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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944309/particle-coatings-but-not-silver-ions-mediate-genotoxicity-of-ingested-silver-nanoparticles-in-a-mouse-model
#1
Sameera Nallanthighal, Cadia Chan, Dhruba J Bharali, Shaker A Mousa, Elizabeth Vásquez, Ramune Reliene
Incorporation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in toothpaste, food containers, dietary supplements and other consumer products can result in oral exposure to AgNPs and/or silver ions (Ag(+)) released from the surface of AgNPs. To examine whether ingestion of AgNPs or Ag(+) results in genotoxic damage and whether AgNP coatings modulate the effect, we exposed mice orally to 20 nm citrate-coated AgNPs, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated AgNPs, silver acetate or respective vehicles at a 4 mg/kg dose (equivalent to 800x the EPA reference dose for Ag) for 7 days...
January 2017: NanoImpact
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941615/multiplex-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-the-differential-detection-of-porcine-circovirus-2-and-3
#2
Hye-Ryung Kim, Yu-Ri Park, Da-Rae Lim, Min-Ji Park, Ji-Young Park, Seong-Hee Kim, Kyoung-Ki Lee, Young S Lyoo, Choi-Kyu Park
A multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (mqPCR) assay was developed for the rapid and differential detection of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and PCV3. Each of the capsid genes of PCV2 and PCV3 were amplified using specific primers and probe sets, while no other porcine pathogen genes were detected. Limit of detection of the assay was below 50 copies of the target genes of PCV2 and PCV3, and was comparable to that of previously described methods The assay showed high repeatability and reproducibility, with coefficients of intra-assay and inter-assay variation of less than 4...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940814/preanalytical-blood-sample-workup-for-cell-free-dna-analysis-using-droplet-digital-pcr-for-future-molecular-cancer-diagnostics
#3
Joost H van Ginkel, Daan A van den Broek, Joyce van Kuik, Dorothé Linders, Roel de Weger, Stefan M Willems, Manon M H Huibers
In current molecular cancer diagnostics, using blood samples of cancer patients for the detection of genetic alterations in plasma (cell-free) circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is an emerging practice. Since ctDNA levels in blood are low, highly sensitive Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) can be used for detecting rare mutational targets. In order to perform ddPCR on blood samples, a standardized procedure for processing and analyzing blood samples is necessary to facilitate implementation into clinical practice. Therefore, we assessed the technical sample workup procedure for ddPCR on blood plasma samples...
September 21, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939082/epigenetic-therapy-regulates-the-expression-of-aldh1-and-immunologic-response-relevance-to-the-prognosis-of-oral-cancer
#4
Ming-Shao Tsai, Wen-Cheng Chen, Chia-Hsuan Lai, Yu-Yen Chen, Miao-Fen Chen
OBJECTIVES: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) is associated with tumorigenesis, and shown to identify cancer stem cells (CSC)-like cells. We aimed to investigate the significance of ALDH1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and its correlation with DNMT3b and immune evasion in the present study. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical outcomes of OSCC patients and examined its correlation with the levels of ALDH1 in tumors and circulating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the peripheral blood...
October 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938845/does-fluoroscopy-induce-dna-oxidative-damage-in-patients-undergoing-catheter-ablation
#5
Linda Turnu, Benedetta Porro, Valentina Alfieri, Alessandro Di Minno, Eleonora Russo, Simone Barbieri, Alice Bonomi, Antonio Dello Russo, Claudio Tondo, Yuri D'Alessandra, Viviana Cavalca, Elena Tremoli, Gualtiero Ivanoe Colombo, Michela Casella
As no studies before now have thoroughly investigated the risk associated with the exposure to low-dose ionizing radiations in patients undergoing catheter ablation (CA), we aimed to evaluate the oxidative and DNA damage in 59 CA patients (10 of whom received N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior the procedure). A burst of oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio (GSSG/GSH) was observed 3 hours after procedure that was diminished by NAC administration. 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations, index of oxidative DNA damage, showed a peak 24 hours after CA...
September 22, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938635/distribution-of-circulating-tumor-dna-in-lung-cancer-analysis-of-the-primary-lung-and-bone-marrow-along-with-the-pulmonary-venous-and-peripheral-blood
#6
Taichiro Goto, Yosuke Hirotsu, Kenji Amemiya, Takahiro Nakagomi, Daichi Shikata, Yujiro Yokoyama, Kenichiro Okimoto, Toshio Oyama, Hitoshi Mochizuki, Masao Omata
Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), extracted from plasma, is a non-invasive surrogate biomarker. However, the distribution of ctDNA in the body still remains to be elucidated. In this study, resected lung tumors, with simultaneous blood and bone marrow samples, were analyzed to elucidate the distribution of ctDNA. Rib bone marrow, pulmonary venous blood (Pul.V) and peripheral blood (Peri.B) were obtained from 30 patients. The liquid samples were divided into cell pellets and supernatant by centrifugation; a total of 212 DNA samples were subjected to massively parallel sequencing...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938521/beneficial-health-applications-and-medicinal-values-of-pedicularis-plants-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Mohd Iqbal Yatoo, Umesh Dimri, Arumugam Gopalakrishnan, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Marappan Gopi, Rekha Khandia, Mani Saminathan, Archana Saxena, Mahmoud Alagawany, Mayada Ragab Farag, Ashok Munjal, Kuldeep Dhama
Pedicularis plants (Orobanchaceae), popularly known as lousewort, are found in Asia, Europe, and North America, and have been used in Sowa-Rigpa, the Himalayan art of healing and a traditional system of medicine for treating various ailments in humans. A comprehensive compilation on this valuable medicinal plant is not available, however. The present extensive review provides insight into the salient medicinal properties of Pedicularis plants with respect to various health issues and diseases. Our previous studies on Pedicularis plants from the Changthang region of Ladakh (India) and research advances leading to new developments in this field have prompted this review...
September 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937589/viral-cellular-dna-junctions-as-molecular-markers-for-assessing-intra-tumor-heterogeneity-in-cervical-cancer-and-for-the-detection-of-circulating-tumor-dna
#8
Katrin Carow, Mandy Gölitz, Maria Wolf, Norman Häfner, Lars Jansen, Heike Hoyer, Elisabeth Schwarz, Ingo B Runnebaum, Matthias Dürst
The development of cervical cancer is frequently accompanied by the integration of human papillomaviruses (HPV) DNA into the host genome. Viral-cellular junction sequences, which arise in consequence, are highly tumor specific. By using these fragments as markers for tumor cell origin, we examined cervical cancer clonality in the context of intra-tumor heterogeneity. Moreover, we assessed the potential of these fragments as molecular tumor markers and analyzed their suitability for the detection of circulating tumor DNA in sera of cervical cancer patients...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935443/complex-formation-with-protamine-prolongs-the-thrombin-inhibiting-effect-of-dna-aptamer-in-vivo
#9
V A Spiridonova, T M Novikova, D M Nikulina, T A Shishkina, E V Golubkina, O S Dyukareva, N N Trizno
Antithrombin DNA aptamersRE31 are single-chain oligonucleotides that fold into three-dimensional forms allowing them to bind the enzyme with high affinity and inhibit its activity in vivo. They are rapidly degraded by a nonspecific nuclease, and, to prolong the lifetime of the aptamer DNA in the bloodstream, it is necessary to coat it with a polymer envelope. A new approach to solving this problem based on preparation of DNA-polyelectrolyte complexes with a minimal particle size that can circulate with blood flow...
September 18, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934858/metabolism-nutrition-and-redox-signaling-of-hydroxyproline
#10
Zhenlong Wu, Yongqing Hou, Zhaolai Dai, Chien-An Hu, Guoyao Wu
SIGNIFICANCE: Hydroxyproline is a structurally and physiologically important imino acid in animals. It is provided from diets and endogenous synthesis, and its conversion into glycine is enhances the production of glutathione, DNA, heme, and protein. Furthermore, oxidation of hydroxyproline by hydroxyproline oxidase plays an important role in cell antioxidative reactions, survival, and homeostasis. Understanding the mechanisms whereby hydroxyproline participates in metabolism and cell signaling can improve the nutrition and health of animals and humans...
September 21, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934316/pathogenesis-of-oral-fiv-infection
#11
Craig Miller, Karen Boegler, Scott Carver, Martha MacMillan, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Sue VandeWoude
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is the feline analogue of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and features many hallmarks of HIV infection and pathogenesis, including the development of concurrent oral lesions. While HIV is typically transmitted via parenteral transmucosal contact, recent studies prove that oral transmission can occur, and that saliva from infected individuals contains significant amounts of HIV RNA and DNA. While it is accepted that FIV is primarily transmitted by biting, few studies have evaluated FIV oral infection kinetics and transmission mechanisms over the last 20 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932211/strain-level-streptococcus-colonization-patterns-during-the-first-year-of-life
#12
Meredith S Wright, Jamison McCorrison, Andres M Gomez, Erin Beck, Derek Harkins, Jyoti Shankar, Stephanie Mounaud, Edelwisa Segubre-Mercado, Aileen May R Mojica, Brian Bacay, Susan A Nzenze, Sheila Z M Kimaro, Peter Adrian, Keith P Klugman, Marilla G Lucero, Karen E Nelson, Shabir Madhi, Granger G Sutton, William C Nierman, Liliana Losada
Pneumococcal pneumonia has decreased significantly since the implementation of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), nevertheless, in many developing countries pneumonia mortality in infants remains high. We have undertaken a study of the nasopharyngeal (NP) microbiome during the first year of life in infants from The Philippines and South Africa. The study entailed the determination of the Streptococcus sp. carriage using a lytA qPCR assay, whole metagenomic sequencing, and in silico serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as 16S rRNA amplicon based community profiling...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931080/low-serum-level-of-mir-485-3p-predicts-poor-survival-in-patients-with-glioblastoma
#13
Zhi-Qiang Wang, Mei-Yin Zhang, Mei-Ling Deng, Nuo-Qing Weng, Hui-Yun Wang, Shao-Xiong Wu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that play critical roles in human malignancies and can be used as biomarkers for cancer. Until now, a number of biomarkers for prognosis of glioblastoma (GBM) have been reported in tumor tissues but only a few biomarkers in circulating fluid. Using a custom microarray, we previously identified 19 differentially expressed miRNAs in serum of patients with GBM. In this study, we investigated whether 3 of the 19 miRNAs in serum could be used as prognostic biomarkers for patients with GBM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927817/development-and-evaluation-of-a-two-step-multiplex-taqman-real-time-pcr-assay-for-detection-quantification-of-different-genospecies-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato
#14
Mónica Nunes, Ricardo Parreira, Teresa Carreira, João Inácio, Maria Luísa Vieira
Nowadays, at least four clinically important B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) genospecies (B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) and B. lusitaniae) circulate in Portugal. Each genospecies has a different tropism that resuls in a diverse array of clinical manifestations. The standard diagnostic procedure used is normally simple, nevertheless, during the "window-period" phase, in which specific antibodies cannot yet be detected, diagnosis becomes difficult, and calls for reliable, sensitive and specific laboratory methods, such as molecular tests...
September 11, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927427/first-molecular-detection-and-characterization-of-zoonotic-bartonella-species-in-fleas-infesting-domestic-animals-in-tunisia
#15
Saba Zouari, Fatma Khrouf, Youmna M'ghirbi, Ali Bouattour
BACKGROUND: Bartonellosis is an emerging vector-borne disease caused by different intracellular bacteria of the genus Bartonella (Rhizobiales: Bartonellaceae) that is transmitted primarily by blood-sucking arthropods such as sandflies, ticks and fleas. In Tunisia, there are no data available identifying the vectors of Bartonella spp. In our research, we used molecular methods to detect and characterize Bartonella species circulating in fleas collected from domestic animals in several of the country's bioclimatic areas...
September 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925386/5-hydroxymethylcytosine-signatures-in-circulating-cell-free-dna-as-diagnostic-biomarkers-for-human-cancers
#16
Wenshuai Li, Xu Zhang, Xingyu Lu, Lei You, Yanqun Song, Zhongguang Luo, Jun Zhang, Ji Nie, Wanwei Zheng, Diannan Xu, Yaping Wang, Yuanqiang Dong, Shulin Yu, Jun Hong, Jianping Shi, Hankun Hao, Fen Luo, Luchun Hua, Peng Wang, Xiaoping Qian, Fang Yuan, Lianhuan Wei, Ming Cui, Taiping Zhang, Quan Liao, Menghua Dai, Ziwen Liu, Ge Chen, Katherine Meckel, Sarbani Adhikari, Guifang Jia, Marc B Bissonnette, Xinxiang Zhang, Yupei Zhao, Wei Zhang, Chuan He, Jie Liu
DNA modifications such as 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) are epigenetic marks known to affect global gene expression in mammals. Given their prevalence in the human genome, close correlation with gene expression and high chemical stability, these DNA epigenetic marks could serve as ideal biomarkers for cancer diagnosis. Taking advantage of a highly sensitive and selective chemical labeling technology, we report here the genome-wide profiling of 5hmC in circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and in genomic DNA (gDNA) of paired tumor and adjacent tissues collected from a cohort of 260 patients recently diagnosed with colorectal, gastric, pancreatic, liver or thyroid cancer and normal tissues from 90 healthy individuals...
September 19, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924318/pre-eclampsia-molecular-events-to-biomarkers
#17
REVIEW
Kavita Sahai, Seema Saraswathy, Tribhuvan Pal Yadav, Devendra Arora, Manu Krishnan
Pre-eclampsia is a hypertensive disorder in pregnancy, which accounts for 10-15% of the maternal and perinatal mortality worldwide. Abnormal placental development and tissue hypoxia are its main etiologic factors. The present diagnostic methods of blood pressure monitoring and renal function evaluation are insufficient in the early detection of pre-eclampsia. Since molecular events portent well ahead of the disease onset, biomarker research for the early diagnosis of pre-eclampsia has recently generated ambitious clinical targets...
April 2017: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921895/genetic-characterization-of-african-swine-fever-virus-isolates-from-soft-ticks-at-the-wildlife-domestic-interface-in-mozambique-and-identification-of-a-novel-genotype
#18
C J Quembo, F Jori, W Vosloo, L Heath
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is one of the most threatening infectious diseases of pigs. There are not sufficient data to indicate the importance of the sylvatic cycle in the spread and maintenance of the disease locally and potentially, globally. To assess the capacity to maintain ASF in the environment, we investigated the presence of soft tickreservoirs of ASFV in Gorongosa National Park (GNP) and its surrounding villages. A total of 1,658 soft ticks were recovered from warthog burrows and pig pens at the wildlife/livestock interface of the GNP and viral DNA was confirmed by nested PCR in 19% of Ornithodoros porcinus porcinus and 15% of O...
September 17, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919484/lung-cancer-epigenetics-from-knowledge-to-applications
#19
REVIEW
Michaël Duruisseaux, Manel Esteller
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Advances in our understanding of the genomics of lung cancer have led to substantial progress in the treatment of specific molecular subsets. Immunotherapy also emerges as a major breakthrough in lung cancer treatment. However, challenges remain as a consensual approach for early lung cancer detection remains elusive while primary or secondary drug resistance eventually leads to treatment failure in all patients with advanced disease. Furthermore, a large portion of patients are still treated with conventional chemotherapy that is only modestly effective...
September 14, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915599/copy-number-variations-of-circulating-cell-free-dna-in-urothelial-carcinoma-of-the-bladder-patients-treated-with-radical-cystectomy-a-prospective-study
#20
Armin Soave, Felix K-H Chun, Timo Hillebrand, Michael Rink, Lars Weisbach, Bettina Steinbach, Margit Fisch, Klaus Pantel, Heidi Schwarzenbach
The aim of the present study was to establish a rapid profiling method using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and characterize copy number variations (CNV) in circulating, cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in 85 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC). MLPA was tested for the use of cfDNA extracted from serum and plasma by various commercial extraction kits. Eighteen probes served as reference to control denaturation, ligation and amplification efficiency...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
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