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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813102/terpene-esters-from-natural-products-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-cytotoxic-activity
#1
Mauricio M Victor, Jorge M David, Maria C K Sakukuma, Letícia V Costa-Lotufo, Andrea F Moura, Ana J Araújo
Natural steroids and triterpenes such as b-sitosterol, stigmasterol, lupeol, ursolic and betulinic acids were transformed into its hexanoic and oleic esters, to evaluate the influence of chemical modification towards the cytotoxic activities against tumor cells. The derivatives were evaluated against five tumor cell lines [OVCAR-8 (ovarian carcinoma); SF-295 (glioblastoma); HCT-116 (colon adenocarcinoma); HL-60 (leukemia); and PC-3 (prostate carcinoma)] and the results showed only betulinic acid hexyl ester exhibits cytotoxic potential activity...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813058/fine-tuning-of-catalytic-and-sorption-properties-of-metal-organic-frameworks-via-in-situ-ligand-exchange
#2
Peng Wang, Kai Chen, Qing Liu, Huai-Wei Wang, Mohammad Azam, Saud I Al-Resayes, Yi Lu, Wei-Yin Sun
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are gaining considerable attention not only because of their diverse structures but also due to their interesting properties and potential applications. However, fabrication of MOFs with desired structures and properties remains a great challenge. In this study, a strategy based on ligand exchange via single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC) transformation has been undertaken, which can be used to achieve MOFs not available by direct synthesis and also to enrich the family of isoreticular MOFs...
August 16, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813000/an-ameliorated-prediction-of-drug-target-interactions-based-on-multi-scale-discrete-wavelet-transform-and-network-features
#3
Cong Shen, Yijie Ding, Jijun Tang, Xinying Xu, Fei Guo
The prediction of drug-target interactions (DTIs) via computational technology plays a crucial role in reducing the experimental cost. A variety of state-of-the-art methods have been proposed to improve the accuracy of DTI predictions. In this paper, we propose a kind of drug-target interactions predictor adopting multi-scale discrete wavelet transform and network features (named as DAWN) in order to solve the DTIs prediction problem. We encode the drug molecule by a substructure fingerprint with a dictionary of substructure patterns...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812999/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-a-sodium-alginate-4-aminosalicylic-acid-based-microporous-hydrogel-for-potential-viscosupplementation-for-joint-injuries-and-arthritis-induced-conditions
#4
Dharmesh R Chejara, Mostafa Mabrouk, Pradeep Kumar, Yahya E Choonara, Pierre P D Kondiah, Ravindra V Badhe, Lisa C du Toit, Divya Bijukumar, Viness Pillay
A microporous hydrogel was developed using sodium alginate (alg) and 4-aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA). The synthesized hydrogel was characterized using various analytical techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C-NMR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Additonal carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups of 4-ASA provided significant lubrication and stress-triggered sol-gel transition to the conjugated hydrogel...
August 16, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812993/enhanced-corrosion-resistance-of-carbon-steel-in-hydrochloric-acid-solution-by-eriobotrya-japonica-thunb-leaf-extract-electrochemical-study
#5
Wenjing Yang, Qihui Wang, Ke Xu, Yanjun Yin, Hebin Bao, Xueming Li, Lidan Niu, Shiqi Chen
The biodegradable inhibitors, which could effectively reduce the rate of corrosion of carbon steel, were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The mixed-type inhibitors extracted from Eriobotrya japonica Thunb. leaf exhibited excellent inhibition performance, and the inhibition efficiency for carbon steel reached 90.0% at 298 K in hydrochloric acid. Moreover, the adsorption mechanism of the inhibitors on a carbon steel surface is described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm...
August 16, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812969/functional-expression-of-bmp7-receptors-in-oral-epithelial-cells-interleukin-17f-production-in-response-to-bmp7
#6
Kensuke Nishio, Yasumasa Ozawa, Hisanori Ito, Takashi Kifune, Tatsuya Narita, Toshimitsu Iinuma, Nobuhito Gionhaku, Masatake Asano
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily. Recently, BMP7 has been demonstrated to be produced by salivary glands and contribute to embryonic branching in mice. The BMP7 in saliva is thought to be delivered to the oral cavity and is expected to contact with stratified squamous epithelial cells which line the surface of oral mucosa. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effects of BMP7 on oral epithelial cells...
October 2017: Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812893/%C3%AE-sulfinyl-benzoates-as-precursors-to-li-and-mg-carbenoids-for-the-stereoselective-iterative-homologation-of-boronic-esters
#7
Giorgia Casoni, Murat Kucukdisli, James M Fordham, Matthew Burns, Eddie L Myers, Varinder K Aggarwal
The stereoselective reagent-controlled homologation of boronic esters is one of a small number of iteratable synthetic transformations that if automated could form the basis of a veritable molecule-making machine. Recently, α-stannyl triisopropylbenzoates and α-sulfinyl chlorides have emerged as useful building blocks for the iterative homologation of boronic esters. However, α-stannyl benzoates need to be prepared using stoichiometric amounts of the (+)- or (-)-enantiomer of the scarcely available and expensive diamine sparteine; also, these building blocks, together with the byproducts that are generated during homologation, are perceived as being toxic...
August 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812891/catalytic-alkynylation-of-cyclic-acetals-and-ketals-enabled-by-synergistic-gold-i-trimethylsilyl-catalysis
#8
Matheo Berthet, Olivier Songis, Catherine Taillier, Vincent Dalla
A completely regioselective and challenging gold(I)-catalyzed ring-opening of cyclic 1,3-dioxolanes and dioxanes by trimethylsilyl alkynes to set diol-derived propargyl trimethylsilyl bis-ethers is reported. This unprecedented and not trivial transformation does not operate with the catalytic methodologies recently reported for catalytic alkynylation of acyclic acetals/ketals, and is uniquely enabled by the application of a recently introduced synergistic gold(I)-silicon catalysis concept capable of producing simultaneously catalytic amounts of two key players, a silicon-based Lewis superacid and a nucleophilic gold acetylide...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812872/effect-of-mineral-dissolution-precipitation-and-co2-exsolution-on-co2-transport-in-geological-carbon-storage
#9
Ruina Xu, Rong Li, Jin Ma, Di He, Peixue Jiang
Geological carbon sequestration (GCS) in deep saline aquifers is an effective means for storing carbon dioxide to address global climate change. As the time after injection increases, the safety of storage increases as the CO2 transforms from a separate phase to CO2(aq) and HCO3(-) by dissolution and then to carbonates by mineral dissolution. However, subsequent depressurization could lead to dissolved CO2(aq) escaping from the formation water and creating a new separate phase which may reduce the GCS system safety...
August 16, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812849/global-health-in-the-anthropocene-moving-beyond-resilience-and-capitalism-comment-on-health-promotion-in-an-age-of-normative-equity-and-rampant-inequality
#10
Remco van de Pas
There has been much reflection on the need for a new understanding of global health and the urgency of a paradigm shift to address global health issues. A crucial question is whether this is still possible in current modes of global governance based on capitalist values. Four reflections are provided. (1) Ecological -centered values must become central in any future global health framework. (2) The objectives of 'sustainability' and 'economic growth' present a profound contradiction. (3) The resilience discourse maintains a gridlock in the functioning of the global health system...
December 24, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812844/clinician-perspectives-of-barriers-to-effective-implementation-of-a-rapid-response-system-in-an-academic-health-centre-a-focus-group-study
#11
John Rihari-Thomas, Michelle DiGiacomo, Jane Phillips, Phillip Newton, Patricia M Davidson
BACKGROUND: Systemic and structural issues of rapid response system (RRS) models can hinder implementation. This study sought to understand the ways in which acute care clinicians (physicians and nurses) experience and negotiate care for deteriorating patients within the RRS. METHODS: Physicians and nurses working within an Australian academic health centre within a jurisdictional-based model of clinical governance participated in focus group interviews. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using thematic content analysis...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812842/governance-and-capacity-to-manage-resilience-of-health-systems-towards-a-new-conceptual-framework
#12
Karl Blanchet, Sara L Nam, Ben Ramalingam, Francisco Pozo-Martin
The term resilience has dominated the discourse among health systems researchers since 2014 and the onset of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. There is wide consensus that the global community has to help build more resilient health systems. But do we really know what resilience means, and do we all have the same vision of resilience? The present paper presents a new conceptual framework on governance of resilience based on systems thinking and complexity theories. In this paper, we see resilience of a health system as its capacity to absorb, adapt and transform when exposed to a shock such as a pandemic, natural disaster or armed conflict and still retain the same control over its structure and functions...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812823/an-assessment-of-national-maternal-and-child-health-policy-makers-knowledge-and-capacity-for-evidence-informed-policy-making-in-nigeria
#13
Chigozie Jesse Uneke, Issiaka Sombie, Namoudou Keita, Virgil Lokossou, Ermel Johnson, Pierre Ongolo-Zogo
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest globally in the use of more rigorous processes to ensure that maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) care recommendations are informed by the best available research evidence use. The purpose of this study was to engage Nigerian MNCH policy-makers and other stakeholders to consider issues around research to policy and practice interface and to assess their existing knowledge and capacity on the use of research evidence for policy-making and practice...
October 8, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812767/mild-synthesis-of-triarylsulfonium-salts-with-arynes
#14
Lei Zhang, Xiaojin Li, Yan Sun, Weizhao Zhao, Fan Luo, Xin Huang, Lihui Lin, Ying Yang, Bo Peng
Reactions between arynes and alkyl sulfides have been extensively studied over the past few decades. These reactions commonly end with a dealkylation process and thus deliver thioethers as final products. In contrast, the transformation described furnishes valuable triarylsulfonium salts, in lieu of thioethers, from arynes and diarylsulfides. The reaction features mild conditions and a broad substrate scope. A suite of functional groups such as ketones, esters, nitriles, aryl ethers and aryl halides is tolerated, which can be issues faced by traditional synthetic methods...
August 16, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812745/hysteresis-and-bonding-reconstruction-in-the-pressure-induced-b3-b1-phase-transition-of-3c-sic
#15
Miguel A Salvadó, R Franco, Pilar Pertierra, T Ouahrani, J M Recio
The determination of kinetic factors affecting phase metastability is crucial for the design of materials out of the ambient conditions. At a given temperature, the kinetic barrier associated with the reconstruction of the bonding network of a pressure-induced phase transition can be only overcome at pressures where the available vibrational energy of the system is equal or higher than the corresponding activation energy. Our work demonstrates that these pressures provide boundaries to hysteresis cycles that can be evaluated following a three-step computational strategy: (i) total energy electronic structure calculations, (ii) determination of vibrational contributions by means of a simple Debye model, and (iii) description of the energetic profile along the transition path in the framework of the martensitic approximation...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812707/the-rise-and-fall-of-malaria-under-land-use-change-in-frontier-regions
#16
Andres Baeza, Mauricio Santos-Vega, Andrew P Dobson, Mercedes Pascual
Land-use change is the main force behind ecological and social change in many countries around the globe; it is primarily driven by resource needs and external economic incentives. Concomitantly, transformations of the land are the main drivers for the emergence and re-emergence of malaria. An understanding of malaria population dynamics in transforming landscapes is lacking, despite its relevance for developmental and public health policies. We develop a mathematical model that couples malaria epidemiology with the socio-economic and demographic processes that occur in a landscape undergoing land-use change...
March 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812679/meckel-s-cartilage-breakdown-offers-clues-to-mammalian-middle-ear-evolution
#17
Neal Anthwal, Daniel J Urban, Zhe-Xi Luo, Karen E Sears, Abigail S Tucker
A key transformation in mammalian ear evolution was incorporation of the primary jaw joint of premammalian synapsids into the definitive mammalian middle ear of living mammals. This evolutionary transition occurred in two steps, starting with a partial or 'transitional' mammalian middle ear in which the ectotympanic and malleus were still connected to the mandible by an ossified Meckel's cartilage (MC), as observed in many Mesozoic mammals. This was followed by MC breakdown, freeing the ectotympanic and the malleus from the mandible and creating the definitive mammalian middle ear...
March 6, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812655/the-placenta-as-a-model-for-understanding-the-origin-and-evolution-of-vertebrate-organs
#18
REVIEW
Oliver W Griffith, Günter P Wagner
How organs originate and evolve is a question fundamental to understanding the evolution of complex multicellular life forms. Vertebrates have a relatively standard body plan with more or less the same conserved set of organs. The placenta is a comparatively more recently evolved organ, derived in many lineages independently. Using placentas as a model, we discuss the genetic basis for organ origins. We show that the evolution of placentas occurs by acquiring new functional attributes to existing tissues, changes in the patterning and development of tissues, and the evolution of novel cell types...
March 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812646/the-energy-expansions-of-evolution
#19
Olivia P Judson
The history of the life-Earth system can be divided into five 'energetic' epochs, each featuring the evolution of life forms that can exploit a new source of energy. These sources are: geochemical energy, sunlight, oxygen, flesh and fire. The first two were present at the start, but oxygen, flesh and fire are all consequences of evolutionary events. Since no category of energy source has disappeared, this has, over time, resulted in an expanding realm of the sources of energy available to living organisms and a concomitant increase in the diversity and complexity of ecosystems...
April 28, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812590/island-biodiversity-conservation-needs-palaeoecology
#20
Sandra Nogué, Lea de Nascimento, Cynthia A Froyd, Janet M Wilmshurst, Erik J de Boer, Emily E D Coffey, Robert J Whittaker, José María Fernández-Palacios, Kathy J Willis
The discovery and colonization of islands by humans has invariably resulted in their widespread ecological transformation. The small and isolated populations of many island taxa, and their evolution in the absence of humans and their introduced taxa, mean that they are particularly vulnerable to human activities. Consequently, even the most degraded islands are a focus for restoration, eradication, and monitoring programmes to protect the remaining endemic and/or relict populations. Here, we build a framework that incorporates an assessment of the degree of change from multiple baseline reference periods using long-term ecological data...
June 22, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
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