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Ramananda Chakrabarti, Surajit Mondal, Shiba Shankar Acharya, J Sree Lekha, Debasis Sengupta
Evaluating the submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) derived strontium (Sr) flux from the Bengal Basin to the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and determining its isotopic composition is crucial for understanding the marine Sr isotopic evolution over time. Measurements of spatially and temporally distributed water samples collected from the BoB show radiogenic87 Sr/86 Sr, high Sr, calcium (Ca) concentrations and high salinity in samples collected dominantly from 100-120 m depth, which can be explained only by the contribution of saline groundwater from the Bengal Basin...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Thomas Shepherd, Inneke Rumengan, Ali Sahami
The post-depositional geochemical behaviour of mercury and arsenic in submarine mine tailings from the Mesel Gold Mine in Buyat Bay, North Sulawesi, Indonesia was assessed by in situ sampling of tailings porewaters using dialysis arrays and seawater and fish monitoring. Under steady-state conditions one year after cessation of tailings discharge, the calculated arsenic efflux incrementally added 0.8 μg/L of arsenic to the overlying seawater. The mercury efflux across the tailings-seawater interface was negligible...
February 26, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Kai Tang, Yao Zhang, Dan Lin, Yu Han, Chen-Tung A Chen, Deli Wang, Yu-Shih Lin, Jia Sun, Qiang Zheng, Nianzhi Jiao
Shallow-sea hydrothermal systems experience continuous fluctuations of physicochemical conditions due to seawater influx which generates variable habitats, affecting the phylogenetic composition and metabolic potential of microbial communities. Until recently, studies of submarine hydrothermal communities have focused primarily on chemolithoautotrophic organisms, however, there have been limited studies on heterotrophic bacteria. Here, fluorescence in situ hybridization, high throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, and functional metagenomes were used to assess microbial communities from the shallow-sea hydrothermal system off Kueishantao Island, Taiwan...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jiaojian Song, Jinjia Guo, Ye Tian, Boyang Xue, Yuan Lu, Ronger Zheng
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has drawn more attention as a new technique for in situ detection of seawater, especially for hydrothermal areas. In order to evaluate the focusing geometry effect on laser-induced plasma in bulk water, four focusing arrangements were tried out with a single lens as well as with a double-lens combination. We demonstrated that, for the same transmission distance in water, the double-lens combination with shorter effective focal length generated more condensed plasma, as shown by the spectroscopic and fast imaging results...
March 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Matthieu Komorowski, Sarah Fleming, Mala Mawkin, Jochen Hinkelbein
Future space exploration missions will take humans far beyond low Earth orbit and require complete crew autonomy. The ability to provide anaesthesia will be important given the expected risk of severe medical events requiring surgery. Knowledge and experience of such procedures during space missions is currently extremely limited. Austere and isolated environments (such as polar bases or submarines) have been used extensively as test beds for spaceflight to probe hazards, train crews, develop clinical protocols and countermeasures for prospective space missions...
2018: NPJ Microgravity
D Piló, A B Barbosa, M A Teodósio, J Encarnação, F Leitão, P Range, L A Krug, J Cruz, L Chícharo
This study evaluated the impacts of submarine groundwater discharges (SGD) on a rocky intertidal community of South Portugal, during April-November 2011. Chlorophyll-a concentration was higher at the SGD site in respect to the Reference site. Epibenthic community structure differed between sites, with an increase in Chthamalus spp. and a decrease in macroalgae coverage at the SGD site. The abundance and body size of Mytilus galloprovincialis were consistently higher at the SGD site. During mid-spring, under potentially higher SGD and less favorable conditions for coastal phytoplankton, the ecophysiological condition of M...
February 23, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Michael A Chen, Benjamin D Kocar
Radium (Ra) is a radioactive element commonly found within soils, sediments and natural waters. Elevated Ra activities arising through natural and anthropogenic processes pose a threat to groundwater resources and human health, and Ra isotope ratios are used to decipher groundwater movement, estimate submarine discharge flux, and fingerprint contamination associated with hydraulic fracturing operations. Although adsorption to metal (hydr)oxides and certain clay minerals is well established as a dominant mechanism controlling Ra transport and retention, the extent of Ra sorption to other minerals and under variable environmental conditions (e...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Letizia Di Bella, Michela Ingrassia, Virgilio Frezza, Francesco L Chiocci, Raffaella Pecci, Rossella Bedini, Eleonora Martorelli
The new record of a shallow-water submarine hydrothermal field (<150 m w.d.) in the western Mediterranean Sea (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) allows us to study CO2 fluid impact on benthic foraminifers. Benthic foraminifers calcification process is sensitive to ocean acidification and to local chemical and physical parameters of seawater and pore water. Thus, foraminifers can record specific environmental conditions related to hydrothermal fluids, but at present their response to such activity is poorly defined...
February 22, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Christos A Christakis, Paraskevi N Polymenakou, Manolis Mandalakis, Paraskevi Nomikou, Jon Bent Kristoffersen, Danai Lampridou, Georgios Kotoulas, Antonios Magoulas
In the original publication there is a mistake in the supplementary material. The correct supplementary material is provided in this correction article.
March 1, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Francesca Satolli, Miriam Rovesti, Alfredo Zucchi, Marco Gandolfi, Claudio Feliciani, Georgi Tchernev, Uwe Wollina, Serena Gianfaldoni, Torello Lotti
BACKGROUND: Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is an extremely rare, non-Langerhans cell tumor. HS affects especially adults, its etiology is unknown yet. Skin could be interested by papules or nodules, single or multiple. CASE REPORT: A Caucasian man in his late 40s came to our clinic for a naevi evaluation. During the visit, a rose papulonodular lesion was observed in the lumbar region. This lesion was completely asymptomatic, and it had been there for an indefinite period...
January 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Hilde C Trannum, Hege Gundersen, Carlos Escudero-Oñate, Joachim T Johansen, Morten T Schaanning
A mesocosm experiment with intact benthic communities was conducted to evaluate the effects of mine tailings on benthic community structure and biogeochemical processes. Two types of tailings were supplied from process plants using flotation and flocculation chemicals, while a third type was absent of added chemicals. All tailings impacted the sediment community at thin layers, and through more mechanisms than merely hypersedimentation. In general, the strongest impact was observed in a very fine-grained tailings containing flotation chemicals...
February 22, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Aaron P J Roberts, Neville A Stanton, Daniel T Fay
This is a world's first-of-a-kind study providing empirical evidence for understanding submarine control room performance when completing higher and lower demand Dived Tracking (DT) scenarios. A submarine control room simulator was built, using a non-commercial version of Dangerous Waters as the simulation engine. The creation of networked workstations allowed a team of nine operators to perform tasks completed by submarine command teams during DT. The Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork (EAST) method was used to model the social, task and information networks and describe command team performance...
May 2018: Applied Ergonomics
SungHyun Nam, Duk-Jin Kim, Seung-Woo Lee, Bong Guk Kim, Ki-Mook Kang, Yang-Ki Cho
Oceanic internal waves are known to be important to the understanding of underwater acoustics, marine biogeochemistry, submarine navigation and engineering, and the Earth's climate. In spite of the importance and increased knowledge of their ubiquity, the wave generation is still poorly understood in most parts of the world's oceans. Here, we use satellite synthetic aperture radar images, in-situ observations, and numerical models to (1) show that wave energy (having relatively high amplitude) radiates from a shallow sill in the East China Sea in all directions, but with a significant time lag dependent on background conditions, (2) reveal that wave fronts are locally formed with often favorable conditions for re-initiation, and (3) demonstrate the resulting variety of wave patterns...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eléonore Frouin, Méline Bes, Bernard Ollivier, Marianne Quéméneur, Anne Postec, Didier Debroas, Fabrice Armougom, Gaël Erauso
The Bay of Prony, South of New Caledonia, represents a unique serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal field due to its coastal situation. It harbors both submarine and intertidal active sites, discharging hydrogen- and methane-rich alkaline fluids of low salinity and mild temperature through porous carbonate edifices. In this study, we have extensively investigated the bacterial and archaeal communities inhabiting the hydrothermal chimneys from one intertidal and three submarine sites by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Judith Elger, Christian Berndt, Lars Rüpke, Sebastian Krastel, Felix Gross, Wolfram H Geissler
There is a strong spatial correlation between submarine slope failures and the occurrence of gas hydrates. This has been attributed to the dynamic nature of gas hydrate systems and the potential reduction of slope stability due to bottom water warming or sea level drop. However, 30 years of research into this process found no solid supporting evidence. Here we present new reflection seismic data from the Arctic Ocean and numerical modelling results supporting a different link between hydrates and slope stability...
February 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Katarzyna Grzelak, Joseph Tamborski, Lech Kotwicki, Henry Bokuniewicz
Inputs of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the coastal ocean may alter local and regional-scale biology. Here, we report on nematode assemblages along the north shore of Long Island, NY. We test if nematode communities differed between sites impacted by mixed fresh-saline SGD and where SGD is exclusively saline. Diversity of nematodes was low at sites impacted by fresh SGD and communities were dominated by a few opportunistic genera. Moreover, a set of typical freshwater nematode genera restricted to impacted sites was observed...
February 2, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Yoshiyuki Tatsumi, Keiko Suzuki-Kamata, Tetsuo Matsuno, Hiroshi Ichihara, Nobukazu Seama, Koji Kiyosugi, Reina Nakaoka, Kazuo Nakahigashi, Hideaki Takizawa, Kazuki Hayashi, Tatsuro Chiba, Satoshi Shimizu, Mamoru Sano, Hikaru Iwamaru, Haruhisa Morozumi, Hiroko Sugioka, Yojiro Yamamoto
Kikai submarine caldera to the south of the Kyushu Island, SW Japan, collapsed at 7.3 ka during the latest supereruption (>500 km3 of magma) in the Japanese Archipelago. Multi functional research surveys of the T/S Fukae Maru in this caldera, including multi-beam echosounder mapping, remotely operated vehicle observation, multi-channel seismic reflection survey, and rock sampling by dredging and diving, provided lines of evidence for creation of a giant rhyolite lava dome (~32 km3 ) after the caldera collapse...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hyung-Mi Cho, Guebuem Kim, Eun Young Kwon, Nils Moosdorf, Jordi Garcia-Orellana, Isaac R Santos
Riverine and atmospheric inputs are often considered as the main terrestrial sources of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), phosphorus (DIP), and silicon (DSi) in the ocean. However, the fluxes of nutrients via submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) often exceed riverine inputs in different local and regional scale settings. In this study, we provide a first approximation of global nutrient fluxes to the ocean via total SGD, including pore water fluxes, by combining a global compilation of nutrient concentrations in groundwater and the SGD-derived 228Ra fluxes...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Li Hongxing, Tao Chunhui, Liu Cai, Gennady Goloshubin, Huang Guangnan, Zhang Hua, Zhang Jin, Zhang Xiaofeng, David C Nobes
Acoustic inversion for the physical parameters of seafloor sediments is an important and difficult aspect of sediment acoustic research. Submarine surface sediments are typical porous media, which involve many parameters. Thus, the optimization of high-dimensional inversion represents one of the difficulties. An acoustic inversion method to obtain the physical parameters of seafloor sediments is constructed based on the adaptive predatory genetic algorithm and effective density fluid model derived from Biot theory...
January 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Konstantin Chizhov, Malgorzata Sneve, Natalya Shandala, Katarzyna Siegien-Iwaniuk, Graham Smith, Aleksander Krasnoschekov, Aleksander Kosnikov, Anatoli Grigoriev, Anatoli Simakov, Igor Kemsky, Victor Kryuchkov
The Coastal Technical Base (CTB) №569 at Andreeva Bay was established in the early 1960s and intended for the refueling of nuclear submarine reactors and temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive waste (RW). In 2001, the base was transferred to the Russian Ministry for Atomic Energy and the site remediation began. The paper describes in detail the radiation situation change at the Technical site in Andreeva Bay over 2002-2016, the period of preparation for the most critical phase of remedial work: removal of spent fuel assemblies...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
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