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Massimo Zecchin, Flavio Accaino, Silvia Ceramicola, Dario Civile, Salvatore Critelli, Cristina Da Lio, Giacomo Mangano, Giacomo Prosser, Pietro Teatini, Luigi Tosi
Large-scale submarine gravitational land movements involving even more than 1,000 m thick sedimentary successions are known as megalandslides. We prove the existence of large-scale gravitational phenomena off the Crotone Basin, a forearc basin located on the Ionian side of Calabria (southern Italy), by seismic, morpho-bathymetric and well data. Our study reveals that the Crotone Megalandslide started moving between Late Zanclean and Early Piacenzian and was triggered by a contractional tectonic event leading to the basin inversion...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jarrod A Santora, Ramona Zeno, Jeffrey G Dorman, William J Sydeman
Submarine canyon systems are ubiquitous features of marine ecosystems, known to support high levels of biodiversity. Canyons may be important to benthic-pelagic ecosystem coupling, but their role in concentrating plankton and structuring pelagic communities is not well known. We hypothesize that at the scale of a large marine ecosystem, canyons provide a critical habitat network, which maintain energy flow and trophic interactions. We evaluate canyon characteristics relative to the distribution and abundance of krill, critically important prey in the California Current Ecosystem...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yoshio Fukao, Osamu Sandanbata, Hiroko Sugioka, Aki Ito, Hajime Shiobara, Shingo Watada, Kenji Satake
Tsunami earthquakes are a group of enigmatic earthquakes generating disproportionally large tsunamis relative to seismic magnitude. These events occur most typically near deep-sea trenches. Tsunami earthquakes occurring approximately every 10 years near Torishima on the Izu-Bonin arc are another example. Seismic and tsunami waves from the 2015 event [ M w (moment magnitude) = 5.7] were recorded by an offshore seafloor array of 10 pressure gauges, ~100 km away from the epicenter. We made an array analysis of dispersive tsunamis to locate the tsunami source within the submarine Smith Caldera...
April 2018: Science Advances
Joachim D Pleil, Ariel Wallace
Exhaled breath technology is expanding beyond conventional gas-phase analysis, and conversely, methodology from other disciplines is finding applications in breath research. Recently, the authors attended conferences that incorporated new technologies into "breath related" applications. The first was the International Submarine Air Monitoring and Air Purification (SAMAP) held in Uncasville Connecticut, November 2017, and the second was the Pittcon Conference and Exposition (Pittcon) held in Orlando Florida, February 2018...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Keiichi Kakui, Yoshihisa Fujita
We establish a new pseudozeuxid genus Haimormus gen. nov. based on a new species Haimormus shimojiensis sp. nov. which was collected from a submarine limestone cave with the entrance at 35 m depth, in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. H. shimojiensis differs from the other confamilial members, Pseudozeuxo belizensis Sieg, 1982 and Charbeitanais spongicola Bamber & Bird, 1997, in having the pleonite 1 without the pleopod, the pereopods 2 and 3 propodus with a ventral spiniform seta, and the pereopods 4-6 propodus with one long and two short dorsodistal setae...
2018: PeerJ
Junfei Ou, Xinzuo Fang, Wenjie Zhao, Sheng Lei, Mingshan Xue, Fajun Wang, Changuqna Li, Yalin Lu, Wen Li
It is generally recognized that superhydrophobic surfaces in water may be used for the corrosion resistance due to the entrapped air in the solid / liquid interface and could be found potential applications in the protection of ship hull. For a superhydrophobic surface, as its immersion depth into water increases, the resultant hydrostatic pressure is also increased, and the entrapped air can be squeezed out much more easily. It is therefore predicted that high hydrostatic pressure may cause an unexpected decrease in corrosion resistance for the vessels in deep water (e...
April 25, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Masanori Okanishi, Yoshihisa Fujita
Two new species, Ophiolepis cavitata n. sp. and Ophiozonella cavernalis n. sp., are described from the specimens collected in shallow water submarine caves in the Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan. Ophiolepis cavitata n. sp. is distinguished from the other congeners in having prominent tubercle-shaped knobs on dorsal arm plates; two sizes of disc scales on the aboral disc, the larger surrounded by 3-8 times smaller disc scales; larger scales concave; radial shields wider than long; a trio of distinct scales present distal to each pair of radial shields; oral shields partly concave; 3 arm spines on proximal portion of the arms...
January 31, 2018: Zootaxa
Thierry Perez, Cesar Ruiz
The sponge class Homoscleromorpha has a challenging taxonomy and its systematics is still a matter of debate. A significant effort has recently been deployed to better evaluate the diversity of these sponges, and each new exploration of cryptic habitats reveals new species. Although several undescribed or wrongly determined Oscarella-like sponges have been reported by different authors, the Oscarellidae family still lacks description of its true Caribbean representatives. The exploration of various submarine caves in the Lesser Antilles has allowed us to find and to formally describe the first two Oscarellidae of the Caribbean Sea, Oscarella filipoi sp...
January 7, 2018: Zootaxa
Dayana M Dos Santos, Lucas Buruaem, Renato M Gonçalves, Mike Williams, Denis M S Abessa, Rai Kookana, Mary Rosa R de Marchi
Submarine sewage outfalls (SSOs) are considered the main input source of contaminants of emerging concern continuously released in coastal areas, with the potential to cause adverse effects for aquatic organisms. This work presents the investigation of nine endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and 26 pharmaceutically active chemicals (PhACs) in marine sediments within the vicinities of 7 SSOs along the São Paulo State Coast (Brazil). Method optimization for the multi-residue determination by GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS using QuEChERS extraction/clean-up are discussed...
April 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Yan Zhang, Hailong Li, Xuejing Wang, Chaoyue Wang, Kai Xiao, Wenjing Qu
Naturally occurring radon (222 Rn) and radium isotopes are widely used to trace water mixing and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in the coastal zones. However, their activities in groundwater are variable both spatially and temporally. Here, time series sampling of 222 Rn and radium was conducted to investigate their behavior in intertidal groundwater of Laizhou Bay, China. The result shows that groundwater redox conditions have an important impact on the behavior of tracers. The activities of tracers will decrease under oxidizing conditions and increase under reducing conditions...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
M Loher, T Pape, Y Marcon, M Römer, P Wintersteller, D Praeg, M Torres, H Sahling, G Bohrmann
Submarine mud volcanoes release sediments and gas-rich fluids at the seafloor via deeply-rooted plumbing systems that remain poorly understood. Here the functioning of Venere mud volcano, on the Calabrian accretionary prism in ~1,600 m water depth is investigated, based on multi-parameter hydroacoustic and visual seafloor data obtained using ship-borne methods, ROVs, and AUVs. Two seepage domains are recognized: mud breccia extrusion from a summit, and hydrocarbon venting from peripheral sites, hosting chemosynthetic ecosystems and authigenic carbonates indicative of long-term seepage...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wei-Shih Tseng, Man-Yuan Huang, Hui-Chieh Lee, Wen-Shyan Huang, Bor-Hwang Kang
Introduction: The Republic of China Navy instituted the pressure test as one of the selection tools for diving troops and submarine crews. We analyzed factors associated with failure in the pressure test. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study designed to investigate pressure test failure in Navy recruits between January 2010 and August 2015. The recruits received pressurization in a hyperbaric chamber to a simulated depth of 112 feet of seawater (fsw) at a rate of 25 fsw/minute...
January 2018: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
Dorina Murgulet, Melissa Trevino, Audrey Douglas, Nicholas Spalt, Xinping Hu, Valeriu Murgulet
We conducted a comprehensive analysis of a variety of geochemical data including total alkalinity (TA), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), major ions, stable isotopes, and submarine groundwater discharge, to understand biogeochemical and hydrologic processes driving the seasonal to annual estuarine buffering capacity in Nueces Bay, Texas. These measurements, together with statistical analysis and geochemical modeling, show large variability of freshwater influence. TA consumption, common to spring seasons, was mainly driven by CaCO3 precipitation and, to some extent, by aerobic respiration...
March 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
M Gómez-Letona, J Arístegui, A G Ramos, M F Montero, J Coca
The eruption of a submarine volcano south of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in October 2011 led to major physical and chemical changes in the local environment. Large amounts of nutrients were found at specific depths in the water column above the volcano associated with suboxic layers resulting from the oxidation of reduced chemical species expelled during the eruptive phase. It has been suggested that the fertilization with these compounds enabled the rapid restoration of the ecosystem in the marine reserve south of the island once the volcanic activity ceased, although no biological evidence for this has been provided yet...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Joshu J Mountjoy, Jamie D Howarth, Alan R Orpin, Philip M Barnes, David A Bowden, Ashley A Rowden, Alexandre C G Schimel, Caroline Holden, Huw J Horgan, Scott D Nodder, Jason R Patton, Geoffroy Lamarche, Matthew Gerstenberger, Aaron Micallef, Arne Pallentin, Tim Kane
Although the global flux of sediment and carbon from land to the coastal ocean is well known, the volume of material that reaches the deep ocean-the ultimate sink-and the mechanisms by which it is transferred are poorly documented. Using a globally unique data set of repeat seafloor measurements and samples, we show that the moment magnitude ( M w ) 7.8 November 2016 Kaikōura earthquake (New Zealand) triggered widespread landslides in a submarine canyon, causing a powerful "canyon flushing" event and turbidity current that traveled >680 km along one of the world's longest deep-sea channels...
March 2018: Science Advances
Ramananda Chakrabarti, Surajit Mondal, Shiba Shankar Acharya, J Sree Lekha, Debasis Sengupta
Evaluating the submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) derived strontium (Sr) flux from the Bengal Basin to the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and determining its isotopic composition is crucial for understanding the marine Sr isotopic evolution over time. Measurements of spatially and temporally distributed water samples collected from the BoB show radiogenic 87 Sr/86 Sr, high Sr, calcium (Ca) concentrations and high salinity in samples collected dominantly from 100-120 m depth, which can be explained only by the contribution of saline groundwater from the Bengal Basin...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Thomas Shepherd, Inneke Rumengan, Ali Sahami
The post-depositional geochemical behaviour of mercury and arsenic in submarine mine tailings from the Mesel Gold Mine in Buyat Bay, North Sulawesi, Indonesia was assessed by in situ sampling of tailings porewaters using dialysis arrays and seawater and fish monitoring. Under steady-state conditions one year after cessation of tailings discharge, the calculated arsenic efflux incrementally added 0.8 μg/L of arsenic to the overlying seawater. The mercury efflux across the tailings-seawater interface was negligible...
June 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Kai Tang, Yao Zhang, Dan Lin, Yu Han, Chen-Tung A Chen, Deli Wang, Yu-Shih Lin, Jia Sun, Qiang Zheng, Nianzhi Jiao
Shallow-sea hydrothermal systems experience continuous fluctuations of physicochemical conditions due to seawater influx which generates variable habitats, affecting the phylogenetic composition and metabolic potential of microbial communities. Until recently, studies of submarine hydrothermal communities have focused primarily on chemolithoautotrophic organisms, however, there have been limited studies on heterotrophic bacteria. Here, fluorescence in situ hybridization, high throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, and functional metagenomes were used to assess microbial communities from the shallow-sea hydrothermal system off Kueishantao Island, Taiwan...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jiaojian Song, Jinjia Guo, Ye Tian, Boyang Xue, Yuan Lu, Ronger Zheng
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has drawn more attention as a new technique for in situ detection of seawater, especially for hydrothermal areas. In order to evaluate the focusing geometry effect on laser-induced plasma in bulk water, four focusing arrangements were tried out with a single lens as well as with a double-lens combination. We demonstrated that, for the same transmission distance in water, the double-lens combination with shorter effective focal length generated more condensed plasma, as shown by the spectroscopic and fast imaging results...
March 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Matthieu Komorowski, Sarah Fleming, Mala Mawkin, Jochen Hinkelbein
Future space exploration missions will take humans far beyond low Earth orbit and require complete crew autonomy. The ability to provide anaesthesia will be important given the expected risk of severe medical events requiring surgery. Knowledge and experience of such procedures during space missions is currently extremely limited. Austere and isolated environments (such as polar bases or submarines) have been used extensively as test beds for spaceflight to probe hazards, train crews, develop clinical protocols and countermeasures for prospective space missions...
2018: NPJ Microgravity
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