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Bacteria secretion system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436589/short-chain-fatty-acids-augment-rat-duodenal-mucosal-barrier-function
#1
Wan Salman Wan Saudi, Markus Sjöblom
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced by bacterial fermentation in the large intestine, particularly from diets containing fibres and carbohydrates. The small intestinal epithelium is exposed to SCFAs derived mainly from oral bacteria or food supplementation. Although luminal nutrients are important in regulation of intestinal functions the role of SCFAs in regulation of small intestinal mucosal barrier function and motility has not been fully described. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of acetate and propionate on duodenal mucosal barrier function and motility...
April 24, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435837/staphylococcus-aureus-type-i-signal-peptidase-essential-or-not-essential-that-s-the-question
#2
COMMENT
Wouter L Hazenbos, Elizabeth Skippington, Man-Wah Tan
Secretion of proteins into the extracellular environment is crucial for the normal physiology and virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Type I signal peptidase (SPase I) mediates the final step of bacterial secretion, by cleaving proteins at their signal peptide once they are translocated by the Sec or twin-arginine (Tat) translocon. SPase I has long been thought to be essential for viability in multiple bacterial pathogens. Challenging this view, we and others have recently created Staphylococcus aureus bacteria lacking the SPase I SpsB that are viable and able to grow in vitro when over-expressing a native gene cassette encoding for a putative ABC transporter...
March 17, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432099/acute-hepatopancreatic-necrosis-disease-ahpnd-causing-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-strains-maintain-an-antibacterial-type-vi-secretion-system-with-versatile-effector-repertoires
#3
Peng Li, Lisa N Kinch, Ann Ray, Ankur B Dalia, Qian Cong, Linda M Nunan, Andrew Camilli, Nick V Grishin, Dor Salomon, Kim Orth
Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a newly emerging shrimp disease that has severely damaged the global shrimp industry. AHPND is caused by toxic strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) that have acquired a "selfish plasmid" encoding the deadly binary toxins PirA(vp)/PirB(vp) To better understand the repertoire of virulence factors in AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus, we conducted a comparative analysis using genome sequences of the clinical strain RIMD2210633, environmental non-AHPND and toxic AHPND isolates of V...
April 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432035/expression-of-pattern-recognition-receptors-and-activation-of-the-non-canonical-inflammasome-pathway-in-brain-pericytes
#4
Ádám Nyúl-Tóth, Mihály Kozma, Péter Nagyőszi, Krisztina Nagy, Csilla Fazakas, János Haskó, Kinga Molnár, Attila E Farkas, Attila G Végh, György Váró, Péter Galajda, Imola Wilhelm, István A Krizbai
Cerebral pericytes are mural cells embedded in the basement membrane of capillaries. Increasing evidence suggests that they play important role in controlling neurovascular functions, i.e. cerebral blood flow, angiogenesis and permeability of the blood-brain barrier. These cells can also influence neuroinflammation which is highly regulated by the innate immune system. Therefore, we systematically tested the pattern recognition receptor expression of brain pericytes. We detected expression of NOD1, NOD2, NLRC5, NLRP1-3, NLRP5, NLRP9, NLRP10 and NLRX mRNA in non-treated cells...
April 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430102/variable-virulence-phenotype-of-xenorhabdus-bovienii-%C3%AE-proteobacteria-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-absence-of-their-vector-hosts
#5
John G McMullen, Rebecca McQuade, Jean-Claude Ogier, Sylvie Pagès, Sophie Gaudriault, S Patricia Stock
Xenorhabdus bovienii bacteria have a dual lifestyle: they are mutualistic symbionts to many species of Steinernema nematodes and are pathogens to a wide array of insects. Previous studies have shown that virulence of X.bovienii-Steinernema spp. pairs decreases when the nematodes associate with non-cognate bacterial strains. However, the virulence of the X. bovienii strains alone has not been fully investigated. In this study, we characterized the virulence of nine X. bovienii strains in Galleria mellonella and Spodoptera littoralis and performed a comparative genomic analysis to correlate observed phenotypes with strain genotypes...
April 22, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428684/innate-immunity-of-adipose-tissue-in-rodent-models-of-local-and-systemic-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#6
Andreas Schmid, Thomas Karrasch, Miriam Thomalla, Jutta Schlegel, Bernd Salzberger, Andreas Schäffler, Frank Hanses
Background. The role of adipose tissue in systemic inflammation during bacterial infection is unclear. Effects of Staphylococcus aureus infection on adipocytes in rodent models of experimental endocarditis and peritonitis, the impact of S. aureus infection on gene expression in epididymal and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and effects of S. aureus infection on the toll-like receptor-2- (TLR2-) cathelicidin pathway in vivo and in vitro were investigated. Material and methods. The rat model of catheter-induced S...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426838/a-second-wave-of-salmonella-t3ss1-activity-prolongs-the-lifespan-of-infected-epithelial-cells
#7
Ciaran E Finn, Audrey Chong, Kendal G Cooper, Tregei Starr, Olivia Steele-Mortimer
Type III secretion system 1 (T3SS1) is used by the enteropathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to establish infection in the gut. Effector proteins translocated by this system across the plasma membrane facilitate invasion of intestinal epithelial cells. One such effector, the inositol phosphatase SopB, contributes to invasion and mediates activation of the pro-survival kinase Akt. Following internalization, some bacteria escape from the Salmonella-containing vacuole into the cytosol and there is evidence suggesting that T3SS1 is expressed in this subpopulation...
April 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423458/dissecting-virulence-function-from-recognition-cell-death-suppression-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-by-xopq-hopq1-family-effectors-relies-on-eds1-dependent-immunity
#8
Norman Adlung, Ulla Bonas
Many Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria express effector proteins of the XopQ/HopQ1 family which are translocated into plant cells via the type III secretion system during infection. In Nicotiana benthamiana, recognition of XopQ/HopQ1 proteins induces an effector-triggered immunity (ETI) reaction which is not associated with strong cell death but renders plants immune against Pseudomonas syringae and Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria strains. Additionally, XopQ suppresses cell death in N. benthamiana when transiently co-expressed with cell death inducers...
April 19, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421913/type-vi-secretion-systems-of-erwinia-amylovora-contribute-to-bacterial-competition-virulence-and-exopolysaccharide-production
#9
Yanli Tian, Yuqiang Zhao, Linye Shi, Zhongli Cui, Baishi Hu, Youfu Zhao
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) plays a major role in mediating interbacterial competition and might contribute to virulence in plant pathogenic bacteria. However, the role of T6SS in Erwinia amylovora remains unknown. In this study, 33 deletion mutants within three T6SS clusters were generated in E. amylovora strain NCPPB1665. Our results showed that all 33 mutants displayed reduced antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli as compared with that of the wild-type (WT) strain, indicating that Erwinia amylovora T6SS are functional...
April 19, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421662/the-outer-membrane-vesicles-secretion-system-type-zero
#10
REVIEW
Andrea Guerrero-Mandujano, Cecilia Hernández-Cortez, J Antonio Ibarra, Graciela Castro-Escarpulli
Gram-negative bacteria have mechanisms through which they can colonize and survive in different environments, such as the secretion systems types (1-6) that have been widely studied and characterized. Nowadays, some authors have proposed extracellular structures, such as the outer membrane vesicles, to be considered as an additional and independent secretion system. The outer membrane vesicles are spherical particles of 50-250 nm in diameter; they originate in the outer membrane, therefore, they have a very similar composition to the latter...
April 19, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416660/redefining-the-essential-trafficking-pathway-for-outer-membrane-lipoproteins
#11
Marcin Grabowicz, Thomas J Silhavy
The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria is a permeability barrier and an intrinsic antibiotic resistance factor. Lipoproteins are OM components that function in cell wall synthesis, diverse secretion systems, and antibiotic efflux pumps. Moreover, each of the essential OM machines that assemble the barrier requires one or more lipoproteins. This dependence is thought to explain the essentiality of the periplasmic chaperone LolA and its OM receptor LolB that traffic lipoproteins to the OM. However, we show that in strains lacking substrates that are toxic when mislocalized, both LolA and LolB can be completely bypassed by activating an envelope stress response without compromising trafficking of essential lipoproteins...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414794/intestinal-extra-intestinal-and-systemic-sequelae-of-toxoplasma-gondii-induced-acute-ileitis-in-mice-harboring-a-human-gut-microbiota
#12
Eliane von Klitzing, Ira Ekmekciu, Anja A Kühl, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
BACKGROUND: Within seven days following peroral high dose infection with Toxoplasma gondii susceptible conventionally colonized mice develop acute ileitis due to an underlying T helper cell (Th) -1 type immunopathology. We here addressed whether mice harboring a human intestinal microbiota developed intestinal, extra-intestinal and systemic sequelae upon ileitis induction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Secondary abiotic mice were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and associated with a complex human intestinal microbiota following peroral fecal microbiota transplantation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414774/mycobacterium-marinum-antagonistically-induces-an-autophagic-response-while-repressing-the-autophagic-flux-in-a-torc1-and-esx-1-dependent-manner
#13
Elena Cardenal-Muñoz, Sonia Arafah, Ana Teresa López-Jiménez, Sébastien Kicka, Alexandra Falaise, Frauke Bach, Olivier Schaad, Jason S King, Monica Hagedorn, Thierry Soldati
Autophagy is a eukaryotic catabolic process also participating in cell-autonomous defence. Infected host cells generate double-membrane autophagosomes that mature in autolysosomes to engulf, kill and digest cytoplasmic pathogens. However, several bacteria subvert autophagy and benefit from its machinery and functions. Monitoring infection stages by genetics, pharmacology and microscopy, we demonstrate that the ESX-1 secretion system of Mycobacterium marinum, a close relative to M. tuberculosis, upregulates the transcription of autophagy genes, and stimulates autophagosome formation and recruitment to the mycobacteria-containing vacuole (MCV) in the host model organism Dictyostelium...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413453/amelioration-of-intestinal-and-systemic-sequelae-of-murine-campylobacter-jejuni-infection-by-probiotic-vsl-3-treatment
#14
Ira Ekmekciu, Ulrike Fiebiger, Kerstin Stingl, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
BACKGROUND: The incidence of human Campylobacter jejuni infections is progressively increasing worldwide. Probiotic compounds might open up valuable tools to decrease pathogen burden and subsequent pro-inflammatory immune responses, but in vivo data are scarce. METHODS AND RESULTS: Secondary abiotic mice generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment were perorally challenged with the commercial probiotic compound VSL#3 consisting of Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411218/the-conjugative-relaxase-trwc-promotes-integration-of-foreign-dna-in-the-human-genome
#15
Coral González-Prieto, Richard Gabriel, Christoph Dehio, Manfred Schmidt, Matxalen Llosa
Bacterial conjugation is a mechanism of horizontal DNA transfer. The relaxase TrwC of the conjugative plasmid R388 cleaves one strand of the transferred DNA at the oriT, covalently attaches to it and leads the ssDNA into the recipient cell. In addition, TrwC catalyzes site-specific integration of the transferred DNA into its target sequence present in the genome of the recipient bacterium. Here, we report the analysis of the efficiency and specificity of the integrase activity of TrwC in human cells, using the Type IV Secretion System of the human pathogen Bartonella henselae to introduce relaxase-DNA complexes...
April 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409380/bacterial-thiol-oxidoreductases-from-basic-research-to-new-antibacterial-strategies
#16
REVIEW
Katarzyna M Bocian-Ostrzycka, Magdalena J Grzeszczuk, Anna M Banaś, Elżbieta Katarzyna Jagusztyn-Krynicka
The recent, rapid increase in bacterial antimicrobial resistance has become a major public health concern. One approach to generate new classes of antibacterials is targeting virulence rather than the viability of bacteria. Proteins of the Dsb system, which play a key role in the virulence of many pathogenic microorganisms, represent potential new drug targets. The first part of the article presents current knowledge of how the Dsb system impacts function of various protein secretion systems that influence the virulence of many pathogenic bacteria...
May 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407431/in-vitro-studies-evaluating-the-effects-of-biofilms-on-wound-healing-cells-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Kelly R Kirker, Garth A James
Chronic wounds are characterized as wounds that have failed to proceed through the well-orchestrated healing process and have remained open for months to years. Open wounds are at risk for colonization by opportunistic pathogens. Bacteria that colonize the open wound bed form surface-attached, multicellular communities called biofilms, and chronic wound biofilms can contain a diverse microbiota. Investigators are just beginning to elucidate the role of biofilms in chronic wound pathogenesis, and have simplified the complex wound environment using in vitro models to obtain a fundamental understanding of the impact of biofilms on wound-healing cell types...
April 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401683/a-global-survey-of-bacterial-type-iii-secretion-systems-and-their-effectors
#18
Yueming Hu, He Huang, Xi Cheng, Xingsheng Shu, Aaron P White, John Stavrinides, Wolfgang Köster, Guoqiang Zhu, Zhendong Zhao, Yejun Wang
The type III secretion system (T3SS) is an important genetic determinant that mediates interactions between Gram-negative bacteria and their eukaryotic hosts. Our understanding of the T3SS continues to expand, yet the availability of new bacterial genomes prompts questions about its diversity, distribution, and evolution. Through a comprehensive survey of ∼20,000 bacterial genomes, we identified 174 non-redundant T3SSs from 109 genera and 5 phyla. Many of the bacteria are environmental strains that have not been reported to interact with eukaryotic hosts, while several species groups carry multiple T3SSs...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398546/the-cdi-toxin-ofyersinia-kristensenii-is-a-novel-bacterial-member-of-the-rnase-a-superfamily
#19
Gaëlle Batot, Karolina Michalska, Greg Ekberg, Ervin M Irimpan, Grazyna Joachimiak, Robert Jedrzejczak, Gyorgy Babnigg, Christopher S Hayes, Andrzej Joachimiak, Celia W Goulding
Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is an important mechanism of inter-bacterial competition found in many Gram-negative pathogens. CDI+ cells express cell-surface CdiA proteins that bind neighboring bacteria and deliver C-terminal toxin domains (CdiA-CT) to inhibit target-cell growth. CDI+ bacteria also produce CdiI immunity proteins, which specifically neutralize cognate CdiA-CT toxins to prevent self-inhibition. Here, we present the crystal structure of the CdiA-CT/CdiIYkris complex from Yersinia kristensenii ATCC 33638...
April 10, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396663/bacterial-secretant-from-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-dampens-inflammasome-activation-in-a-quorum-sensing-dependent-manner
#20
Jungmin Yang, Kang-Mu Lee, Sangjun Park, Yoeseph Cho, Eunju Lee, Jong-Hwan Park, Ok Sarah Shin, Junghyun Son, Sang Sun Yoon, Je-Wook Yu
Inflammasome signaling can contribute to host innate immune defense against bacterial pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, bacterial evasion of host inflammasome activation is still poorly elucidated. Quorum sensing (QS) is a bacterial communication mechanism that promotes coordinated adaptation by triggering expression of a wide range of genes. QS is thought to strongly contribute to the virulence of P. aeruginosa, but the molecular impact of bacterial QS on host inflammasome defense is completely unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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