red-flour-beetle-it-is-a-matter-of-time
#6
Chaitanya S Gokhale, Arne Traulsen, Gerrit Joop
Sociobiology has revolutionized our understanding of interactions between organisms. Interactions may present a social dilemma where the interests of individual actors do not align with those of the group as a whole. Viewed through a sociobiological lens, nearly all interactions can be described regarding their costs and benefits, and a number of them then resemble a social dilemma. Numerous experimental systems, from bacteria to mammals, have been proposed as models for studying such dilemmas. Here, we make use of the external immune system of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, to investigate how the experimental duration can affect whether the external secretion comprises a social dilemma or not...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902840/maternal-gut-bacteria-promote-neurodevelopmental-abnormalities-in-mouse-offspring
#7
Sangdoo Kim, Hyunju Kim, Yeong Shin Yim, Soyoung Ha, Koji Atarashi, Tze Guan Tan, Randy S Longman, Kenya Honda, Dan R Littman, Gloria B Choi, Jun R Huh
Maternal immune activation (MIA) contributes to behavioural abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in both primate and rodent offspring. In humans, epidemiological studies suggest that exposure of fetuses to maternal inflammation increases the likelihood of developing autism spectrum disorder. In pregnant mice, interleukin-17a (IL-17a) produced by T helper 17 (TH17) cells (CD4(+) T helper effector cells involved in multiple inflammatory conditions) induces behavioural and cortical abnormalities in the offspring exposed to MIA...
September 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895164/bacterial-translocation-ratchets-shared-physical-principles-with-different-molecular-implementations-how-bacterial-secretion-systems-bias-brownian-motion-for-efficient-translocation-of-macromolecules
#8
REVIEW
Christof Hepp, Berenike Maier
Secretion systems enable bacteria to import and secrete large macromolecules including DNA and proteins. While most components of these systems have been identified, the molecular mechanisms of macromolecular transport remain poorly understood. Recent findings suggest that various bacterial secretion systems make use of the translocation ratchet mechanism for transporting polymers across the cell envelope. Translocation ratchets are powered by chemical potential differences generated by concentration gradients of ions or molecules that are specific to the respective secretion systems...
September 12, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895153/characterization-of-an-antimicrobial-and-phytotoxic-ribonuclease-secreted-by-the-fungal-wheat-pathogen-zymoseptoria-tritici
#9
Graeme J Kettles, Carlos Bayon, Caroline A Sparks, Gail Canning, Kostya Kanyuka, Jason J Rudd
The fungus Zymoseptoria tritici is the causal agent of Septoria Tritici Blotch (STB) disease of wheat leaves. Zymoseptoria tritici secretes many functionally uncharacterized effector proteins during infection. Here, we characterized a secreted ribonuclease (Zt6) with an unusual biphasic expression pattern. Transient expression systems were used to characterize Zt6, and mutants thereof, in both host and non-host plants. Cell-free protein expression systems monitored the impact of Zt6 protein on functional ribosomes, and in vitro assays of cells treated with recombinant Zt6 determined toxicity against bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi...
September 12, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893919/antigen-localisation-influences-the-magnitude-and-kinetics-of-the-endogenous-adaptive-immune-response-to-recombinant-salmonella-vaccines
#10
Yanina R Sevastsyanovich, David R Withers, Claire L Marriott, Faye C Morris, Timothy J Wells, Douglas F Browning, Irene Beriotto, Ewan Ross, Hossam Omar Ali, Catherine A Wardius, Adam F Cunningham, Ian R Henderson, Amanda E Rossiter
The use of recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine (RASV) strains is a promising strategy to present heterologous antigens to the mammalian immune system to induce both cellular and humoral immune responses. However, studies on RASV development differ in where heterologous antigens are expressed and localised within the bacterium and it is unclear how antigen localisation modulates the immune response. Previously, we exploited the plasmid-encoded toxin (Pet) autotransporter system for accumulation of heterologous antigens in the cell culture supernatant...
September 11, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890351/in-situ-delivery-and-production-system-of-trastuzumab-scfv-with-bifidobacterium
#11
Takeshi Kikuchi, Hitomi Shimizu, Yasuto Akiyama, Shun'ichiro Taniguchi
A monoclonal antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), trastuzumab has become a standard treatment for HER2-positive breast cancer. Recent advancements in antibody engineering have enabled the efficient generation of the trastuzumab single-chain variable fragment (scFv). In this study, we genetically engineered Bifidobacterium, a bacterial strain shown to accumulate safely and selectively in hypoxic tumor sites by intravenous (iv) injection, to express and secrete the trastuzumab scFv...
September 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889297/contribution-of-cyclic-di-gmp-in-the-control-of-type-iii-and-type-vi-secretion-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#12
Ronan R McCarthy, Martina Valentini, Alain Filloux
Bacteria produce toxins to enhance their competitiveness in the colonization of an environment as well as during an infection. The delivery of toxins into target cells is mediated by several types of secretion systems, among them our focus is Type III and Type VI Secretion Systems (T3SS and T6SS, respectively). A thorough methodology is provided detailing how to identify if cyclic di-GMP signaling plays a role in the P. aeruginosa toxin delivery mediated by T3SS or T6SS. This includes in vitro preparation of the samples for Western blot analysis aiming at detecting possible c-di-GMP-dependent T3SS/T6SS switch, as well as in vivo analysis using the model organism Galleria mellonella to demonstrate the ecological and pathogenic consequence of the switch between these two secretion systems...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876981/genetic-and-structural-analyses-of-rrnpp-intercellular-peptide-signaling-of-gram-positive-bacteria
#13
Matthew B Neiditch, Glenn C Capodagli, Gerd Prehna, Michael J Federle
Bacteria use diffusible chemical messengers, termed pheromones, to coordinate gene expression and behavior among cells in a community by a process known as quorum sensing. Pheromones of many gram-positive bac, such as Bacillus and Streptococcus, are small, linear peptides secreted from cells and subsequently detected by sensory receptors such as those belonging to the large family ofRRNPP proteins. These proteins are cytoplasmic pheromone receptors sharing a structurally similar pheromone-binding domain that functions allosterically to regulate receptor activity...
September 6, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875941/manipulation-of-autophagy-by-bacterial-pathogens-impacts-host-immunity
#14
Tobias C Kunz, Flávia Viana, Carmen Buchrieser, Pedro Escoll
Autophagy is a highly conserved catabolic process, degrading unnecessary or damaged components in the eukaryotic cell to maintain cellular homeostasis, but it is also an intrinsic cellular defence mechanism to remove invading pathogens. A crosstalk between autophagy and innate or adaptive immune responses has been recently reported, whereby autophagy influences both, innate and adaptive immunity like the production and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines or MHC class II antigen presentation to T cells. Pathogenic bacteria have evolved diverse strategies to manipulate autophagy, mechanisms that also impact host immune responses at different levels...
September 6, 2017: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875940/subversion-of-macrophage-functions-by-bacterial-protein-toxins-and-effectors
#15
Muyang Wan, Yan Zhou, Yongqun Zhu
Macrophages represent one of the first lines of host immune defenses against the invasion of pathogenic bacteria. Many receptors, immune signaling pathways and cellular processes in macrophages, including Toll-like receptors, Nod-like receptors, phagocytosis, autophagy and programmed cell death, are involved in combating the infection of bacterial pathogens. For efficient colonization in the host, bacterial pathogens have evolved diverse mechanisms to interfere with macrophage functions to evade host defenses...
September 6, 2017: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875938/secretion-systems-used-by-bacteria-to-subvert-host-functions
#16
Chiara Rapisarda, Rémi Fronzes
In this review we examine the use of secretion systems by bacteria to subvert host functions. Bacteria have evolved multiple systems to interact with and overcome their eukaryotic host and other prokaryotes. Secretion systems are required for the release of several effectors through the bacterial membrane(s) into the extracellular space or directly into the cytoplasm of the host. We review the secretion systems of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and describe briefly the structural composition of the seven secretion systems that have been associated with increased virulence through subversion of host functions...
September 6, 2017: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874849/inhibitory-effect-of-obovatol-from-magnolia-obovata-on-the-salmonella-type-iii-secretion-system
#17
Won-Sik Choi, Tae Hun Lee, Se Jin Son, Tae Gyu Kim, Byoung-Mog Kwon, Hyeong-U Son, Sung Uk Kim, Sang-Han Lee
In many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Yersinia and Chlamydia spp., which cause diseases in humans, the type III secretion system (TTSS) is an important virulence factor that translocates effector proteins into the cytosol of host cells. Thus, the TTSS is a good target for antibacterial agents. Here we used a hemolysis assay to search for TTSS inhibitors and found that a compound from Magnolia obovata called obovatol blocks the TTSS of Salmonella. Obovatol showed potent inhibitory activity (IC50=19...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874412/isolation-of-a-membrane-protein-complex-for-type-vii-secretion-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#18
Khaled A Aly, Mark Anderson, Ryan Jay Ohr, Dominique Missiakas
The ESAT6-like secretion system (ESS) of Staphylococcus aureus promotes effector protein transport across the bacterial envelope. Genes in the ESS cluster are required for S. aureus establishment of persistent abscess lesions and the modulation of immune responses during blood stream infections. The biochemical functions of most of the ESS gene products, specifically the identity of secretion machine components, are however unknown. Earlier work demonstrated that deletion of essB, which encodes a membrane protein, abolishes S...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871253/severe-tuberculosis-in-humans-correlates-best-with-neutrophil-abundance-and-lymphocyte-deficiency-and-does-not-correlate-with-antigen-specific-cd4-t-cell-response
#19
Alexander V Panteleev, Irina Yu Nikitina, Irina A Burmistrova, George A Kosmiadi, Tatyana V Radaeva, Rasul B Amansahedov, Pavel V Sadikov, Yana V Serdyuk, Elena E Larionova, Tatef R Bagdasarian, Larisa N Chernousova, Vitaly V Ganusov, Irina V Lyadova
It is generally thought that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific CD4(+) Th1 cells producing IFN-γ are essential for protection against tuberculosis (TB). In some studies, protection has recently been associated with polyfunctional subpopulation of Mtb-specific Th1 cells, i.e., with cells able to simultaneously secrete several type 1 cytokines. However, the role for Mtb-specific Th1 cells and their polyfunctional subpopulations during established TB disease is not fully defined. Pulmonary TB is characterized by a great variability of disease manifestations...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871205/siderophore-cheating-and-cheating-resistance-shape-competition-for-iron-in-soil-and-freshwater-pseudomonas-communities
#20
Elena Butaitė, Michael Baumgartner, Stefan Wyder, Rolf Kümmerli
All social organisms experience dilemmas between cooperators performing group-beneficial actions and cheats selfishly exploiting these actions. Although bacteria have become model organisms to study social dilemmas in laboratory systems, we know little about their relevance in natural communities. Here, we show that social interactions mediated by a single shareable compound necessary for growth (the iron-scavenging pyoverdine) have important consequences for competitive dynamics in soil and pond communities of Pseudomonas bacteria...
September 4, 2017: Nature Communications
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