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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324499/telomere-terminal-g-c-strand-synthesis-measuring-telomerase-action-and-c-rich-fill-in
#1
Yong Zhao, Jerry W Shay, Woodring E Wright
Telomerase is present in most human cancers, and proliferative stem cells including germline cells. Telomerase plays an essential role in tumorigenesis by maintaining/elongating telomeric DNA, and thus preventing the telomere shortening that results in replicative senescence. Understanding telomerase action in vivo has important implication for both cancer and aging, but there are not robust methods for monitoring telomerase action. By combining a series of cell biological and biochemical approaches, and taking advantage of the enzyme DSN that specifically cuts double-stranded DNA and releases the telomeric overhangs, we have developed a method to monitor telomerase action during one cell cycle...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324007/aberrant-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-drives-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-in-a-male-mouse-model-of-prostate-tumorigenesis
#2
Hong Pu, Diane Begemann, Natasha Kyprianou
The androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role as a driver of castration-resistant-prostate cancer (CRPC). Our previous studies demonstrated that disruption of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling via introduction of dominant-negative TGF-β type II receptor (DNTGF-RβII) in the prostate epithelium of transgenic adenocarcinoma of the prostate (TRAMP) mice accelerated tumor. This study investigated the consequences of disrupted TGF-β signaling on prostate tumor growth under conditions of castration-induced androgen deprivation (ADT) in the pre-clinical model DNTGFβRII...
March 16, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323888/lzts2-and-pten-collaboratively-regulate-%C3%A3-catenin-in-prostatic-tumorigenesis
#3
Eun-Jeong Yu, Erika Hooker, Daniel T Johnson, Mi Kyung Kwak, Kang Zou, Richard Luong, Yongfeng He, Zijie Sun
The leucine zipper tumor suppressor 2 (LZTS2) was identified as a tumor susceptibility gene within the 10q24.3 chromosomal region, and is approximately 15Mb from the PTEN locus. This region containing the both loci is frequently deleted in a variety of human malignancies, including prostate cancer. LZTS2 is a ß-catenin-binding protein and a negative regulator of Wnt signaling. Overexpression of PTEN in prostate cancer cell lines reduces ß-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity. In this study, we examined the collaborative effect of PTEN and LZTS2 using multiple in vitro and in vivo approaches...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323865/the-microrna-302b-inhibited-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-2-signaling-pathway-induces-glioma-cell-apoptosis-by-targeting-nuclear-factor-ia
#4
Chin-Cheng Lee, Peng-Hsu Chen, Kuo-Hao Ho, Chwen-Ming Shih, Chia-Hsiung Cheng, Cheng-Wei Lin, Kur-Ta Cheng, Ann-Jeng Liu, Ku-Chung Chen
MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally control the expression of genes involved in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) development. Although miR-302b functions as a tumor suppressor, its role in GBM is still unclear. Therefore, this study comprehensively explored the roles of miR-302b-mediated gene networks in GBM cell death. We found that miR-302b levels were significantly higher in primary astrocytes than in GBM cell lines. miR-302b overexpression dose dependently reduced U87-MG cell viability and induced apoptosis through caspase-3 activation and poly(ADP ribose) polymerase degradation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323438/green-tea-polyphenols-inhibit-colorectal-tumorigenesis-in-azoxymethane-treated-f344-rats
#5
Xingpei Hao, Hang Xiao, Jihyeung Ju, Mao-Jung Lee, Joshua D Lambert, Chung S Yang
In studying the cancer-preventive activities of green tea polyphenols, we previously demonstrated that dietary administration of polyphenon E (PPE) inhibited the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colon of azoxymethane (AOM)-treated F344 rats. Herein, we reported cancer-preventive activity of PPE using colorectal cancer as an end point. F344 rats were given two weekly injections of AOM, and then maintained on a 20% high-fat diet with or without 0.24% PPE for 34 wk. In the control group, 83% of rats developed colorectal tumors...
March 21, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317871/insights-into-molecular-therapy-of-glioma-current-challenges-and-next-generation-blueprint
#6
REVIEW
Y Rajesh, Ipsita Pal, Payel Banik, Sandipan Chakraborty, Sachin A Borkar, Goutam Dey, Ahona Mukherjee, Mahitosh Mandal
Glioma accounts for the majority of human brain tumors. With prevailing treatment regimens, the patients have poor survival rates. In spite of current development in mainstream glioma therapy, a cure for glioma appears to be out of reach. The infiltrative nature of glioma and acquired resistance substancially restrict the therapeutic options. Better elucidation of the complicated pathobiology of glioma and proteogenomic characterization might eventually open novel avenues for the design of more sophisticated and effective combination regimens...
March 20, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317401/biological-implications-and-clinical-value-of-mir-210-in-gastrointestinal-cancer
#7
Wanli Yang, Jiaojiao Ma, Wei Zhou, Xin Zhou, Bo Cao, Daiming Fan, Liu Hong
Introduction Hypoxia, a common feature of tumor microenvironment, is known to accelerate tumor development and growth by promoting the formation of a neoplastic environment. Recent studies have provided a wealth of evidence that miRNAs are significant members of the adaptive response to low oxygen in tumors. miR-210 is one of the hypoxia-induced miRNAs, which has been reported extensively in cancer researches. However, there is no systematic discussion about the role of miR-210 in gastrointestinal cancer. We conducted a literature research in database including PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct and Medline before September 16, 2016, in order to collect articles of miR-210 in gastrointestinal cancer...
March 18, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317361/-analysis-of-bnip3-expression-and-clinical-research-in-salivary-adenoid-cystic-carcinoma
#8
Chen Zhanwei, Sun Dubin, Huang Shengyun, Wu Haiwei, Zhang Dongsheng
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the expression of BNIP3 in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) and its correlations to the clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with SACC. The role of BNIP3 in the progress of hypoxia-induced autophagy was elucidated. METHODS: The expression levels of BNIP3, hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α, and LC3 in 65 SACC cases were detected by immunohistochemical staining method, and the correlation between the expression of BNIP3 and the clinicopathological features in SACC was analyzed...
August 1, 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317244/juxtaglomerular-cell-tumor-clinical-and-immunohistochemical-features
#9
Fen Wang, Chuan Shi, Yunying Cui, Chunyan Li, Anli Tong
Juxtaglomerular cell tumor (JGCT) is a rare tumor, with approximately 100 cases reported in the literature. The authors respectively studied the clinical data of 11 patients diagnosed with JGCT in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2004 to 2014, and investigated the immunohistochemical profiles in 10 tumors. Nine of the 11 patients were diagnosed before the age of 40 years. Hypertension was present in all patients, while hypokalemia occurred in seven of 11 patients. Computed tomography detected JGCTs with a sensitivity of 100%...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316978/identification-of-significant-pathways-induced-by-pax5-haploinsufficiency-based-on-protein-protein-interaction-networks-and-cluster-analysis-in-raji-cell-line
#10
Jia Gu, TongJuan Li, Lei Zhao, Xue Liang, Xing Fu, Jue Wang, Zhen Shang, Wei Huang, Jianfeng Zhou
PAX5 encodes a transcription factor essential for B-cell differentiation, and PAX5 haploinsufficiency is involved in tumorigenesis. There were few studies on how PAX5 haploinsufficiency regulated genes expression to promote tumorigenesis. In this study, we constructed the cell model of PAX5 haploinsufficiency using gene editing technology in Raji cells, detected differentially expressed genes in PAX5 haploinsufficiency Raji cells, and used protein-protein interaction networks and cluster analysis to comprehensively investigate the cellular pathways involved in PAX5 haploinsufficiency...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316954/molecular-pathways-controlling-autophagy-in-pancreatic-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Maria New, Tim Van Acker, Jaclyn S Long, Jun-Ichi Sakamaki, Kevin M Ryan, Sharon A Tooze
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the few cancer types where the 5-year survival rate shows no improvement. Despite conflicting evidence, the majority of data points to an essential role for autophagy in PDAC growth and survival, in particular constitutively activated autophagy, can provide crucial fuel to PDAC tumor cells in their nutrient-deprived environment. Autophagy, which is required for cell homeostasis, can both suppress and promote tumorigenesis and tumor survival in a context-dependent manner...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316917/a-comparative-study-of-syndecan-1-expression-in-different-odontogenic-tumors
#12
Shahroo Etemad-Moghadam, Mojgan Alaeddini
BACKGROUND: Expression of various cellular/molecular factors change during the course of tumor formation from odontogenic tissues of the tooth germ. Evaluation of these factors can help provide a better perception of the tumorigenesis and biologic behavior of odontogenic tumors (OTs). Syndecan-1 is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan which has not been extensively investigated in these lesions. The objective of the present study was to assess the immunohistochemical expression of CD138 in adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), ameloblastic fibroma (AF) and odontogenic myxoma (OM) and to compare it with ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT)...
January 2017: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316379/high-fat-diet-alters-gut-microbiota-and-the-expression-of-paneth-cell-antimicrobial-peptides-preceding-changes-of-circulating-inflammatory-cytokines
#13
Xiulan Guo, Jinchao Li, Renyong Tang, Guodong Zhang, Huawei Zeng, Richard J Wood, Zhenhua Liu
Obesity is an established risk factor for many diseases including intestinal cancer. One of the responsible mechanisms is the chronic inflammation driven by obesity. However, it remains to be defined whether diet-induced obesity exacerbates the intestinal inflammatory status by cytokines produced in adipose tissue or the high fat diet first alters the gut microbiota and then drives intestinal inflammation. To address this question, we fed C57BL/6 mice with a high fat diet (HF, 60%) and sacrificed them sequentially after 8, 12, and 16 weeks, and then compositions of gut microbiota and expressions of antimicrobial peptides were determined...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316092/elevation-of-gprc5a-expression-in-colorectal-cancer-promotes-tumor-progression-through-vnn-1-induced-oxidative-stress
#14
Long Zhang, Liang Li, Ganglong Gao, Gaigai Wei, Yansen Zheng, Chunmei Wang, Na Gao, Yongliang Zhao, Jiong Deng, Huaqing Chen, Jialiang Sun, Dali Li, Xueli Zhang, Mingyao Liu
The clearance of oxidative stress compounds is critical for the protection of the organism from malignancy, but how this key physiological process is regulated is not fully understood. Here we found that the expression of GPRC5A, a well-characterized tumor suppressor in lung cancer, was elevated in colorectal cancer tissues in patients. In both cancer cell lines and a colitis-associated cancer model in mice, we found that GPRC5A deficiency reduced cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis as well as inhibited tumorigenesis in vivo...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315838/germline-proliferation-is-regulated-by-somatic-endocytic-genes-via-jnk-and-bmp-signaling-in-drosophila
#15
Yaning Tang, Qing Geng, Di Chen, Shaowei Zhao, Xian Liu, Zhaohui Wang
Signals derived from the microenvironment contribute greatly to tumorigenesis. The underlying mechanism requires thorough investigation. Here, we use Drosophila testis as a model system to address this question, taking the advantage of the ease to distinguish germline and somatic cells and to track the cell numbers. In an EMS mutagenesis screen, we identified Rab5, a key factor in endocytosis, for its non-autonomous role in germline proliferation. The disruption of Rab5 in somatic cyst cells, which escort the development of germline lineage, induced the over-proliferation of under-differentiated but genetically wild-type germ cells...
March 17, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315775/assessment-of-histone-tail-modifications-and-transcriptional-profiling-during-colon-cancer-progression-reveals-a-global-decrease-in-h3k4me3-activity
#16
Karen Triff, Mathew W McLean, Kranti Konganti, Jiahui Pang, Evelyn Callaway, Beiyan Zhou, Ivan Ivanov, Robert S Chapkin
During colon cancer, epigenetic alterations contribute to the dysregulation of major cellular functions and signaling pathways. Modifications in chromatin signatures such as H3K4me3 and H3K9ac, which are associated with transcriptionally active genes, can lead to genomic instability and perturb the expression of gene sets associated with oncogenic processes. In order to further elucidate early pre-tumorigenic epigenetic molecular events driving CRC, we integrated diverse, genome-wide, epigenetic inputs (by high throughput sequencing of RNA, H3K4me3, and H3K9ac) and compared differentially expressed transcripts (DE) and enriched regions (DER) in an in-vivo rat colon cancer progression model...
March 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315615/mir155-regulation-of-ubiquilin1-and-ubiquilin2-implications-in-cellular-protection-and-tumorigenesis
#17
Sanjay Yadav, Nishant Singh, Parag P Shah, David A Rowbotham, Danial Malik, Ankita Srivastav, Jai Shankar, Wan L Lam, William W Lockwood, Levi J Beverly
Ubiquilin (UBQLN) proteins are adaptors thought to link ubiquitinated proteins to the proteasome. However, our lab has recently reported a previously unappreciated role for loss of UBQLN in lung cancer progression. In fact, UBQLN genes are lost in over 50% of lung cancer samples examined. However, a reason for the loss of UBQLN has not been proposed, nor has a selective pressure that could lead to deletion of UBQLN been reported. Diesel Exhaust Particles (DEP) are a major concern in the large cities of developing nations and DEP exposed populations are at an increased risk of developing a number of illnesses, including lung cancer...
March 15, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315433/increased-semaphorin-3c-expression-promotes-tumor-growth-and-metastasis-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-by-activating-the-erk1-2-signaling-pathway
#18
Xuejun Xu, Zhiping Zhao, Sixiang Guo, Jian Li, Songsong Liu, Yu You, Bing Ni, Huaizhi Wang, Ping Bie
Pancreatic cancer is characterized by neural alterations and aberrant expression of neural-specific factors. Semaphorins have been recognized as key contributors in axon guidance, the immune response and tumor progression. Recent studies have suggested the involvement of Semaphorin 3c (sema3c) in tumorigenesis and metastasis in numerous types of cancer, however, the clinical significance of sema3c and its role in the growth and metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remain unclear. In this study, we found that aberrant sema3c expression was positively associated with a particular tumor stage and correlated with poor survival of PDAC patients...
March 14, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315378/epigenetic-regulation-of-ret-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-and-non-coding-rnas-in-mtc
#19
Lauren Jin Suk Joo, Jing Ting Zhao, Matti L Gild, Anthony R Glover, Stan B Sidhu
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is an aggressive and rare cancer with limited treatment options for metastatic disease. Due to this, there is a need for a better understanding of MTC biology in the hope of improved treatments. One area of improved understanding of cancer biology is epigenetics. Epigenetics is defined as cellular processes which alter gene expression independent of changes in the primary DNA sequence. These processes include modifications such as DNA methylation, microRNA deregulation and post-translational histone modifications, all of which have been implicated in tumorigenesis of MTC...
March 14, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315323/increased-serotonin-signaling-contributes-to-the-warburg-effect-in-pancreatic-tumor-cells-under-metabolic-stress-and-promotes-growth-of-pancreatic-tumors-in-mice
#20
Shu-Heng Jiang, Jun Li, Fang-Yuan Dong, Jian-Yu Yang, De-Jun Liu, Xiao-Mei Yang, Ya-Hui Wang, Min-Wei Yang, Xue-Liang Fu, Xiao-Xin Zhang, Qing Li, Xiu-Feng Pang, Yan-Miao Huo, Jiao Li, Jun-Feng Zhang, Ho-Young Lee, Su-Jae Lee, Wen-Xin Qin, Jian-Ren Gu, Yong-Wei Sun, Zhi-Gang Zhang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The desmoplasia and poor vascularity cause severe metabolic stress in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). Serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator with neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine functions that contributes to tumorigenesis. We investigated the role of 5-HT signaling in the growth of pancreatic tumors. METHODS: We measured the levels of proteins that regulate 5-HT synthesis, packaging, and degradation in pancreata from Kras(G12D/+); Trp53(R172H/+); Pdx1-Cre; (KPC) mice, which develop pancreatic tumors, as well as in PDAC cell lines and a tissue microarray containing 81 human PDAC samples...
March 14, 2017: Gastroenterology
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