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Kathrin Fielitz, Kristina Althoff, Katleen De Preter, Julie Nonnekens, Jasmin Ohli, Sandra Elges, Wolfgang Hartmann, Günter Klöppel, Thomas Knösel, Marc Schulte, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Daniela Beisser, Henning Reis, Annette Eyking, Elke Cario, Johannes H Schulte, Alexander Schramm, Ulrich Schüller
Amplification or overexpression of MYCN is involved in development and maintenance of multiple malignancies. A subset of these tumors originates from neural precursors, including the most aggressive forms of the childhood tumors, neuroblastoma and medulloblastoma. In order to model the spectrum of MYCN-driven neoplasms in mice, we transgenically overexpressed MYCN under the control of the human GFAP-promoter that, among other targets, drives expression in neural progenitor cells. However, LSL-MYCN;hGFAP-Cre double transgenic mice did neither develop neural crest tumors nor tumors of the central nervous system, but presented with neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas and, less frequently, the pituitary gland...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Eleni Pitta, Olga Balabon, Maciej K Rogacki, Jesús Gómez, Fraser Cunningham, Jurgen Joosens, Koen Augustyns, Pieter van der Veken, Robert Bates
During the construction of bioactive molecules, regioselective alkylation of heterocyclic, N/O ambident nucleophiles is a frequently encountered synthetic transformation. In this framework, specific attention is required to unambiguously determine the structures of obtained reaction products. As part of our project on quinoloxyacetamide based antimycobacterial agents, a series of N- or O- alkylated quinolin-4-ol, 1,5-naphthyridin-4-ol and quinazolin-4-ol derivatives were prepared during the course of which we observed unexpected selectivity issues...
October 11, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Rania R Abdelaziz, Wagdi F Elkashef, Eman Said
Silicosis is a crippling respiratory disorder characterized by massive lung inflammation and fibrosis. The current study provides evidence on the protective potential of tadalafil; a specific phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor against experimentally-induced pulmonary silicosis in rats. Silicosis was induced by intranasal instillation of crystalline silica (50mg/rat). Halofuginone hydrobromide; a standard collagen-1 synthesis inhibitor was selected as a reference anti-fibrotic. Daily oral administration of tadalafil (1mg/kg) for 8weeks significantly ameliorated silica-induced pulmonary damage...
October 18, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Kunfeng Chen, Dongfeng Xue, Sridhar Komarneni
Nanoclay assisted electrochemical exfoliation was developed to in-situ form functionalized graphene electrode materials from pencil core with different ratios of graphite and clay. This method made a positive transformation from solid graphite to graphene colloidal solution, which can be used to construct binder- and additive-free thin-film electrodes. Exfoliated graphene can be served as both conductive current collector (film resistance of 33Ω/square) and electrode materials. Graphene thin-film electrodes from pencil cores displayed higher capacity of 224 than 80mAh/g of that from pure graphite...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Chellakannu Rajkumar, Balamurugan Thirumalraj, Shen-Ming Chen, His-An Chen
In this study, we demonstrate a simple preparation of graphite (GR) sheets assisted with gelatin (GLN) polypeptide composite was developed for sensitive detection of dopamine (DA) sensor. The GR/GLN composite was prepared by GR powder in GLN solution (5mg/mL) via sonication process. The prepared GR/GLN composite displays well dispersion ability in biopolymer matrix and characterized via scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Sanna Rönkä, Anu Katainen
BACKGROUND: The non-medical use of prescription drugs is a growing phenomenon associated with increasing health-related harms. However, little is known about the drivers of this process among illicit drug users. Our aim is to show how the qualities of pharmaceutical drugs, pharmaceutical related knowledge, online communities sharing this knowledge and medical professionals mediate and transform the consumption behaviour related to pharmaceutical drugs. METHODS: The data consist of discussion threads from an online drug use forum...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Kirilka Mladenova, Svetla D Petrova, Tonya D Andreeva, Veselina Moskova-Doumanova, Tanya Topouzova-Hristova, Yuri Kalvachev, Konstantin Balashev, Shomi S Bhattacharya, Christina Chakarova, Zdravko Lalchev, Jordan A Doumanov
Human bestrophin-1 (hBest1) is a transmembrane calcium-activated chloride channel protein - member of the bestrophin family of anion channels, predominantly expressed in the membrane of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. Mutations in the protein cause ocular diseases, named Bestrophinopathies. Here, we present the first Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) study of the secondary structure elements of hBest1, π/A isotherms and hysteresis, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) visualization of the aggregation state of protein molecules dispersed as Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films...
October 13, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Michael L Power, Jay Schulkin, Heather Drought, Lauren A Milligan, Katie L Murtough, Robin M Bernstein
In addition to nutrients, milk contains signaling molecules that influence offspring development. Human milk is similar in nutrient composition to that of apes, but appears to differ in other aspects such as immune function. We examine the longitudinal patterns across lactation of macronutrients, the metabolic hormone adiponectin, the growth factors epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2), and two receptors for these growth factors (EGF-R and TGF-β2-RIII) in milk samples collected between days 175 and 313 postpartum from a Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) and between days 3 and 1,276 from a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), and compare the results with human data from the literature...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Wang Wei, Zhang Wei-Sheng, Alayi Ahan, Yan Ci, Zhang Wei-Wen, Cao Ming-Qin
OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to find out epidemiologic characteristic of tuberculosis (TB) cases, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive cases among TB patients (TB/HIV co-infection) through demographic, temporal, and spatial study in Urumqi. METHODS: Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were applied to identify the epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors of TB epidemic and TB/HIV co-infection epidemic. All addresses of each TB case, TB/HIV co-infection case, and administrative street were transformed into geographical coordinate...
2016: PloS One
Si Hyung Lee, Eun Min Kang, Gyu Ah Kim, Seung Woo Kwak, Joon Mo Kim, Hyoung Won Bae, Gong Je Seong, Chan Yun Kim
BACKGROUND: To investigate the association between heavy metal levels and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) with low- and high-teen baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) using a population-based study design. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 5,198 participants older than 19 years of age who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 to 2012 and had blood heavy metal levels available. The OAG with normal baseline IOP (IOP ≤ 21 mmHg) subjects were stratified into low-teen OAG (baseline IOP ≤ 15 mmHg) and high-teen OAG (15 mmHg < baseline IOP ≤ 21 mmHg), and the association between blood lead, mercury, and cadmium levels and glaucoma prevalence was assessed for low- and high-teen OAG...
2016: PloS One
Xinyi Liu, Dongfei Feng, Dianming Liu, Shuyuan Wang, Xuexin Yu, Enyu Dai, Jing Wang, Lihong Wang, Wei Jiang
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common incident form of cancer in women including different subtypes. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been confirmed to exist in breast cancer. But the research on the origin of breast cancer subtype stem cells (BCSSCs) is still inadequate. METHODS: We identified the putative origin cells of BCSSCs through comparing gene signatures between BCSSCs and normal mammary cells from multiple perspectives: common signature, expression consistency, functional similarity and shortest path length...
2016: PloS One
Kerry A Geiler-Samerotte, Yuan O Zhu, Benjamin E Goulet, David W Hall, Mark L Siegal
The protein-folding chaperone Hsp90 has been proposed to buffer the phenotypic effects of mutations. The potential for Hsp90 and other putative buffers to increase robustness to mutation has had major impact on disease models, quantitative genetics, and evolutionary theory. But Hsp90 sometimes contradicts expectations for a buffer by potentiating rapid phenotypic changes that would otherwise not occur. Here, we quantify Hsp90's ability to buffer or potentiate (i.e., diminish or enhance) the effects of genetic variation on single-cell morphological features in budding yeast...
October 2016: PLoS Biology
Elżbieta Łuczyńska, Joanna Niemiec, Edward Hendrick, Sylwia Heinze, Janusz Jaszczyński, Jerzy Jakubowicz, Beata Sas-Korczyńska, Janusz Rys
BACKGROUND Contrast enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) is a new method of breast cancer diagnosis in which an iodinated contrast agent is injected and dual-energy mammography is obtained in multiple views of the breasts. The aim of this study was to compare the degree of enhancement on CESM with lesion characteristics on mammography (MG) and lesion histology in women with suspicious breast lesions. MATERIAL AND METHODS The degree of enhancement on CESM (absent, weak, medium, or strong) was compared to lesion characteristics on MG (mass, mass with microcalcifications, or microcalcifications alone) and histology (infiltrating carcinoma, intraductal carcinoma, or benign) to compare sensitivity of the two modalities and to establish correlations that might improve diagnostic accuracy...
October 21, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
David C Classen, William Munier, Nancy Verzier, Noel Eldridge, David Hunt, Mark Metersky, Chesley Richards, Yun Wang, P Jeffrey Brady, Amy Helwig, James Battles
The explicit declaration in the landmark 1999 Institute of Medicine report "To Err Is Human" that, in the United States, 44,000 to 98,000 patients die each year as a consequence of "medical errors" gave widespread validation to the magnitude of the patient safety problem and catalyzed a number of U.S. federal government programs to measure and improve the safety of the national healthcare system. After more than 10 years, one of those federal programs, the Medicare Patient Safety Monitoring System (MPSMS), has reached a level of maturity and stability that has made it useful for the consistent measurement of the safety of inpatient care...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Patient Safety
Ji-Feng Yang, Li-Ming Yang, Guang-Guo Ying, Cheng-Bin Liu, Li-Ying Zheng, Sheng-Lian Luo
Sulfonamide antibiotics are often detected in terrestrial and aquatic environment, but little is known about abiotic degradation of these antibiotics. In the present study, the degradation of the sulfonamide antibiotic sulfadiazine by a synthesized δ-MnO2 was investigated. The initial reaction rate of sulfadiazine oxidized by manganese dioxide increased as the solution pH decreased by weakening electrostatic attraction between sulfadiazine and MnO2 and enhancing the reduction potential of MnO2. The presence of metal ions (Mn(2+), Na(+) and Ca(2+)), especially Mn(2+), decreased the initial reaction rate by competitively adsorbing and reacting with MnO2...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Qingwen Lin, Jiali Chang, Mengfan Gao, Hongzhu Ma
Epichlorohydrin cross-linked carboxymethyl cellulose microspheres (ECH/CMC) obtained by inverse suspension method and magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles encasing the ECH/CMC microspheres (M-ECH/CMC) obtained by two different methods were successfully prepared and compared. Their structures and morphologies were analyzed using polarizing microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The adsorption behaviors of M1-ECH/CMC for methylene blue (MB) in the single cationic dye wastewater, the cationic/anionic dye mixture in the absence or presence of co-existed additives (salt and surfactant) wastewater, were also investigated with UV-vis spectrometer...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Diogo Boito, Matthias Jamin, Ramon Miravitllas
The quantum chromodynamics (QCD) coupling α_{s} is not a physical observable of the theory, since it depends on conventions related to the renormalization procedure. We introduce a definition of the QCD coupling, denoted by α[over ^]_{s}, whose running is explicitly renormalization scheme invariant. The scheme dependence of the new coupling α[over ^]_{s} is parametrized by a single parameter C, related to transformations of the QCD scale Λ. It is demonstrated that appropriate choices of C can lead to substantial improvements in the perturbative prediction of physical observables...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Allegra T Aron, Morten O Loehr, Jana Bogena, Christopher J Chang
Iron is essential for sustaining life, as its ability to cycle between multiple oxidation states is critical for catalyzing chemical transformations in biological systems. However, without proper regulation, this same redox capacity can trigger oxidative stress events that contribute to aging along with diseases ranging from cancer to cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. Despite its importance, methods for monitoring biological iron bound weakly to cellular ligands-the labile iron pool-to generate a response that preserves spatial and temporal information remain limited, owing to the potent fluorescence quenching ability of iron...
October 21, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Michael Grigalunas, Olaf Wiest, Paul Helquist
Trisubstituted α-pyrones are obtained by a Pd-catalyzed three-component, single-flask operation via an α-arylation, subsequent α-alkenylation, alkene isomerization, and dienolate lactonization. A variety of coupling components under mild conditions afforded isolated yields of up to 93% of the pyrones with complete control of regioselectivity. Metal dependence was noted for three of the steps of the pathway. Utility of the pyrone products was demonstrated by further transformations providing convenient access to polyaromatic compounds, exhibiting broad molecular diversity...
October 21, 2016: Organic Letters
Fernando Fernández-Nieto, M Rita Paleo, Roberto Colunga, M Luz Raposo, Luis Garcia-Rio, F Javier Sardina
Lithiation reactions of tertiary benzylic esters and carbamates have been studied. Kinetic methodology revealed that a two-step reaction pathway should be considered for these reactions, where either the lithium precomplexation and/or the proton transfer steps can be rate determining. Kinetic isotopic effects were evaluated by comparison of the lithiations of the corresponding protio/deutero substrates, and the results obtained support the notion that lithium precomplexation is taking place on the reaction pathway and that it is the rate-determining step in this transformation...
October 21, 2016: Organic Letters
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