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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348427/multi-stage-volcanic-island-flank-collapses-with-coeval-explosive-caldera-forming-eruptions
#1
James E Hunt, Michael Cassidy, Peter J Talling
Volcanic flank collapses and explosive eruptions are among the largest and most destructive processes on Earth. Events at Mount St. Helens in May 1980 demonstrated how a relatively small (<5 km3) flank collapse on a terrestrial volcano could immediately precede a devastating eruption. The lateral collapse of volcanic island flanks, such as in the Canary Islands, can be far larger (>300 km3), but can also occur in complex multiple stages. Here, we show that multistage retrogressive landslides on Tenerife triggered explosive caldera-forming eruptions, including the Diego Hernandez, Guajara and Ucanca caldera eruptions...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340961/metabolic-syndrome-and-its-components-among-korean-submariners-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#2
Jihun Kang, Yun-Mi Song
PURPOSE: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of inter-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Although submariners tend to be exposed to unhealthy environmental factors, such as a confined work environment, physical inactivity, and circadian disruption, little is known regarding whether the risks of MetS and its components are associated with submarine service. The present study aimed to evaluate the risks of MetS and its components among submariners. METHODS: A total of 5090 subjects (513 submariners and 4577 non-submariners) were included in the present study...
January 16, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326974/the-largest-deep-ocean-silicic-volcanic-eruption-of-the-past-century
#3
Rebecca Carey, S Adam Soule, Michael Manga, James White, Jocelyn McPhie, Richard Wysoczanski, Martin Jutzeler, Kenichiro Tani, Dana Yoerger, Daniel Fornari, Fabio Caratori-Tontini, Bruce Houghton, Samuel Mitchell, Fumihiko Ikegami, Chris Conway, Arran Murch, Kristen Fauria, Meghan Jones, Ryan Cahalan, Warren McKenzie
The 2012 submarine eruption of Havre volcano in the Kermadec arc, New Zealand, is the largest deep-ocean eruption in history and one of very few recorded submarine eruptions involving rhyolite magma. It was recognized from a gigantic 400-km2 pumice raft seen in satellite imagery, but the complexity of this event was concealed beneath the sea surface. Mapping, observations, and sampling by submersibles have provided an exceptionally high fidelity record of the seafloor products, which included lava sourced from 14 vents at water depths of 900 to 1220 m, and fragmental deposits including giant pumice clasts up to 9 m in diameter...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311714/aeromagnetic-anomalies-reveal-the-link-between-magmatism-and-tectonics-during-the-early-formation-of-the-canary-islands
#4
Isabel Blanco-Montenegro, Fuensanta G Montesinos, José Arnoso
The 3-D inverse modelling of a magnetic anomaly measured over the NW submarine edifice of the volcanic island of Gran Canaria revealed a large, reversely-magnetized, elongated structure following an ENE-WSW direction, which we interpreted as a sill-like magmatic intrusion emplaced during the submarine growth of this volcanic island, with a volume that could represent up to about 20% of the whole island. The elongated shape of this body suggests the existence of a major crustal fracture in the central part of the Canary Archipelago which would have favoured the rapid ascent and emplacement of magmas during a time span from 0...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310121/a-record-of-deep-ocean-dissolved-o2-from-the-oxidation-state-of-iron-in-submarine-basalts
#5
Daniel A Stolper, C Brenhin Keller
The oxygenation of the deep ocean in the geological past has been associated with a rise in the partial pressure of atmospheric molecular oxygen (O2) to near-present levels and the emergence of modern marine biogeochemical cycles. It has also been linked to the origination and diversification of early animals. It is generally thought that the deep ocean was largely anoxic from about 2,500 to 800 million years ago, with estimates of the occurrence of deep-ocean oxygenation and the linked increase in the partial pressure of atmospheric oxygen to levels sufficient for this oxygenation ranging from about 800 to 400 million years ago...
January 3, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300784/exceptional-discovery-of-a-shallow-water-hydrothermal-site-in-the-sw-area-of-basiluzzo-islet-aeolian-archipelago-south-tyrrhenian-sea-an-environment-to-preserve
#6
Valentina Esposito, Franco Andaloro, Simonepietro Canese, Giovanni Bortoluzzi, Marzia Bo, Marcella Di Bella, Francesco Italiano, Giuseppe Sabatino, Pietro Battaglia, Pierpaolo Consoli, Patrizia Giordano, Federico Spagnoli, Violetta La Cono, Michail M Yakimov, Gianfranco Scotti, Teresa Romeo
The geological, biological and geochemical features of a particular field of hydrothermal vents, discovered in the Panarea Volcanic Complex during a research survey carried out in 2015, are described for the first time. The site, located at 70-80 m depth off the South-western coast of the islet of Basiluzzo, was named Smoking Land for the presence of a large number of wide and high active chimneys and was characterized in terms of dissolved benthic fluxes, associated macrofauna and megafauna communities and preliminary mineralogy and geochemistry of chimney structures...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299632/influence-of-coastal-submarine-groundwater-discharges-on-seagrass-communities-in-a-subtropical-karstic-environment
#7
C A Kantún-Manzano, J A Herrera-Silveira, F Arcega-Cabrera
The influence of coastal submarine groundwater discharges (SGD) on the distribution and abundance of seagrass meadows was investigated. In 2012, hydrological variability, nutrient variability in sediments and the biotic characteristics of two seagrass beds, one with SGD present and one without, were studied. Findings showed that SGD inputs were related with one dominant seagrass species. To further understand this, a generalized additive model (GAM) was used to explore the relationship between seagrass biomass and environment conditions (water and sediment variables)...
January 3, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287616/the-distribution-of-benthic-foraminifera-in-bel-torrente-submarine-cave-sardinia-italy-and-their-environmental-significance
#8
Elena Romano, Luisa Bergamin, Giancarlo Pierfranceschi, Claudio Provenzani, Andrea Marassich
The use of benthic foraminifera as ecological indicators in submarine caves of temperate seas have never been studied before and it represents a new approach, verified by this research. The Bel Torrente submarine cave (Gulf of Orosei, Sardinia, Italy) was surveyed by GUE (Global Underwater Explorers) scuba divers in order to georeferencing the cave before positioning the sampling stations, from the entrance to 430 m inside the cave. A total of 15 water samples were collected to investigate abiotic parameters (temperature, salinity, pH) while 15 sediment samples were collected to analyze grain size and benthic foraminifera...
December 20, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233984/prodigious-submarine-landslides-during-the-inception-and-early-growth-of-volcanic-islands
#9
James E Hunt, Ian Jarvis
Volcanic island inception applies large stresses as the ocean crust domes in response to magma ascension and is loaded by eruption of lavas. There is currently limited information on when volcanic islands are initiated on the seafloor, and no information regarding the seafloor instabilities island inception may cause. The deep sea Madeira Abyssal Plain contains a 43 million year history of turbidites among which many originate from mass movements in the Canary Islands. Here, we investigate the composition and timing of a distinctive group of turbidites that we suggest represent a new unique record of large-volume submarine landslides triggered during the inception, submarine shield growth, and final subaerial emergence of the Canary Islands...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205750/spatially-distinct-temporally-stable-microbial-populations-mediate-biogeochemical-cycling-at-and-below-the-seafloor-in-hydrothermal-vent-fluids
#10
Caroline S Fortunato, Benjamin Larson, David A Butterfield, Julie A Huber
At deep-sea hydrothermal vents, microbial communities thrive across geochemical gradients above, at, and below the seafloor. In this study, we determined the gene content and transcription patterns of microbial communities and specific populations to understand the taxonomy and metabolism both spatially and temporally across geochemically different diffuse fluid hydrothermal vents. Vent fluids were examined via metagenomic, metatranscriptomic, genomic binning, and geochemical analyses from Axial Seamount, an active submarine volcano on the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the NE Pacific Ocean, from 2013-2015 at three different vents: Anemone, Marker 33, and Marker 113...
December 4, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195122/norwegian-monitoring-1990-2015-of-the-marine-environment-around-the-sunken-nuclear-submarine-komsomolets
#11
Justin P Gwynn, Hilde Elise Heldal, Janita K Flo, Ingrid Sværen, Torbjörn Gäfvert, Hallvard Haanes, Lars Føyn, Anne Liv Rudjord
Norway has monitored the marine environment around the sunken Russian nuclear submarine Komsomolets since 1990. This study presents an overview of 25 years of Norwegian monitoring data (1990-2015). Komsomolets sank in 1989 at a depth of 1680 m in the Norwegian Sea while carrying two nuclear torpedoes in its armament. Subsequent Soviet and Russian expeditions to Komsomolets have shown that releases from the reactor have occurred and that the submarine has suffered considerable damage to its hulls. Norwegian monitoring detected 134Cs in surface sediments around Komsomolets in 1993 and 1994 and elevated activity concentrations of 137Cs in bottom seawater between 1991 and 1993...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134193/snowball-earth-climate-dynamics-and-cryogenian-geology-geobiology
#12
Paul F Hoffman, Dorian S Abbot, Yosef Ashkenazy, Douglas I Benn, Jochen J Brocks, Phoebe A Cohen, Grant M Cox, Jessica R Creveling, Yannick Donnadieu, Douglas H Erwin, Ian J Fairchild, David Ferreira, Jason C Goodman, Galen P Halverson, Malte F Jansen, Guillaume Le Hir, Gordon D Love, Francis A Macdonald, Adam C Maloof, Camille A Partin, Gilles Ramstein, Brian E J Rose, Catherine V Rose, Peter M Sadler, Eli Tziperman, Aiko Voigt, Stephen G Warren
Geological evidence indicates that grounded ice sheets reached sea level at all latitudes during two long-lived Cryogenian (58 and ≥5 My) glaciations. Combined uranium-lead and rhenium-osmium dating suggests that the older (Sturtian) glacial onset and both terminations were globally synchronous. Geochemical data imply that CO2 was 10(2) PAL (present atmospheric level) at the younger termination, consistent with a global ice cover. Sturtian glaciation followed breakup of a tropical supercontinent, and its onset coincided with the equatorial emplacement of a large igneous province...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131405/the-role-of-interfaces-in-polyethylene-metal-oxide-nanocomposites-for-ultrahigh-voltage-insulating-materials
#13
REVIEW
Amir Masoud Pourrahimi, Richard T Olsson, Mikael S Hedenqvist
Recent progress in the development of polyethylene/metal-oxide nanocomposites for extruded high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) cables with ultrahigh electric insulation properties is presented. This is a promising technology with the potential of raising the upper voltage limit in today's underground/submarine cables, based on pristine polyethylene, to levels where the loss of energy during electric power transmission becomes low enough to ensure intercontinental electric power transmission. The development of HVDC insulating materials together with the impact of the interface between the particles and the polymer on the nanocomposites electric properties are shown...
November 13, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099624/pelvic-restraint-cushion-sled-test-evaluation-of-pelvic-forward-motion
#14
Greg Shaw, David Lessley, Joseph Ash, Salvador Acosta, Sara Heltzel, Patrick Riley, Taewung Kim, Jeff Crandall
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the performance of a pelvic restraint cushion (PRC), a submarining countermeasure that deploys under the thighs when a crash is detected in order to block the forward motion of the pelvis. METHODS: Sled tests approximating low and high speed frontal impacts were conducted with four PMHS female subjects restrained by a lap and shoulder belt in the right front passenger seat. The subjects were tested with and without a PRC...
November 3, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096952/lingering-radioactivity-at-the-bikini-and-enewetak-atolls
#15
Ken O Buesseler, Matthew A Charette, Steven M Pike, Paul B Henderson, Lauren E Kipp
We made an assessment of the levels of radionuclides in the ocean waters, seafloor and groundwater at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls where the US conducted nuclear weapons tests in the 1940's and 50's. This included the first estimates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) derived from radium isotopes that can be used here to calculate radionuclide fluxes in to the lagoon waters. While there is significant variability between sites and sample types, levels of plutonium ((239,240)Pu) remain several orders of magnitude higher in lagoon seawater and sediments than what is found in rest of the world's oceans...
October 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096312/tracking-major-endocrine-disruptors-in-coastal-waters-using-an-integrative-approach-coupling-field-based-study-and-hydrodynamic-modeling
#16
Elvis Genbo Xu, S N Chan, K W Choi, Joseph H W Lee, Kenneth M Y Leung
Many of the world's large coastal cities discharge partially treated wastewater effluents containing various endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to coastal environments. Nonylphenols (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) were found to be the most abundant EDCs in sewage effluents in Hong Kong. The environmental fate and ecological risk of these two EDCs remains largely unknown, particular for coastal systems with complex hydrodynamic flows. Based on a validated three-dimensional (3D) multiple-scale hydrodynamic model, a field-based study was conducted to track the two EDCs from potential sources to the only marine reserve in Hong Kong...
October 30, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089625/modes-of-carbon-fixation-in-an-arsenic-and-co2-rich-shallow-hydrothermal-ecosystem
#17
Nolwenn Callac, Nicole R Posth, Jayne E Rattray, Kweku K Y Yamoah, Alan Wiech, Magnus Ivarsson, Christoffer Hemmingsson, Stephanos P Kilias, Ariadne Argyraki, Curt Broman, Henrik Skogby, Rienk H Smittenberg, Ernest Chi Fru
The seafloor sediments of Spathi Bay, Milos Island, Greece, are part of the largest arsenic-CO2-rich shallow submarine hydrothermal ecosystem on Earth. Here, white and brown deposits cap chemically distinct sediments with varying hydrothermal influence. All sediments contain abundant genes for autotrophic carbon fixation used in the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) and reverse tricaboxylic acid (rTCA) cycles. Both forms of RuBisCO, together with ATP citrate lyase genes in the rTCA cycle, increase with distance from the active hydrothermal centres and decrease with sediment depth...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081834/magmatic-pulse-driven-by-sea-level-changes-associated-with-the-messinian-salinity-crisis
#18
Pietro Sternai, Luca Caricchi, Daniel Garcia-Castellanos, Laurent Jolivet, Tom E Sheldrake, Sébastien Castelltort
Between 5 and 6 million years ago, during the so-called Messinian salinity crisis, the Mediterranean basin became a giant salt repository. The possibility of abrupt and kilometre-scale sea-level changes during this extreme event is debated. Messinian evaporites could signify either deep- or shallow-marine deposits, and ubiquitous erosional surfaces could indicate either subaerial or submarine features. Significant and fast reductions in sea level unload the lithosphere, which can increase the production and eruption of magma...
October 2017: Nature Geoscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067531/microbial-community-differentiation-between-active-and-inactive-sulfide-chimneys-of-the-kolumbo-submarine-volcano-hellenic-volcanic-arc
#19
Christos A Christakis, Paraskevi N Polymenakou, Manolis Mandalakis, Paraskevi Nomikou, Jon Bent Kristoffersen, Danai Lampridou, Georgios Kotoulas, Antonios Magoulas
Over the last decades, there has been growing interest about the ecological role of hydrothermal sulfide chimneys, their microbial diversity and associated biotechnological potential. Here, we performed dual-index Illumina sequencing of bacterial and archaeal communities on active and inactive sulfide chimneys collected from the Kolumbo hydrothermal field, situated on a geodynamic convergent setting. A total of 15,701 OTUs (operational taxonomic units) were assigned to 56 bacterial and 3 archaeal phyla, 133 bacterial and 16 archaeal classes...
October 25, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052588/corrigendum-bottom-trawling-along-submarine-canyons-impacts-deep-sedimentary-regimes
#20
Sarah Paradis, Pere Puig, Pere Masqué, Xènia Juan-Díaz, Jacobo Martín, Albert Palanques
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/srep43332.
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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