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Zhuoran Han, Jingfeng Sun, Aijun Lv, Anli Wang
This study examined the technical bias associated with different DNA extraction methods used in microbiome research. Three methods were used to extract genomic DNA from the same intestinal microbiota sample that was taken from the koi carp Cyprinus carpio var. koi, after which their microbial diversity and community structure were investigated on the basis of a 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing analysis. Biased results were observed in relation to the number of reads, alpha diversity indexes and taxonomic composition among the three DNA extraction protocols...
April 17, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Bilel Hadrich, Ismahen Akremi, Mouna Dammak, Mohamed Barkallah, Imen Fendri, Slim Abdelkafi
BACKGROUND: Three steps are very important in order to produce microalgal lipids: (1) controlling microalgae cultivation via experimental and modeling investigations, (2) optimizing culture conditions to maximize lipids production and to determine the fatty acid profile the most appropriate for biodiesel synthesis, and (3) optimizing the extraction of the lipids accumulated in the microalgal cells. METHODS: Firstly, three kinetics models, namely logistic, logistic-with-lag and modified Gompertz, were tested to fit the experimental kinetics of the Chlorella sp...
April 17, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Pradum P Ige, Sagar R Pardeshi, Raju O Sonawane
The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro performance of nebulized nanosuspension formulation when nebulized using ultrasonic nebulizer. The present investigation deals with successful formulation of Beclomethasone dipropionate loaded HPMCP nanospheres prepared by solvent evaporation technique using PEG 400 as a stabilizer. Beclomethasone dipropionate is a water insoluble drug molecule was encapsulated in HPMCP nanospheres to have pH dependent solubility at basic pH for targeted drug delivery in lung and studied for in vitro cytotoxicity and immediate release capability...
April 17, 2018: Drug Research
Cuixiang Pei, Siqi Zhao, Tianhao Liu, Zhenmao Chen
In this work, a new non-contact and coupling-free ultrasound method with measuring Rayleigh wave polarization (RWP) by electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) is applied for plastic strain measurement, which can provide a very promising alternative and reference-free ultrasonic testing technique with high spatial resolution. Two specially designed EMAT receivers are developed to measure the polarization of Rayleigh wave generated by an enhanced meander-line-coil EMAT. The change in RWP due to the plastic strain has been successfully measured...
April 11, 2018: Ultrasonics
Dakshitha Praneeth Wickramasinghe, Supun Senaratne, Hemantha Senanayake, Dharmabandu Nandadeva Samarasekera
OBJECTIVES: The normal parameters of 3-dimensional endoanal ultrasound (3DEAUS) of the anal sphincter have not been reported for primigravidae or pregnant women at present. 3DEAUS parameters in Asian primigravidae were assessed in this study. METHODS: We analyzed 3DEAUS data of 101 consecutives Asian primigravidae, assessed in the early third trimester. The assessment was performed with a rigid ultrasonic probe (Olympus® RU 12M-R1 probe and EU-ME1 ultrasound system (Olympus Corp...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Andrew H Chon, Lisa M Korst, Mira Abdel-Sattar, Arlyn Llanes, Joseph G Ouzounian, Ramen H Chmait
OBJECTIVE: To present outcomes of fetuses with congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) treated with sclerotherapy. METHODS: Retrospective study of 8 patients with a prenatal diagnosis of CPAM type II or III with secondary hydrops treated with percutaneous sclerotherapy using 5% ethanolamine oleate (EO). All patients underwent ultrasonic measurement of the CPAM volume ratio (CVR). Results are expressed as median (range). RESULTS: Gestational age (GA) at initial sclerotherapy was 22...
April 17, 2018: Prenatal Diagnosis
Daniel Michael Ventre, Marissa Puzan, Emily Ashbolt, Abigail Koppes
OBJECTIVE: Despite the prevalence of peripheral nerve injuries (PNI), challenges remain in restoring full functionality to those afflicted. For recovery to occur, axons must extend across the injury site to connect with distal targets, where injury gap size is a critical factor in the probability of restoration of function. Current clinical therapies often achieve limited neural regeneration, motivating the development of new therapeutic interventions such as biophysical stimulation. APPROACH: To investigate the potential for low intensity, pulsed ultrasonic simulation (LIPUS) to impact peripheral nerve regeneration, primary neonatal rat dorsal root ganglion neurons were examined in vitro in response to ultrasound (US)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
YiQi C Lin, Leah L Zhao, Paul B S Clarke
RATIONALE: Adult rat 22- and 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are commonly considered as indices of negative and positive affect, respectively. More specifically, we have proposed that positive affective states are revealed by a predominance of trill over flat 50-kHz call subtypes. However, the 50-kHz call subtypes emitted during aversive drug states remain largely uninvestigated. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether acute morphine withdrawal affects 50-kHz call rates or alters the relative prevalence of trill and flat calls...
April 16, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Hairul Abral, Vincent Lawrensius, Dian Handayani, Eni Sugiarti
As more applications for nano-sized natural particles are discovered, simple, environmentally friendly ways to produce these particles become more important. This work prepares and characterizes nano-size bacterial cellulose particles using ultrasonication. Pellicle from nata de coco containing nanofibers was broken up in an electrical blender, then sonicated using an ultrasonic probe at 20 kHz and 3 W/mL for 30, 60 and 90 min. Transmission electron microscope observations indicate the particles become nano-sized after 60 min ultrasound...
July 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Nuo Liu, Jianguo Jiang, Feng Yan, Yuchen Gao, Yuan Meng, Aikelaimu Aihemaiti, Tongyao Ju
The positive effect of sonication on volatile fatty acid (VFA) and hydrogen production was investigated by batch experiments. Several sonication densities (2, 1.6, and 1.2 W/mL) and times (5, 10, and 15 min) were tested. The optimal sonication condition was ultrasonic density 2 W/mL and ultrasonic time 15 min (2-U15). The FW particle size larger than 50 μm (d > 50 μm) were more susceptible to the sonication treatment than the smaller particle size (d ≤ 50 μm). The SCOD increased and VS reduction accelerated under sonication treatment...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Qilong Yuan, Ying Liu, Chen Ye, Hongyan Sun, Dan Dai, Qiuping Wei, Guosong Lai, Tianzhun Wu, Aimin Yu, Li Fu, Kuan W A Chee, Cheng-Te Lin
Graphene is widely recognized as a promising nanomaterial for the construction of high-performance electrochemical biosensors. However, the lack of strong interfacial forces between graphene and conductive substrates is a bottleneck in the fabrication of highly stable graphene electrodes. In this work, few-layer graphene was directly formed on a high pressure high temperature (HPHT) diamond substrate via sp3 -to-sp2 conversion by catalytic thermal treatment and using diamond itself as the carbon source. The hybrid electrode prototype was also highly conductive and had a linear electrochemical response to dopamine in the concentration range of 5 μM - 2 mM, with a low detection limit of 200 nM...
April 5, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Kai Wang, Menglong Liu, Zhongqing Su, Shenfang Yuan, Zheng Fan
To characterize fatigue cracks, in the undersized stage in particular, preferably in a quantitative and precise manner, a two-dimensional (2D) analytical model is developed for interpreting the modulation mechanism of a "breathing" crack on guided ultrasonic waves (GUWs). In conjunction with a modal decomposition method and a variational principle-based algorithm, the model is capable of analytically depicting the propagating and evanescent waves induced owing to the interaction of probing GUWs with a "breathing" crack, and further extracting linear and nonlinear wave features (e...
March 17, 2018: Ultrasonics
Bin Zheng, Hongmei Hu, Xiaoning Zhang, Yuanming Guo, Xiaojun Zhang, Lijian Xue, Xingwei Xiang, Lu Zhang
A simple, rapid and novel method has been developed and validated for the determination of seven indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in seafood samples by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture detector. Freeze-dried samples were done first ultrasonic extraction by n-hexane:methylene chloride:acetone (3:1:1, v/v), and then one-step clean-up (dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up) or two-step clean-up (concentrated sulfuric acid purification and dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up) was selected according to the lipid contents of the samples, if the lipid content was no more than 1%, one-step clean-up was used, otherwise, two-step clean-up was chose...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Chengming Lan, Wensong Zhou, Yawen Xie
This work proposes a 3D shaped optic fiber sensor for ultrasonic stress waves detection based on the principle of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer. This sensor can be used to receive acoustic emission signals in the passive damage detection methods and other types of ultrasonic signals propagating in the active damage detection methods, such as guided wave-based methods. The sensitivity of an ultrasonic fiber sensor based on the Mach–Zehnder interferometer mainly depends on the length of the sensing optical fiber; therefore, the proposed sensor achieves the maximum possible sensitivity by wrapping an optical fiber on a hollow cylinder with a base...
April 16, 2018: Sensors
Jae Kyu Suhr, Ho Gi Jung
An automatic parking system is an essential part of autonomous driving, and it starts by recognizing vacant parking spaces. This paper proposes a method that can recognize various types of parking slot markings in a variety of lighting conditions including daytime, nighttime, and underground. The proposed method can readily be commercialized since it uses only those sensors already mounted on off-the-shelf vehicles: an around-view monitor (AVM) system, ultrasonic sensors, and in-vehicle motion sensors. This method first detects separating lines by extracting parallel line pairs from AVM images...
April 16, 2018: Sensors
Wenyan Xie, Matthias F Melzig
Herbal medicine is now globally accepted as a valid alternative system of pharmaceutical therapies. Various studies around the world have been initiated to develop scientific evidence-based herbal therapies. Recently, the therapeutic potential of medicinal plant derived miRNAs has attracted great attraction. MicroRNAs have been indicated as new bioactive ingredients in medicinal plants. However, the stability of miRNAs during the herbal preparation process and their bioavailability in humans remain unclear...
April 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Chaopin Yang, Yue Li, Meng Du, Zhiyi Chen
As a non-invasive and real-time diagnostic technique, ultrasound has provided a novel strategy for targeted treatment. With the rapid development of ultrasonic technique and ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs), spatiotemporally controllable application of ultrasound with or without UCAs makes it possible for site-specific delivery of therapeutic agents and targeted modulation with minimal side effects, which indicated a promising therapy in clinical use. This review will describe the main mechanism of targeted therapy induced by ultrasound briefly, then focus on the current application of ultrasound mediated targeted therapy in various fields including tumor, cardiovascular disease, central nervous system, skeletal muscle system diseases and stem cells therapy...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Drug Targeting
L Beever, F Swinbourne, S L Priestnall, G Ter Haar, D J Brockman
Three West Highland white terriers were presented for investigation of left-sided para-aural abscessation. CT revealed chronic otitis media with extensive osseous proliferation surrounding the horizontal and vertical ear canals contiguous with the expanded temporal bone, consistent with a unilateral variant of craniomandibular osteopathy. A left total ear canal ablation with lateral bulla osteotomy was performed in all dogs. An ultrasonic bone curette (Sonopet; Stryker) proved useful when removing the osseous proliferation in two dogs...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Yuanjiao Tang, Yujia Yang, Xi Xiang, Liyun Wang, Lingyan Zhang, Li Qiu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence rates of peripheral joint, enthesis, tendon, and bursa abnormalities by power Doppler (PD) ultrasonic examination in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), psoriatic patients without clinical signs of arthritis (non-PsA psoriasis group), and healthy individuals, to detect subclinical PsA. METHODS: A total of 253 healthy volunteers, 242 non-PsA psoriatic patients, and 86 patients with PsA were assessed by 2-dimensional and power Doppler (PD) ultrasound...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
Yueqi An, Qing Liu, Yaru Xie, Shanbai Xiong, Tao Yin, Ru Liu
BACKGROUND: Ultrasound and Ca2+ have been used separately to increase myosin properties in fish processing. However, little literature was found about myosin changes affected by Ca2+ and ultrasound in combination. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of ultrasound-calcium combination system on aggregation and conformational changes of silver carp myosin. RESULTS: Ultrasonic facilitated the Ca2+ -induced increase of turbidity. As Ca2+ concentration increased from 0 to 100 mmol L-1 , there was an obvious increase in the turbidity, solubility and mean hydrated particle size of myosin after ultrasonic treatment compared to those without ultrasonic...
April 15, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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