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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205388/hydrogen-or-formate-alternative-key-players-in-methanogenic-degradation
#1
REVIEW
Bernhard Schink, Dominik Montag, Anja Keller, Nicolai Müller
Hydrogen and formate are important electron carriers in methanogenic degradation in anoxic environments such as sediments, sewage sludge digestors, and biogas reactors. Especially in the terminal steps of methanogenesis, they determine the energy budgets of secondary (syntrophically) fermenting bacteria and their methanogenic partners. The literature provides considerable data on hydrogen pool sizes in such habitats, but little data exist for formate concentrations due to technical difficulties in formate determination at low concentration...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193814/two-eyes-for-two-purposes-in-situ-evidence-for-asymmetric-vision-in-the-cockeyed-squids-histioteuthis-heteropsis-and-stigmatoteuthis-dofleini
#2
Kate N Thomas, Bruce H Robison, Sönke Johnsen
The light environment of the mesopelagic realm of the ocean changes with both depth and viewer orientation, and this has probably driven the high diversity of visual adaptations found among its inhabitants. The mesopelagic 'cockeyed' squids of family Histioteuthidae have unusual eyes, as the left and right eyes are dimorphic in size, shape and sometimes lens pigmentation. This dimorphism may be an adaptation to the two different sources of light in the mesopelagic realm, with the large eye oriented upward to view objects silhouetted against the dim, downwelling sunlight and the small eye oriented slightly downward to view bioluminescent point sources...
April 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187671/-i-gobiesox-i-i-lanceolatus-i-a-new-species-of-clingfish-teleostei-%C3%A2-gobiesocidae-from-los-frailes-submarine-canyon-gulf-of-california-mexico
#3
Philip A Hastings, Kevin W Conway
Gobiesox lanceolatus is described from a single specimen collected from 300 meters depth in the Los Frailes submarine canyon in the southwestern Gulf of California. The "Canyon Clingfish" is unique within Gobiesox in having a lanceolate caudal fin, with the central rays longer than those above and below them. It is also distinguished by 14 dorsal-fin rays (first tiny and unsegmented), 11 anal-fin rays, 28 pectoral-fin rays, anus slightly closer to anal-fin origin than to posterior margin of pelvic disc, and dorsal-fin origin in front of vertical from anus...
January 17, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179076/challenges-for-the-wfd-second-management-cycle-after-the-implementation-of-a-regional-multi-municipality-sanitation-system-in-a-coastal-lagoon-ria-de-aveiro-portugal
#4
M L Lopes, B Marques, J M Dias, A M V M Soares, A I Lillebø
In the scope of the first WDF management cycle, a multi-municipality sanitation system with secondary treatment was implemented in 2005 in Ria de Aveiro coastal lagoon, with the treated effluent discharging into the Atlantic Ocean through a submarine outfall. The lagoon water chemical status was evaluated regarding dissolved inorganic nutrients and chlorophyll a before and after 2005. The S. Jacinto outfall has effectively reduced the point source nutrient loads (ammonium and phosphate) into Ria de Aveiro, representing a step forward for the implementation of the WFD, through eutrophication abatement...
February 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169531/branimycins-b-and-c-antibiotics-produced-by-the-abyssal-actinobacterium-pseudonocardia-carboxydivorans-m-227
#5
Alfredo F Braña, Aida Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Ignacio Pérez-Victoria, Luis Otero, Jonathan Fernández, Juan José Palacios, Jesús Martín, Mercedes de la Cruz, Caridad Díaz, Francisca Vicente, Fernando Reyes, Luis A García, Gloria Blanco
Two new antibiotics, branimycins B (2) and C (3), were produced by fermentation of the abyssal actinobacterium Pseudonocardia carboxydivorans M-227, isolated from deep seawater of the Avilés submarine Canyon. Their structures were elucidated by HRMS and NMR analyses. These compounds exhibit antibacterial activities against a panel of Gram-positive bacteria, including Corynebacterium urealyticum, Clostridium perfringens, and Micrococcus luteus, and against the Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria meningitidis...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118968/modelling-dispersal-of-radioactive-contaminants-in-arctic-waters-as-a-result-of-potential-recovery-operations-on-the-dumped-submarine-k-27
#6
M Karcher, A Hosseini, R Schnur, F Kauker, J E Brown, M Dowdall, P Strand
Of the wide variety of dumped objects containing radioactive materials in the Arctic seas, the submarine K-27 constitutes a major risk due to the large amount of highly enriched uranium onboard and its location in shallow waters. As the matter of potential operations involving raising of the submarine have entered the public arena, a priori assessment of the contamination in the Arctic marine environment that could result after a possible accident during such operations is a matter of some interest. The dispersion of contaminants within the Arctic has been assessed using a large scale hydrodynamic model for a series of plausible accident scenarios and locations under different oceanographic regimes...
January 21, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106880/discovery-of-anaerobic-lithoheterotrophic-haloarchaea-ubiquitous-in-hypersaline-habitats
#7
Dimitry Y Sorokin, Enzo Messina, Francesco Smedile, Pawel Roman, Jaap S Sinninghe Damsté, Sergio Ciordia, Maria Carmen Mena, Manuel Ferrer, Peter N Golyshin, Ilya V Kublanov, Nazar I Samarov, Stepan V Toshchakov, Violetta La Cono, Michail M Yakimov
Hypersaline anoxic habitats harbour numerous novel uncultured archaea whose metabolic and ecological roles remain to be elucidated. Until recently, it was believed that energy generation via dissimilatory reduction of sulfur compounds is not functional at salt saturation conditions. Recent discovery of the strictly anaerobic acetotrophic Halanaeroarchaeum compels to change both this assumption and the traditional view on haloarchaea as aerobic heterotrophs. Here we report on isolation and characterization of a novel group of strictly anaerobic lithoheterotrophic haloarchaea, which we propose to classify as a new genus Halodesulfurarchaeum...
January 20, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106741/the-role-of-lipid-membranes-in-life-s-origin
#8
REVIEW
David Deamer
At some point in early evolution, life became cellular. Assuming that this step was required for the origin of life, there would necessarily be a pre-existing source of amphihilic compounds capable of assembling into membranous compartments. It is possible to make informed guesses about the properties of such compounds and the conditions most conducive to their self-assembly into boundary structures. The membranes were likely to incorporate mixtures of hydrocarbon derivatives between 10 and 20 carbons in length with carboxylate or hydroxyl head groups...
January 17, 2017: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088716/unveiling-the-transformation-and-bioavailability-of-dissolved-organic-matter-in-contrasting-hydrothermal-vents-using-fluorescence-eem-parafac
#9
Liyang Yang, Wan-E Zhuang, Chen-Tung Arthur Chen, Bing-Jye Wang, Fu-Wen Kuo
The submarine hydrothermal systems are extreme environments where active cycling of dissolved organic matter (DOM) may occur. However, little is known about the optical properties and bioavailability of hydrothermal DOM, which could provide valuable insights into its transformation processes and biogeochemical reactivity. The quantity, quality, and bioavailability of DOM were investigated for four very different hydrothermal vents east of Taiwan, using dissolved organic carbon (DOC), absorption spectroscopy, and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices-parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC)...
January 3, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065549/an-experimental-investigation-of-underwater-spread-of-oil-spill-in-a-shear-flow
#10
Hongjun Zhu, Jiahui You, Honglei Zhao
The time taken for spilt oil to appear firstly at the sea surface and its location are two key issues for emergency response. The underwater spread of oil spill in a shear flow was studied experimentally in a re-circulating water channel. The high speed imaging technology was employed to record the whole transport process of oil spilt from a leak of a submarine pipe to the surface. Based on the experimental results, three underwater transport types are identified, which are single droplet pattern (model A), linear chain pattern (model B) and oil plume pattern (model C), respectively...
January 5, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036011/a-fiber-optic-interferometric-tri-component-geophone-for-ocean-floor-seismic-monitoring
#11
Jiandong Chen, Tianying Chang, Qunjian Fu, Jinpeng Lang, Wenzhi Gao, Zhongmin Wang, Miao Yu, Yanbo Zhang, Hong-Liang Cui
For the implementation of an all fiber observation network for submarine seismic monitoring, a tri-component geophone based on Michelson interferometry is proposed and tested. A compliant cylinder-based sensor head is analyzed with finite element method and tested. The operation frequency ranges from 2 Hz to 150 Hz for acceleration detection, employing a phase generated carrier demodulation scheme, with a responsivity above 50 dB re rad/g for the whole frequency range. The transverse suppression ratio is about 30 dB...
December 28, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033181/the-evolution-of-pas-in-the-canadian-armed-forces
#12
Jonathan Mertens, Marc Descoteaux
This study documents the growing role of the physician assistant (PA) in the Canadian Armed Forces. PAs have served as the backbone of the Royal Canadian Medical Services' frontline medical operations since 1984, on land, aboard ships and submarines, and domestically in garrison. Candidates begin as medical technicians and receive advanced training to become PAs at midcareer. The current rank of PAs as warrant officers is evolving and a commissioned status is under consideration.
January 2017: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028473/spatio-temporal-monitoring-of-deep-sea-communities-using-metabarcoding-of-sediment-dna-and-rna
#13
Magdalena Guardiola, Owen S Wangensteen, Pierre Taberlet, Eric Coissac, María Jesús Uriz, Xavier Turon
We assessed spatio-temporal patterns of diversity in deep-sea sediment communities using metabarcoding. We chose a recently developed eukaryotic marker based on the v7 region of the 18S rRNA gene. Our study was performed in a submarine canyon and its adjacent slope in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, sampled along a depth gradient at two different seasons. We found a total of 5,569 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs), dominated by Metazoa, Alveolata and Rhizaria. Among metazoans, Nematoda, Arthropoda and Annelida were the most diverse...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024218/estimation-of-coastal-residence-time-of-submarine-groundwater-discharge-using-radium-progenies
#14
G Eleftheriou, C Tsabaris, D L Patiris, E G Androulakaki, R Vlastou
A methodology based on γ-spectrometry measurements of untreated coastal water samples is proposed for the direct estimation of coastal residence time of submarine discharged groundwater. The method was applied to a submarine spring at Stoupa Bay covering all seasons. The estimated residence time exhibited an annual mean of 4.6±1.7 d. An additional measurement using the in situ underwater γ-spectrometry technique was performed, in the same site. The in situ method yielded a value of 2.8±0.2 d that was found consistent with the corresponding value derived using the developed lab-based method (3...
March 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983475/calorithrix-insularis-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-novel-representative-of-the-phylum-calditrichaeota
#15
Elena I Kompantseva, Ilya V Kublanov, Anna A Perevalova, Nikolay A Chernyh, Stepan V Toshchakov, Yuriy V Litti, Alexey N Antipov, Elizaveta A Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Margarita L Miroshnichenko
A moderately thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium designated as strain KRT was isolated from a shallow water submarine hydrothermal vent (Kunashir Island, Southern Kurils, Russia). Cells of the strain KRT were thin (0.2-0.3 µm), flexible, motile, Gram-negative rods of variable length. Optimal growth conditions: pH 6.6, 55°C, 1-3% (w/v) NaCl. Strain KRT was able to ferment a wide range of proteinaceous substrates, pyruvate, mono-, di- and polysaccharides. The best growth occurred with proteinaceous compounds...
December 16, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980204/seismic-constraints-on-caldera-dynamics-from-the-2015-axial-seamount-eruption
#16
William S D Wilcock, Maya Tolstoy, Felix Waldhauser, Charles Garcia, Yen Joe Tan, DelWayne R Bohnenstiehl, Jacqueline Caplan-Auerbach, Robert P Dziak, Adrien F Arnulf, M Everett Mann
Seismic observations in volcanically active calderas are challenging. A new cabled observatory atop Axial Seamount on the Juan de Fuca ridge allows unprecedented real-time monitoring of a submarine caldera. Beginning on 24 April 2015, the seismic network captured an eruption that culminated in explosive acoustic signals where lava erupted on the seafloor. Extensive seismic activity preceding the eruption shows that inflation is accommodated by the reactivation of an outward-dipping caldera ring fault, with strong tidal triggering indicating a critically stressed system...
December 16, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936425/did-a-lucky-shot-sink-the-submarine-h-l-hunley
#17
Rachel M Lance, Henry Warder, Cameron R Dale Bass
The H.L. Hunley was the first submarine to be successful in combat, sinking the Union vessel Housatonic outside Charleston Harbor in 1864 during the Civil War. However, despite marking a milestone in military history, little is known about this vessel or why it sank. One popular theory is the "lucky shot" theory: the hypothesis that small arms fire from the crew of the Housatonic may have sufficiently damaged the submarine to sink it. However, ballistic experiments with cast iron samples, analysis of historical experiments firing Civil War-era projectiles at cast iron samples, and calculation of the tidal currents and sinking trajectory of the submarine indicate that this theory is not likely...
December 2, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931878/impacts-on-the-marine-environment-in-the-case-of-a-hypothetical-accident-involving-the-recovery-of-the-dumped-russian-submarine-k-27-based-on-dispersion-of-137-cs
#18
A Hosseini, I Amundsen, J Brown, M Dowdall, M Karcher, F Kauker, R Schnur
There is increasing concern regarding the issue of dumped nuclear waste in the Arctic Seas and in particular dumped objects with Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). Amongst dumped objects in the Arctic, the dumped Russian submarine K-27 has received great attention as it contains two reactors with highly enriched fuel and lies at a depth of about 30 m under water. To address these concerns a health and environmental impact assessment has been undertaken. Marine dispersion of potentially released radionuclides as a consequence of different hypothetical accident scenarios was modelled using the model NAOSIM...
February 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931867/the-use-of-wide-band-transmittance-imaging-to-size-and-classify-suspended-particulate-matter-in-seawater
#19
E J Davies, P J Brandvik, F Leirvik, R Nepstad
An in situ particle imaging system for measurement of high concentrations of suspended particles ranging from 30μm to several mm in diameter, is presented. The system obtains quasi-silhouettes of particles suspended within an open-path sample volume of up to 5cm in length. Benchmarking against spherical standards and the LISST-100 show good agreement, providing confidence in measurements from the system when extending beyond the size, concentration and particle classification capabilities of the LISST-100...
December 5, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917071/a-distinct-source-and-differentiation-history-for-kolumbo-submarine-volcano-santorini-volcanic-field-aegean-arc
#20
Martijn Klaver, Steven Carey, Paraskevi Nomikou, Ingrid Smet, Athanasios Godelitsas, Pieter Vroon
This study reports the first detailed geochemical characterization of Kolumbo submarine volcano in order to investigate the role of source heterogeneity in controlling geochemical variability within the Santorini volcanic field in the central Aegean arc. Kolumbo, situated 15 km to the northeast of Santorini, last erupted in 1650 AD and is thus closely associated with the Santorini volcanic system in space and time. Samples taken by remotely-operated vehicle that were analyzed for major element, trace element and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotope composition include the 1650 AD and underlying K2 rhyolitic, enclave-bearing pumices that are nearly identical in composition (73 wt...
August 2016: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems: G³
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