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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214955/ranibizumab-versus-aflibercept-for-macular-edema-due-to-central-retinal-vein-occlusion-18-month-results-in-real-life-data
#1
Irini Chatziralli, George Theodossiadis, Marilita M Moschos, Panagiotis Mitropoulos, Panagiotis Theodossiadis
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to compare the anatomical and functional outcomes of ranibizumab versus aflibercept for the treatment of macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) in routine clinical practice. METHODS: Participants in this observational study included 62 treatment-naïve patients with CRVO who received intravitreal injections of either ranibizumab or aflibercept. The demographic data, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) characteristics were evaluated at baseline and at months 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 18 post-treatment...
February 18, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214101/endophthalmitis-reduction-with-intracameral-moxifloxacin-prophylaxis-analysis-of-600%C3%A2-000-surgeries
#2
Aravind Haripriya, David F Chang, Ravilla D Ravindran
PURPOSE: To compare the postoperative endophthalmitis rate before and after initiation of intracameral (IC) moxifloxacin prophylaxis for both phacoemulsification and sutureless, manual small-incision cataract surgery (M-SICS), as well as in patients with posterior capsular rupture (PCR). DESIGN: Retrospective, clinical registry. PARTICIPANTS: All cataract surgeries (617 453) performed during the 29-month period from January 2014 to May 2016 at the 10 regional Aravind eye hospitals were included...
February 14, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213784/microglia-in-the-primate-macula-specializations-in-microglial-distribution-and-morphology-with-retinal-position-and-with-aging
#3
Janani Singaravelu, Lian Zhao, Robert N Fariss, T Michael Nork, Wai T Wong
Microglia, the principal resident immune cell in the retina, play constitutive roles in immune surveillance and synapse maintenance, and are also associated with retinal disease, including those occurring in the macula. Perspectives on retinal microglia function have derived largely from rodent models and how these relate to the macula-bearing primate retina is unclear. In this study, we examined microglial distribution and cellular morphology in the adult rhesus macaque retina, and performed comparative characterizations in three retinal locations along the center-to-periphery axis (parafoveal, macular, and the peripheral retina)...
February 17, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213397/regional-differences-in-the-preferred-e-vector-orientation-of-honeybee-ocellar-photoreceptors
#4
Yuri Ogawa, Willi Ribi, Jochen Zeil, Jan M Hemmi
In addition to compound eyes, honeybees (Apis mellifera) possess three single lens eyes called ocelli located on the top of the head. Ocelli are involved in head-attitude control and in some insects have been shown to provide celestial compass information. Anatomical and early electrophysiological studies have suggested that UV and blue-green photoreceptors in ocelli are polarization sensitive. However, their retinal distribution and receptor characteristics have not been documented. Here, we used intracellular electrophysiology to determine the relationship between the spectral and polarization sensitivity of photoreceptors and their position within the visual field of the ocelli...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213274/differentially-cleaving-peptides-as-a-strategy-for-controlled-drug-release-in-human-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#5
Madhushree Bhattacharya, Sanjay Sarkhel, Jonne Peltoniemi, Robert Broadbridge, Marjo Tuomainen, Seppo Auriola, Arto Urtti
Currently, drug delivery to the posterior eye segment relies on intravitreal injections of therapeutics. This approach requires frequent injections and does not guarantee drug delivery to intracellular targets. Controlled release systems and nanoparticles are being investigated to mitigate these challenges but most of these approaches lack translational success to the clinics. In our present study, we report a peptide based delivery system that utilizes enzyme assisted cleavable linkers to release conjugated cargo within the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212983/acircularity-index-and-axis-ratio-of-the-foveal-avascular-zone-in-diabetic-eyes-and-healthy-controls-measured-by-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography
#6
Brian D Krawitz, Shelley Mo, Lawrence S Geyman, Steven A Agemy, Nicole K Scripsema, Patricia M Garcia, Toco Y P Chui, Richard B Rosen
Given the complexity of the current system used to stage diabetic retinopathy (DR) and the risks and limitations associated with intravenous fluorescein angiography (IVFA), noninvasive quantification of DR severity is desirable. We examined the utility of acircularity index and axis ratio of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ), metrics that can noninvasively quantify the severity of diabetic retinopathy without the need for axial length to correct for individual retinal magnification. A retrospective review was performed of type 2 diabetics and age-matched controls imaged with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA)...
February 14, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212982/vision-science-and-adaptive-optics-the-state-of-the-field
#7
Susana Marcos, John S Werner, Stephen A Burns, William H Merigan, Pablo Artal, David A Atchison, Karen M Hampson, Richard Legras, Linda Lundstrom, Geungyoung Yoon, Joseph Carroll, Stacey S Choi, Nathan Doble, Adam M Dubis, Alfredo Dubra, Ann Elsner, Ravi Jonnal, Donald T Miller, Michel Paques, Hannah E Smithson, Laura K Young, Yuhua Zhang, Melanie Campbell, Jennifer Hunter, Andrew Metha, Grazyna Palczewska, Jesse Schallek, Lawrence C Sincich
Adaptive optics is a relatively new field, yet it is spreading rapidly and allows new questions to be asked about how the visual system is organized. The editors of this feature issue have posed a series of question to scientists involved in using adaptive optics in vision science. The questions are focused on three main areas. In the first we investigate the use of adaptive optics for psychophysical measurements of visual system function and for improving the optics of the eye. In the second, we look at the applications and impact of adaptive optics on retinal imaging and its promise for basic and applied research...
February 14, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212878/evaluation-of-macular-vascular-abnormalities-identified-by-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-sickle-cell-disease
#8
Ian C Han, Mongkol Tadarati, Katia D Pacheco, Adrienne W Scott
PURPOSE: To evaluate macular vascular flow abnormalities identified by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) in patients with various sickle cell genotypes. DESIGN: Prospective, observational case series. METHODS: This is a single institution case series of adult patients with various sickle cell genotypes. All patients underwent macular OCT-A (Avanti RTVue XR, Optovue Inc, Fremont, CA). Images were analyzed qualitatively for areas of flow loss and quantitatively for measures of foveal avascular area, parafoveal flow, and vascular density...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212877/defining-outcomes-for-clinical-trials-of-leber-congenital-amaurosis-caused-by-gucy2d-mutations
#9
Samuel G Jacobson, Artur V Cideciyan, Alexander Sumaroka, Alejandro J Roman, Jason Charng, Monica Lu, Shreyasi Choudhury, Sharon B Schwartz, Elise Heon, Gerald A Fishman, Shannon E Boye
PURPOSE: To determine outcome measures for a clinical trial of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) associated with mutations in the GUCY2D gene. DESIGN: Retrospective observational case series. METHODS: 28 patients with GUCY2D-LCA (ages 2-59) were studied clinically and with chromatic full-field sensitivity testing (FST), optical coherence tomography (OCT), pupillometry, and the NEI Visual Function Questionnaire. RESULTS: FST permitted quantitation of cone and rod sensitivity in these patients with severe visual impairment...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212859/docosahexaenoic-acid-phospholipid-differentially-modulates-the-conformation-of-g90v-and-n55k-rhodopsin-mutants-associated-with-retinitis-pigmentosa
#10
Xiaoyun Dong, María Guadalupe Herrera-Hernández, Eva Ramon, Pere Garriga
Rhodopsin is the visual photoreceptor of the retinal rod cells that mediates dim light vision and a prototypical member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. The structural stability and functional performance of rhodopsin are modulated by membrane lipids. Docosahexaenoic acid has been shown to interact with native rhodopsin but no direct evidence has been established on the effect of such lipid on the stability and regeneration of rhodopsin mutants associated with retinal diseases. The stability and regeneration of two thermosensitive mutants G90V and N55K, associated with the retinal degenerative disease retinitis pigmentosa, have been analyzed in docosohexaenoic phospholipid (1,2-didocosa-hexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; DDHA-PC) liposomes...
February 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212099/high-density-high-radiance-%C3%AE-led-matrix-for-optogenetic-retinal-prostheses-and-planar-neural-stimulation
#11
Ahmed Soltan, Brian McGovern, Emmanuel Drakakis, Mark Neil, Pleun Maaskant, Mahbub Akhter, Jun Su Lee, Patrick Degenaar
Optical neuron stimulation arrays are important for both in-vitro biology and retinal prosthetic biomedical applications. Hence, in this work, we present an 8100 pixel high radiance photonic stimulator. The chip module vertically combines custom made gallium nitride μLEDs with a CMOS application specific integrated circuit. This is designed with active pixels to ensure random access and to allow continuous illumination of all required pixels. The μLEDs have been assembled on the chip using a solder ball flip-chip bonding technique which has allowed for reliable and repeatable manufacture...
February 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211879/evaluation-of-choroidal-tumors-with-optical-coherence-tomography-enhanced-depth-imaging-and-oct-angiography-features
#12
G Cennamo, M R Romano, M A Breve, N Velotti, M Reibaldi, G de Crecchio, G Cennamo
AimTo describe the vascular features of choroidal tumors using enhanced depth imaging (EDI), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and OCT-angiography.MethodsIn this prospective study, we evaluated 116 Caucasian patients with choroidal tumors (60 eyes with choroidal nevi, 40 with choroidal melanoma, 6 with choroidal hemangioma, 2 with optic disc melanocytoma, 6 with choroidal osteoma, and 2 with retinal metastases). Patients underwent a complete ophthalmic examination including bulbar echography, EDI-OCT, OCT-angiography, and multicolor imaging...
February 17, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211523/pedf-mediates-pathological-neovascularization-by-regulating-macrophage-recruitment-and-polarization-in-the-mouse-model-of-oxygen-induced-retinopathy
#13
Sha Gao, Changwei Li, Yanji Zhu, Yanuo Wang, Ailing Sui, Yisheng Zhong, Bing Xie, Xi Shen
Macrophages have been demonstrated to play a proangiogenic role in retinal pathological vascular growth. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) works as a powerful endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor, but its role in macrophage recruitment and polarization is largely unknown. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we first evaluated macrophage polarization in the retinas of the oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mouse model. Compared to that in normal controls, M1- and M2-like macrophages were all abundantly increased in the retinas of OIR mice...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211317/primary-human-cytomegalovirus-hcmv-infection-in-pregnancy
#14
Horst Buxmann, Klaus Hamprecht, Matthias Meyer-Wittkopf, Klaus Friese
BACKGROUND: In 0.5-4% of pregnancies, the prospective mother sustains a primary infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). An HCMV infection of the fetus in the first or second trimester can cause complex post-encephalitic impairment of the infant brain, leading to motor and mental retardation, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, retinal defects, and progressive hearing loss. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent publications from January 2000 to October 2016 that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed employing the terms "cytomegalovirus and pregnancy" and "congenital cytomegalovirus...
January 27, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211261/early-microvascular-retinal-changes-in-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Joseph M Simonett, Fabio Scarinci, Fabiana Picconi, Paola Giorno, Daniele De Geronimo, Antonio Di Renzo, Monica Varano, Simona Frontoni, Mariacristina Parravano
PURPOSE: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) can lead to significant vision loss and blindness and has a particularly high prevalence in patients with type 1 diabetes (DM1). In this study, we investigate quantitative differences in optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) data between DM1 patients with no or mild signs of retinopathy and non-diabetic subjects. METHODS: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) imaging was performed on DM1 patients with no or mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and healthy, age-matched controls...
February 16, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211206/variable-familial-exudative-vitreoretinopathy-in-a-family-harbouring-variants-in-both-fzd4-and-tspan12
#16
Patrik Schatz, Arif O Khan
PURPOSE: To report a family affected by familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) in which more severe disease phenotypes segregated with digenic rather than monogenic variants in FEVR-related genes. METHODS: Phenotype was documented with high-resolution imaging of retinal structure and wide-field fundus photography. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of known genes involved in FEVR was performed. RESULTS: Three affected individuals within a family with FEVR presented with variable disease severity...
February 16, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210901/transplantation-of-lineage-negative-stem-cells-in-pterygopalatine-artery-ligation-induced-retinal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-mice
#17
Gillipsie Minhas, Sudesh Prabhakar, Ryuichi Morishita, Munehisa Shimamura, Reema Bansal, Akshay Anand
Retinal ischemia is a condition associated with retinal degenerative diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and other optic neuropathies, leading to visual impairment and blindness worldwide. Currently, there is no therapy available for ischemic retinopathies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test a murine model of pterygopalatine artery ligation-induced retinal injury for transplantation of mouse bone marrow-derived lineage-negative (lin-ve) stem cells. The mouse external carotid artery and pterygopalatine artery were ligated for 3...
February 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210739/retinal-oxidative-stress-at-the-onset-of-diabetes-determined-by-synchrotron-ftir-widefield-imaging-towards-diabetes-pathogenesis
#18
Ebrahim Aboualizadeh, Mahsa Ranji, Christine M Sorenson, Reyhaneh Sepehr, Nader Sheibani, Carol J Hirschmugl
Diabetic retinopathy is a microvascular complication of diabetes that can lead to blindness. In the present study, we aimed to determine the nature of diabetes-induced, highly localized biochemical changes in the neuroretina at the onset of diabetes. High-resolution synchrotron Fourier transform infrared (s-FTIR) wide field microscopy coupled with multivariate analysis (PCA-LDA) was employed to identify biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy with spatial resolution at the cellular level. We compared the retinal tissue prepared from 6-week-old Ins2(Akita/+) heterozygous (Akita/+, N = 6; a model of diabetes) male mice with the wild-type (control, N = 6) mice...
February 17, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210622/epigenetics-and-signaling-pathways-in-glaucoma
#19
REVIEW
Angela C Gauthier, Ji Liu
Glaucoma is the most common cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. This neurodegenerative disease becomes more prevalent with aging, but predisposing genetic and environmental factors also contribute to increased risk. Emerging evidence now suggests that epigenetics may also be involved, which provides potential new therapeutic targets. These three factors work through several pathways, including TGF-β, MAP kinase, Rho kinase, BDNF, JNK, PI-3/Akt, PTEN, Bcl-2, Caspase, and Calcium-Calpain signaling. Together, these pathways result in the upregulation of proapoptotic gene expression, the downregulation of neuroprotective and prosurvival factors, and the generation of fibrosis at the trabecular meshwork, which may block aqueous humor drainage...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210186/bilateral-retinitis-pigmentosa-with-unilateral-choroidal-nevus-a-hitherto-unreported-association
#20
Rupak Roy, Kumar Saurabh, Debmalya Das, Preeti Sharma, Avirupa Ghose, Dhileesh P Chandrasekharan
Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) has been reported to be associated with retinal hemangioma, retinal angiomatous proliferation, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and vasoproliferative tumours. However there is no previous report of choroidal nevus in an eye with RP. We describe such a case in which the eye with RP had a choroidal nevus at the macula. The coexistence of these two entities in the same eye emphasizes the need of careful examination of patients with RP. The presence of choroidal nevus warrants additional investigations such as B scan ultrasonography and a close follow-up to pick up changes in the nevus size and morphology...
July 2016: Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology: Official Journal of the Saudi Ophthalmological Society
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