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Paul F Hoffman, Dorian S Abbot, Yosef Ashkenazy, Douglas I Benn, Jochen J Brocks, Phoebe A Cohen, Grant M Cox, Jessica R Creveling, Yannick Donnadieu, Douglas H Erwin, Ian J Fairchild, David Ferreira, Jason C Goodman, Galen P Halverson, Malte F Jansen, Guillaume Le Hir, Gordon D Love, Francis A Macdonald, Adam C Maloof, Camille A Partin, Gilles Ramstein, Brian E J Rose, Catherine V Rose, Peter M Sadler, Eli Tziperman, Aiko Voigt, Stephen G Warren
Geological evidence indicates that grounded ice sheets reached sea level at all latitudes during two long-lived Cryogenian (58 and ≥5 My) glaciations. Combined uranium-lead and rhenium-osmium dating suggests that the older (Sturtian) glacial onset and both terminations were globally synchronous. Geochemical data imply that CO2 was 10(2) PAL (present atmospheric level) at the younger termination, consistent with a global ice cover. Sturtian glaciation followed breakup of a tropical supercontinent, and its onset coincided with the equatorial emplacement of a large igneous province...
November 2017: Science Advances
Amir Masoud Pourrahimi, Richard T Olsson, Mikael S Hedenqvist
Recent progress in the development of polyethylene/metal-oxide nanocomposites for extruded high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) cables with ultrahigh electric insulation properties is presented. This is a promising technology with the potential of raising the upper voltage limit in today's underground/submarine cables, based on pristine polyethylene, to levels where the loss of energy during electric power transmission becomes low enough to ensure intercontinental electric power transmission. The development of HVDC insulating materials together with the impact of the interface between the particles and the polymer on the nanocomposites electric properties are shown...
November 13, 2017: Advanced Materials
Greg Shaw, David Lessley, Joseph Ash, Salvador Acosta, Sara Heltzel, Patrick Riley, Taewung Kim, Jeff Crandall
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the performance of a pelvic restraint cushion (PRC), a submarining countermeasure that deploys under the thighs when a crash is detected in order to block the forward motion of the pelvis. METHODS: Sled tests approximating low and high speed frontal impacts were conducted with four PMHS female subjects restrained by a lap and shoulder belt in the right front passenger seat. The subjects were tested with and without a PRC...
November 3, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Ken O Buesseler, Matthew A Charette, Steven M Pike, Paul B Henderson, Lauren E Kipp
We made an assessment of the levels of radionuclides in the ocean waters, seafloor and groundwater at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls where the US conducted nuclear weapons tests in the 1940's and 50's. This included the first estimates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) derived from radium isotopes that can be used here to calculate radionuclide fluxes in to the lagoon waters. While there is significant variability between sites and sample types, levels of plutonium ((239,240)Pu) remain several orders of magnitude higher in lagoon seawater and sediments than what is found in rest of the world's oceans...
October 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Elvis Genbo Xu, S N Chan, K W Choi, Joseph H W Lee, Kenneth M Y Leung
Many of the world's large coastal cities discharge partially treated wastewater effluents containing various endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to coastal environments. Nonylphenols (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) were found to be the most abundant EDCs in sewage effluents in Hong Kong. The environmental fate and ecological risk of these two EDCs remains largely unknown, particular for coastal systems with complex hydrodynamic flows. Based on a validated three-dimensional (3D) multiple-scale hydrodynamic model, a field-based study was conducted to track the two EDCs from potential sources to the only marine reserve in Hong Kong...
October 30, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Nolwenn Callac, Nicole R Posth, Jayne E Rattray, Kweku K Y Yamoah, Alan Wiech, Magnus Ivarsson, Christoffer Hemmingsson, Stephanos P Kilias, Ariadne Argyraki, Curt Broman, Henrik Skogby, Rienk H Smittenberg, Ernest Chi Fru
The seafloor sediments of Spathi Bay, Milos Island, Greece, are part of the largest arsenic-CO2-rich shallow submarine hydrothermal ecosystem on Earth. Here, white and brown deposits cap chemically distinct sediments with varying hydrothermal influence. All sediments contain abundant genes for autotrophic carbon fixation used in the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) and reverse tricaboxylic acid (rTCA) cycles. Both forms of RuBisCO, together with ATP citrate lyase genes in the rTCA cycle, increase with distance from the active hydrothermal centres and decrease with sediment depth...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Pietro Sternai, Luca Caricchi, Daniel Garcia-Castellanos, Laurent Jolivet, Tom E Sheldrake, Sébastien Castelltort
Between 5 and 6 million years ago, during the so-called Messinian salinity crisis, the Mediterranean basin became a giant salt repository. The possibility of abrupt and kilometre-scale sea-level changes during this extreme event is debated. Messinian evaporites could signify either deep- or shallow-marine deposits, and ubiquitous erosional surfaces could indicate either subaerial or submarine features. Significant and fast reductions in sea level unload the lithosphere, which can increase the production and eruption of magma...
October 2017: Nature Geoscience
Christos A Christakis, Paraskevi N Polymenakou, Manolis Mandalakis, Paraskevi Nomikou, Jon Bent Kristoffersen, Danai Lampridou, Georgios Kotoulas, Antonios Magoulas
Over the last decades, there has been growing interest about the ecological role of hydrothermal sulfide chimneys, their microbial diversity and associated biotechnological potential. Here, we performed dual-index Illumina sequencing of bacterial and archaeal communities on active and inactive sulfide chimneys collected from the Kolumbo hydrothermal field, situated on a geodynamic convergent setting. A total of 15,701 OTUs (operational taxonomic units) were assigned to 56 bacterial and 3 archaeal phyla, 133 bacterial and 16 archaeal classes...
October 25, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Sarah Paradis, Pere Puig, Pere Masqué, Xènia Juan-Díaz, Jacobo Martín, Albert Palanques
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/srep43332.
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jigang Wang, Qian Liu, Jinmin Chen, Hongzhe Chen, Hui Lin, Xiuwu Sun
A mass balance of total mercury (HgT, dissolved+particulate) is constructed for China's Jiulong River estuary based on measured HgT concentrations in the surface water, sediment, porewater, and groundwater for May, August, and November 2009, combined with data from the literature. The HgT mass budget results show that the dominant source (39-55%) is desulfurized seawater discharged from the Songyu coal-fired power plant. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD)-derived HgT flux into the estuary is equivalent to 8-58% of the HgT input from the Jiulong River, which is remarkable when compared with SGD-derived HgT fluxes reported in coastal systems worldwide...
October 14, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Matthew A Charette, Phoebe J Lam, Maeve C Lohan, Eun Young Kwon, Vanessa Hatje, Catherine Jeandel, Alan M Shiller, Gregory A Cutter, Alex Thomas, Philip W Boyd, William B Homoky, Angela Milne, Helmuth Thomas, Per S Andersson, Don Porcelli, Takahiro Tanaka, Walter Geibert, Frank Dehairs, Jordi Garcia-Orellana
Continental shelves and shelf seas play a central role in the global carbon cycle. However, their importance with respect to trace element and isotope (TEI) inputs to ocean basins is less well understood. Here, we present major findings on shelf TEI biogeochemistry from the GEOTRACES programme as well as a proof of concept for a new method to estimate shelf TEI fluxes. The case studies focus on advances in our understanding of TEI cycling in the Arctic, transformations within a major river estuary (Amazon), shelf sediment micronutrient fluxes and basin-scale estimates of submarine groundwater discharge...
November 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Catherine Jeandel
Land to ocean transfer of material largely controls the chemical composition of seawater and the global element cycles. Oceanic isotopic budgets of chemical species, macro- and micronutrients (e.g. Nd, Sr, Si, Mg, Zn, Mo and Ni) have revealed an imbalance between their sources and sinks. Radiogenic isotope budgets underlined the importance of taking into account continental margins as a source of elements to oceans. They also highlighted that the net land-ocean inputs of chemical species probably result from particle-dissolved exchange processes, named 'Boundary Exchange'...
November 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Enrique Lozano-Bilbao, Ángel José Gutiérrez, Arturo Hardisson, Carmen Rubio, Dailos González-Weller, Natacha Aguilar, Alejandro Escánez, José María Espinosa, Paula Canales, Gonzalo Lozano
This work investigates whether a submarine volcanic eruption off El Hierro (Canary Islands) in October 2011 influenced the metal contents of two deep water cephalopod species: Abraliopsis morisii and Pyroteuthis margaritifera. This was assessed by comparing metal contents in specimens collected off the island of El Hierro and in the neighbouring islands of La Palma and Tenerife during an experimental deep water fishing trip. The concentration of 20 heavy metals was analyzed in 180 specimens of A. morisii and P...
October 12, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Michael L Wong, Benjamin D Charnay, Peter Gao, Yuk L Yung, Michael J Russell
We quantify the amount of nitrogen oxides (NOx) produced through lightning and photochemical processes in the Hadean atmosphere to be available in the Hadean ocean for the emergence of life. Atmospherically generated nitrate (NO3(-)) and nitrite (NO2(-)) are the most attractive high-potential electron acceptors for pulling and enabling crucial redox reactions of autotrophic metabolic pathways at submarine alkaline hydrothermal vents. The Hadean atmosphere, dominated by CO2 and N2, will produce nitric oxide (NO) when shocked by lightning...
October 12, 2017: Astrobiology
Maria Azpiroz-Zabala, Matthieu J B Cartigny, Peter J Talling, Daniel R Parsons, Esther J Sumner, Michael A Clare, Stephen M Simmons, Cortis Cooper, Ed L Pope
Seabed-hugging flows called turbidity currents are the volumetrically most important process transporting sediment across our planet and form its largest sediment accumulations. We seek to understand the internal structure and behavior of turbidity currents by reanalyzing the most detailed direct measurements yet of velocities and densities within oceanic turbidity currents, obtained from weeklong flows in the Congo Canyon. We provide a new model for turbidity current structure that can explain why these are far more prolonged than all previously monitored oceanic turbidity currents, which lasted for only hours or minutes at other locations...
October 2017: Science Advances
Aaron P J Roberts, Neville A Stanton, Daniel Fay
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to use multiple command teams to provide empirical evidence for understanding communication flow, information pertinence, and tasks undertaken in a submarine control room when completing higher- and lower-demand inshore operation (INSO) scenarios. BACKGROUND: The focus of submarine operations has changed, and submarines are increasingly required to operate in costal littoral zones. However, submarine command team performance during INSO is not well understood, particularly from a sociotechnical systems perspective...
December 2017: Human Factors
Cairong He, Tongke Wang, Zhixue Zhao, Yonghong Hao, Tian-Chyi J Yeh, Hongbin Zhan
Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as a major pathway of groundwater flow to coastal oceanic environments. It could affect water quality and marine ecosystems due to pollutants and trace elements transported through groundwater. Relations between different characteristics of aquifers and SGD have been investigated extensively before, but the role of fractures in SGD still remains unknown. In order to better understand the mechanism of groundwater flow and solute transport through fractures in SGD, one-dimensional analytical solutions of groundwater hydraulic head and velocity through a synthetic horizontal fracture with periodic boundary conditions were derived using a Laplace transform technique...
November 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Matheus Dos Santos, Pedro Otávio Ribeiro, Pedro Núñez, Paulo Drews-Jr, Silvia Botelho
The submarine exploration using robots has been increasing in recent years. The automation of tasks such as monitoring, inspection, and underwater maintenance requires the understanding of the robot's environment. The object recognition in the scene is becoming a critical issue for these systems. On this work, an underwater object classification pipeline applied in acoustic images acquired by Forward-Looking Sonar (FLS) are studied. The object segmentation combines thresholding, connected pixels searching and peak of intensity analyzing techniques...
September 29, 2017: Sensors
F H Pusceddu, R B Choueri, C D S Pereira, F S Cortez, D R A Santos, B B Moreno, A R Santos, J R Rogero, A Cesar
The guidelines for the Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) recommend the use of standard ecotoxicity assays and the assessment of endpoints at the individual level to evaluate potential effects of PPCP on biota. However, effects at the sub-individual level can also affect the ecological fitness of marine organisms chronically exposed to PPCP. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the environmental risk of two PPCP in marine sediments: triclosan (TCS) and ibuprofen (IBU), using sub-individual and developmental endpoints...
September 26, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Charles H Van Wijk
The inability of a submarine to surface must rate as one of greatest risks to sailors in peacetime. To prepare for such emergencies, many navies provide training to master the procedures required to escape successfully from disabled submarines. This paper provides a brief overview of some of the psychological principles in simulated submarine escape training. It further discusses applicable psychological constructs such as positive outcome expectancies, the role of anxiety, and other personal factors mediating outcomes of such training...
2017: International Maritime Health
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