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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913454/the-anti-bat-strategy-of-ultrasound-absorption-the-wings-of-nocturnal-moths-bombycoidea-saturniidae-absorb-more-ultrasound-than-the-wings-of-diurnal-moths-chalcosiinae-zygaenoidea-zygaenidae
#1
Athanasios Ntelezos, Francesco Guarato, James F C Windmill
The selection pressure from echolocating bats has driven the development of a diverse range of anti-bat strategies in insects. For instance, several studies have proposed that the wings of some moths absorb a large portion of the sound energy contained in a bat's ultrasonic cry; as a result, the bat receives a dampened echo, and the moth becomes invisible to the bat. To test the hypothesis that greater exposure to bat predation drives the development of higher ultrasound absorbance, we used a small reverberation chamber to measure the ultrasound absorbance of the wings of nocturnal (Bombycoidea: Saturniidae) and diurnal moths (Chalcosiinae: Zygaenoidea: Zygaenidae)...
December 2, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913341/quantification-of-shear-wave-scattering-from-far-surface-defects-via-ultrasonic-wavefield-measurements
#2
Alexander J Dawson, Jennifer E Michaels, Joseph W Kummer, Thomas E Michaels
Nondestructive evaluation methods rely on prior knowledge of the expected interaction of ultrasonic waves with defects to inform detection and characterization decisions. Wavefield imaging, which refers to the measurement of signals originating from a spatially fixed source on a two-dimensional rectilinear grid, can be applied to visualize the effect of a subsurface scatterer on surface-measured wave motion. Here, obliquely-incident shear waves are directed at the far surface of a plate containing a through-hole using the well-known angle-beam ultrasonic inspection method...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913339/a-parametric-study-for-the-design-of-an-optimized-ultrasonic-percussive-planetary-drill-tool
#3
Xuan Li, Patrick Harkness, Kevin Worrall, Ryan Timoney, Margaret Lucas
Traditional rotary drilling for planetary rock sampling, in-situ analysis and sample return, is challenging because the axial force and holding torque requirements are not necessarily compatible with lightweight spacecraft architectures in low-gravity environments. This article seeks to optimize an ultrasonic-percussive drill tool to achieve rock penetration with lower reacted force requirements, with a strategic view towards building an Ultrasonic Planetary Core Drill (UPCD) device. The UPCD is a descendant of the Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) technique...
November 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913331/lamb-wave-multitouch-ultrasonic-touchscreen
#4
Kamyar Firouzi, Amin Nikoozadeh, Thomas E Carver, Butrus Pierre T Khuri-Yakub
Touchscreen sensors are widely used in many devices such as smart phones, tablets, and laptops with diverse applications. We present the design, analysis, and implementation of an ultrasonic touchscreen system that utilizes the interaction of transient Lamb waves with objects in contact with the screen. It attempts to improve on the existing ultrasound technologies, with the potential of addressing some of the weaknesses of the dominant technologies, such as the capacitive or resistive ones. Compared with the existing ultrasonic and acoustic modalities, among other advantages, it provides the capability of detecting several simultaneous touch points and also a more robust performance...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913330/ex-vivo-hifu-experiments-using-a-32-times-32-element-cmut-array
#5
Hyo-Seon Yoon, Chienliu Chang, Ji Hoon Jang, Anshuman Bhuyan, Jung Woo Choe, Amin Nikoozadeh, Ronald D Watkins, Douglas N Stephens, Kim Butts Pauly, Butrus T Khuri-Yakub
High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been used as noninvasive treatment for various diseases. For these therapeutic applications, capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) have advantages that make them potentially preferred transducers over traditional piezoelectric transducers. In this paper, we present the design and the fabrication process of an 8 ×8 -mm (2) 32 ×32 -element 2-D CMUT array for HIFU applications. To reduce the system complexity for addressing the 1024 transducer elements, we propose to group the CMUT array elements into eight HIFU channels based on the phase delay from the CMUT element to the targeted focal point...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913325/increasing-axial-resolution-of-ultrasonic-imaging-with-a-joint-sparse-representation-model
#6
Junbo Duan, Hui Zhong, Bowen Jing, Siyuan Zhang, Mingxi Wan
The axial resolution of ultrasonic imaging is confined by the temporal width of acoustic pulse generated by the transducer, which has a limited bandwidth. Deconvolution can eliminate this effect and, therefore, improve the resolution. However, most ultrasonic imaging methods perform deconvolution scan line by scan line, and therefore the information embedded within the neighbor scan lines is unexplored, especially for those materials with layered structures such as blood vessels. In this paper, a joint sparse representation model is proposed to increase the axial resolution of ultrasonic imaging...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913176/rotary-ultrasonic-bone-drilling-improved-pullout-strength-and-reduced-damage
#7
Vishal Gupta, Pulak M Pandey, Vadim V Silberschmidt
Bone drilling is one of the most common operations used to repair fractured parts of bones. During a bone drilling process, microcracks are generated on the inner surface of the drilled holes that can detrimentally affect osteosynthesis and healing. This study focuses on the investigation of microcracks and pullout strength of cortical-bone screws in drilled holes. It compares conventional surgical bone drilling (CSBD) with rotary ultrasonic bone drilling (RUBD), a novel approach employing ultrasonic vibration with a diamond-coated hollow tool...
November 29, 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912131/preparation-of-a-magnetic-n-fe-ac-catalyst-for-aqueous-pharmaceutical-treatment-in-heterogeneous-sonication-system
#8
Nan Zhang, He Zhao, Guangming Zhang, Shan Chong, Yucan Liu, Liyan Sun, Huazhen Chang, Ting Huang
High efficiency and facile separation are desirable for catalysts used in water treatment. In this study, a magnetic catalyst (nitrogen doped iron/activated carbon) was prepared and used for pharmaceutical wastewater treatment. The catalyst was characterized using BET, SEM, XRD, VSM and XPS. Results showed that iron and nitrogen were successfully loaded and doped, magnetic Fe2N was formed, large amount of active surface oxygen and Fe(II) were detected, and the catalyst could be easily separated from water. Diclofenac was then degraded using the catalyst in ultrasound system...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910658/a-total-station-spatial-positioning-method-based-on-rotary-laser-scanning-and-ultrasonic-ranging
#9
Jun Wu, Jigui Zhu, Zhijing Yu, Jingchang Zhuge, Bin Xue
Total station spatial coordinator measuring technology is extensively applied in the large-scale measurement of industrial assembly and manufacturing for its flexibility and adaptability. The existing total station technology has some principal limits such as poor efficiency and single tasking; in order to achieve the total station spatial coordinator measuring technology with the advantages of multi-task, real-time measurement, and high accuracy, this paper presents a novel total station measurement method by using multi-laser plane constraints established through rotating planar planes and distance information obtained with an ultrasonic ranging method...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910381/single-phase-driven-ultrasonic-motor-using-two-orthogonal-bending-modes-of-sandwiching-piezo-ceramic-plates
#10
Yuting Ma, Minkyu Choi, Kenji Uchino
A compact ultrasonic motor using sandwiching piezo-ceramic plates was developed, having advantages of low manufacturing costs, simple driving circuit, and high scalability. The stator is composed of two piezoelectric plates attached to a T-shaped steel body. Two orthogonal bending modes can be excited by driving one piezoelectric plate and the reversed motion of the rotor can be obtained by driving the piezoelectric plate on the opposite side. The prototype stator with a size of 15 mm × 2.44 mm × 2 mm, operated at 44...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910188/comparing-rewarding-and-reinforcing-properties-between-bath-salt-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-and-cocaine-using-ultrasonic-vocalizations-in-rats
#11
Steven J Simmons, Ryan A Gregg, Fionya H Tran, Lili Mo, Eva von Weltin, David J Barker, Taylor A Gentile, Lucas R Watterson, Scott M Rawls, John W Muschamp
Abuse of synthetic psychostimulants like synthetic cathinones has risen in recent years. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is one such synthetic cathinone that demonstrates a mechanism of action similar to cocaine. Compared to cocaine, MDPV is more potent at blocking dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake and is readily self-administered by rodents. The present study compared the rewarding and reinforcing properties of MDPV and cocaine using systemic injection dose-response and self-administration models...
December 1, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909876/sonochemical-effect-on-activity-and-conformation-of-commercial-lipases
#12
Shamraja S Nadar, Virendra K Rathod
The enzyme under lower-intensity ultrasonic irradiation leads to favourable conformational changes, thereby enhancing its activity. The augmentation of activity of ultrasound-treated enzyme is strongly dependent on ultrasound intensity, duty cycle and exposure time, which was investigated for commercial lipases. Thermomyces lanuginosus (TL) lipase showed a 1.3-fold enhanced activity after irradiating at 22 kHz and 11.38 W cm(-2) with 50 % duty cycle for 25-min ultrasonic treatment and 1.5-fold enhanced activity was observed for lipozyme (candida antarctica lipase B (CALB)) lipase, at 22 kHz and 15...
December 1, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908063/simulation-study-of-axial-ultrasonic-wave-propagation-in-heterogeneous-bovine-cortical-bone
#13
Toshiho Hata, Yoshiki Nagatani, Koki Takano, Mami Matsukawa
The effect of the heterogeneity of the long cortical bone is an important factor when applying the axial transmission technique. In this study, the axial longitudinal wave velocity distributions in specimens from the mid-shaft of a bovine femur were measured, in the MHz range. Bilinear interpolation and the piecewise cubic Hermite interpolating polynomial method were used to construct three-dimensional (3D) axial velocity models with a resolution of 40 μm. By assuming the uniaxial anisotropy of the bone and using the results of previous experimental studies [Yamato, Matsukawa, Yanagitani, Yamazaki, Mizukawa, and Nagano (2008b)...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908058/volterra-model-of-the-parametric-array-loudspeaker-operating-at-ultrasonic-frequencies
#14
Chuang Shi, Yoshinobu Kajikawa
The parametric array loudspeaker (PAL) is an application of the parametric acoustic array in air, which can be applied to transmit a narrow audio beam from an ultrasonic emitter. However, nonlinear distortion is very perceptible in the audio beam. Modulation methods to reduce the nonlinear distortion are available for on-axis far-field applications. For other applications, preprocessing techniques are wanting. In order to develop a preprocessing technique with general applicability to a wide range of operating conditions, the Volterra filter is investigated as a nonlinear model of the PAL in this paper...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907030/sensitive-and-simplified-detection-of-antibiotic-influence-on-the-dynamic-and-versatile-changes-of-fecal-short-chain-fatty-acids
#15
Xiaoya Zhao, Zhenzuo Jiang, Fan Yang, Yan Wang, Xiumei Gao, Yuefei Wang, Xin Chai, Guixiang Pan, Yan Zhu
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced by anaerobic fermentation of mainly indigestible dietary carbohydrates by gut microbiota, have a profound influence on intestinal function and host energy metabolism. Antibiotics may seriously disturb the balance of fecal SCFAs. To evaluate the impacts of antibiotics on fecal SCFAs produced by gut microbiota, a simple, reproducible and accurate gas chromatography (GC) method, which can simultaneously analyze seven SCFAs in fecal samples, was developed and validated...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905374/-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-inflammatory-diseases-of-the-mammary-ducts
#16
G A Belonenko, A G Grintsov, A G Osipov, G G Pilyugin, Yu G Lutsenko, E G Aksenova, A A Aksenov
AIM: The analysis and popularization of the own experience of ultrasonic diagnostics and minimal invasive interventions for inflammatory diseases of the mammary ducts. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 249 women were observed: 182 (73.1%) cases of periductal mastitis and 67 (26.9%) cases of purulent galactophoritis. Patients with purulent galactophoritis were divided into 2 groups (main and control). The main group consisted of 50 patients after minimal invasive interventions, control - 17 women after traditional surgery...
2016: Khirurgiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903723/cerebellar-shank2-regulates-excitatory-synapse-density-motor-coordination-and-specific-repetitive-and-anxiety-like-behaviors
#17
Seungmin Ha, Dongwon Lee, Yi Sul Cho, Changuk Chung, Ye-Eun Yoo, Jihye Kim, Jiseok Lee, Woohyun Kim, Hyosang Kim, Yong Chul Bae, Keiko Tanaka-Yamamoto, Eunjoon Kim
: Shank2 is a multidomain scaffolding protein implicated in the structural and functional coordination of multiprotein complexes at excitatory postsynaptic sites as well as in psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders. While Shank2 is strongly expressed in the cerebellum, whether Shank2 regulates cerebellar excitatory synapses, or contributes to the behavioral abnormalities observed in Shank2(-/-) mice, remains unexplored. Here we show that Shank2(-/-) mice show reduced excitatory synapse density in cerebellar Purkinje cells in association with reduced levels of excitatory postsynaptic proteins, including GluD2 and PSD-93, and impaired motor coordination in the Erasmus test...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903340/-the-clinical-application-of-lumbar-plexus-the-first-posterior-sacral-foramina-block-for-hip-arthroplasty-in-elderly-patients
#18
J Li, X J Ke, Y Liu, K Chen, M B Chen, W Mei
Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of lumbar plexus-the first posterior sacral foramina block as an anesthesia technique for hip arthroplasty in elderly patients. Methods: Forty-four patients, aged 60-91 years, weighing 37-100 kg, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Ⅰ-Ⅲ, underwent elective hip arthroplasty in Tongji Hospital from February 2015 to January 2016.All patients received lumbar plexus and the first posterior sacral foramina block.The first posterior sacral foramina puncture point of 23 cases were located by traditional positioning method, the others were orientated via ultrasonic method...
November 22, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902721/facial-indicators-of-positive-emotions-in-rats
#19
Kathryn Finlayson, Jessica Frances Lampe, Sara Hintze, Hanno Würbel, Luca Melotti
Until recently, research in animal welfare science has mainly focused on negative experiences like pain and suffering, often neglecting the importance of assessing and promoting positive experiences. In rodents, specific facial expressions have been found to occur in situations thought to induce negatively valenced emotional states (e.g., pain, aggression and fear), but none have yet been identified for positive states. Thus, this study aimed to investigate if facial expressions indicative of positive emotional state are exhibited in rats...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902589/serum-thyroglobulin-reference-intervals-in-regions-with-adequate-and-more-than-adequate-iodine-intake
#20
Zhaojun Wang, Hanyi Zhang, Xiaowen Zhang, Jie Sun, Cheng Han, Chenyan Li, Yongze Li, Xiaochun Teng, Chenling Fan, Aihua Liu, Zhongyan Shan, Chao Liu, Jianping Weng, Weiping Teng
The purpose of this study was to establish normal thyroglobulin (Tg) reference intervals (RIs) in regions with adequate and more than adequate iodine intake according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines and to investigate the relationships between Tg and other factors.A total of 1317 thyroid disease-free adult subjects (578 men, 739 nonpregnant women) from 2 cities (Guangzhou and Nanjing) were enrolled in this retrospective, observational study. Each subject completed a questionnaire and underwent physical and ultrasonic examination...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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