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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743131/the-spatial-extent-of-epiretinal-electrical-stimulation-in-the-healthy-mouse-retina
#1
Zohreh Hosseinazdeh, Archana Jalligampala, Eberhart Zrenner, Daniel Lleweylln Rathbun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Retinal prostheses use electrical stimulation to restore functional vision to patients blinded by retinitis pigmentosa. A key detail is the spatial pattern of ganglion cells activated by stimulation. Therefore, we characterized the spatial extent of network-mediated electrical activation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the epiretinal monopolar electrode configuration. METHODS: Healthy mouse RGC activities were recorded with a micro-electrode array (MEA)...
July 26, 2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743128/anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factors-protect-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cells-against-oxidation-by-modulating-nitric-oxide-release-and-autophagy
#2
Stefano De Cillà, Serena Farruggio, Stela Vujosevic, Giulia Raina, Davide Filippini, Valentina Gatti, Nausicaa Clemente, David Mary, Diego Vezzola, Giamberto Casini, Luca Rossetti, Elena Grossini
BACKGROUND/AIMS: the anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF), Aflibercept and Ranibizumab, are used for the treatment of macular degeneration. Here we examined the involvement of nitric oxide (NO), mitochondria function and of apoptosis/autophagy in their antioxidant effects in human retinal pigment epithelium cells (RPE). METHODS: RPE were exposed to Ranibizumab/Aflibercept in the absence or presence of NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor and of autophagy activator/blocker, rapamicyn/3-methyladenine...
July 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743019/motion-vision-cortical-preferences-influenced-by-retinal-direction-selectivity
#3
Ryan D Morrie, Marla B Feller
A recent study shows that retinal direction selectivity influences a subset of cells in primary visual cortex which respond to the optic flow associated with forward motion, while other cortical direction selective cells perform this computation independently.
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742160/sub-classification-of-myopic-glaucomatous-eyes-according-to-optic-disc-and-peripapillary-features
#4
Seungbong Han, Kyung Rim Sung, Jimin Park, Joo Young Yoon, Joong Won Shin
PURPOSE: To investigate the sub-classification of myopic glaucomatous eyes by optic disc and peripapillary features. METHODS: Optic disc tilt and torsion were determined from retinal nerve fiber layer photographs. Based on the location of the Bruch's membrane (BM) opening within the β-zone of the peripapillary atrophy (PPA) area, the widths of β-zone PPA (PPA1W), PPA+BM (PPA2W), and PPA-BM (PPA3W) were measured with enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742044/multipolar-field-shaping-in-a-suprachoroidal-visual-prosthesis
#5
Calvin D Eiber, Socrates Dokos, Nigel H Lovell, Gregg J Suaning
Visual prostheses are now an available mobility aid for patients blinded by degenerative retinal diseases. However, the spatial resolution of existing devices is still insufficient to deliver normal levels of mobility vision without stimulation strategies which enable existing devices to deliver several different percepts per stimulation site. A stimulation strategy in which field shaping is achieved by incorporating multipolar (bipolar and tripolar) stimulation could convey additional information to a user of a visual prosthesis, as compared to monopolar stimulation, is investigated...
July 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741164/-developments-and-inventions-from-germany-influence-on-international-ophthalmology
#6
REVIEW
M Müller, I Pavlovic, I Schmack, C Ohrloff, T Kohnen
There are various developments and inventions from Germany that have influenced not only the domestic but also the international field of ophthalmology. Beginning with the invention of the ophthalmoscope by Hermann von Helmholtz in 1850, to the establishment of the "Archives of Ophthalmology" medical journal, a publication founded by Albrecht von Graefe in 1854, through to the development of the retinal chip by Eberhart Zrenner and colleagues with the first clinical data collected in 2007. The abovenamed and further developments and the German ophthalmologists behind these inventions are discussed in more detail...
July 24, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740853/prothrombotic-fibrin-clot-phenotype-in-patients-with-deep-vein-thrombosis-and-pulmonary-embolism-a-new-risk-factor-for-recurrence
#7
REVIEW
Anetta Undas
Prothrombotic fibrin clot phenotype, involving faster formation of dense meshwork composed of thinner and highly branched fibers that are relatively resistant to plasmin-induced lysis, has been reported in patients with not only myocardial infarction or stroke, but also venous thromboembolism (VTE), encompassing deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and/or pulmonary embolism (PE). Prothrombotic fibrin clot phenotype, in particular prolonged clot lysis time, is considered a novel risk factor for VTE as well as venous thrombosis at unusual location, for example, cerebral sinus venous thrombosis, retinal vein obstruction, and Budd-Chiari syndrome...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740736/capability-of-ophthalmology-residents-to-detect-glaucoma-using-high-dynamic-range-concept-versus-color-optic-disc-photography
#8
Mantapond Ittarat, Rath Itthipanichpong, Anita Manassakorn, Visanee Tantisevi, Sunee Chansangpetch, Prin Rojanapongpun
BACKGROUND: Assessment of color disc photograph (C-DP) is affected by image quality, which decreases the ability to detect glaucoma. High-dynamic-range (HDR) imaging provides a greater range of luminosity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the capability of ophthalmology residents to detect glaucoma using HDR-concept disc photography (HDR-DP) compared to C-DP. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Twenty subjects were classified by 3 glaucoma specialists as either glaucoma, glaucoma suspect, or control...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740735/structure-and-function-relationship-of-activated-retinal-glia-in-primary-open-angle-glaucoma-patients
#9
Christoph Nützi, Andreas Schötzau, Matthias C Grieshaber
PURPOSE: To evaluate clinically activated retinal astrocytes and Müller cells (ARAM) regarding retinal sensitivity and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS: Central visual field (VF; i.e., retinal sensitivity) was measured with a custom-made macular pattern by microperimetry and correlated with the presence (ARAM+) or absence (ARAM-) of ARAM on red-free fundus photography and with the corresponding RNFL by optical coherence tomography (OCT)...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739642/animal-models-of-ocular-angiogenesis-from-development-to-pathologies
#10
REVIEW
Chi-Hsiu Liu, Zhongxiao Wang, Ye Sun, Jing Chen
Pathological angiogenesis in the eye is an important feature in the pathophysiology of many vision-threatening diseases, including retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, as well as corneal diseases with abnormal angiogenesis. Development of reproducible and reliable animal models of ocular angiogenesis has advanced our understanding of both the normal development and the pathobiology of ocular neovascularization. These models have also proven to be valuable experimental tools with which to easily evaluate potential antiangiogenic therapies beyond eye research...
July 24, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739582/gain-modulation-as-a-mechanism-for-coding-depth-from-motion-parallax-in-macaque-area-mt
#11
HyungGoo R Kim, Dora E Angelaki, Gregory C DeAngelis
Observer translation produces differential image motion between objects that are located at different distances from the observer's point of fixation (motion parallax). However, motion parallax can be ambiguous with respect to depth sign (near vs. far), and this ambiguity can be resolved by combining retinal image motion with signals regarding eye movement relative to the scene. We have previously demonstrated that both extra-retinal and visual signals related to smooth eye movements can modulate the responses of neurons in area MT of macaque monkeys, and that these modulations generate neural selectivity for depth sign...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739552/an-assessment-of-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-thickness-in-non-diabetic-obese-children-and-adolescents
#12
Bediz Özen, Hakan Öztürk, Gönül Çatlı, Bumin Dündar
OBJECTIVE: Obesity affects almost all systems in the body and can also cause injury to the retinal nerve fibers due to a chronic inflammatory processAim: To determine changes in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in non-diabetic children and adolescents using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to evaluate the relation between this change and metabolic risk factors and pubertal stage. METHODS: Thirty eight obese and 40 healthy children and adolescents aged 10-18 years were included...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739419/retinal-non-perfusion-in-the-posterior-pole-is-associated-with-increased-risk-of-neovascularization-in-central-retinal-vein-occlusion
#13
Luke Nicholson, Clara Vazquez-Alfageme, Namritha V Patrao, Ioanna Triantafyllopolou, James W Bainbridge, Philip G Hykin, Sobha Sivaprasad
PURPOSE: To review the definition of ischaemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and stratify the risk of neovascular complication based on wider areas of visible retinal non-perfusion. DESIGN: Retrospective consecutive case series and image analysis study METHODS: Setting: Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, United Kingdom. STUDY POPULATION: 42 consecutive treatment naïve eyes with CRVO imaged with ultra-widefield angiography with a minimum of 12 months follow-up...
July 21, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739342/a-pro-inflammatory-function-of-toll-like-receptor-2-in-the-retinal-pigment-epithelium-as-a-novel-target-for-reducing-choroidal-neovascularization-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#14
Lili Feng, Meihua Ju, Kei Ying Vivian Lee, Ashley Mackey, Mariasilvia Evangelista, Daiju Iwata, Peter Adamson, Kameran Lashkari, Richard Foxton, David Shima, Yin Shan Ng
Current treatments for choroidal neovascularization, a major cause of blindness for patients with age-related macular degeneration, treat symptoms but not the underlying causes of the disease. Inflammation has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of choroidal neovascularization. We examined the inflammatory role of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in age-related macular degeneration. TLR2 was robustly expressed by the retinal pigment epithelium in mouse and human eyes, both normal and with macular degeneration/choroidal neovascularization...
July 21, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739278/p38mapk-plays-a-critical-role-in-induction-of-a-pro-inflammatory-phenotype-of-retinal-m%C3%A3-ller-cells-following-zika-virus-infection
#15
Shuang Zhu, Huanle Luo, Hua Liu, Yonju Ha, Elizabeth R Mays, Ryan E Lawrence, Evandro Winkelmann, Alan D Barrett, Sylvia B Smith, Min Wang, Tian Wang, Wenbo Zhang
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with ocular abnormalities such as chorioretinal atrophy, optic nerve abnormalities, posterior uveitis and idiopathic maculopathy. Yet our knowledge about ZIKV infection in retinal cells and its potential contribution to retinal pathology is still very limited. Here we found that primary Müller cells, the principal glial cells in the retina, expressed a high level of ZIKV entry cofactor AXL gene and were highly permissive to ZIKV infection. In addition, ZIKV-infected Müller cells exhibited a pro-inflammatory phenotype and produced many inflammatory and growth factors...
July 21, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739193/intraocular-metastasis-comparison-of-clinical-presentation-with-a-known-and-unknown-primary-tumour
#16
R Ramoa, M A Saornil, C García-Alvarez, P Diezhandino, P Alonso-Martínez, E García-Lagarto, M F Muñoz-Moreno, F Lopez-Lara
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study is to review the frequency of intraocular metastases as first presentation of systemic disease, and to identify clinical and tumour characteristics. METHODS: Retrospective study of consecutive cases diagnosed of intraocular metástasis at a referral intraocular tumours unit between 1993 and 2014. General, epidemiological and ophthalmological characteristics were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 21 patients, with a mean age 62...
July 21, 2017: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739100/movement-of-retinal-vessels-toward-the-optic-nerve-head-after-increasing-intraocular-pressure-in-monkey-eyes-with-experimental-glaucoma
#17
Atsumi Kuroda, Nobuko Enomoto, Kyoko Ishida, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Tetsuro Noguchi, Naoto Horai, Hirotaka Onoe, Hideaki Hara, Goji Tomita
A shift or displacement of the retinal blood vessels (RBVs) with neuroretinal rim thinning indicates the progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. In chronic open angle glaucoma, individuals with RBV positional shifts exhibit more rapid visual field loss than those without RBV shifts. The retinal vessels reportedly move onto the optic nerve head (ONH) in response to glaucoma damage, suggesting that RBVs are pulled toward the ONH in response to increased cupping. Whether this phenomenon only applies to RVBs located in the vicinity or inside the ONH or, more generally, to RBVs also located far from the ONH, however, is unclear...
July 21, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738845/lutein-and-zeaxanthin-isomers-modulates-lipid-metabolism-and-the-inflammatory-state-of-retina-in-obesity-induced-high-fat-diet-rodent-model
#18
Mehmet Tuzcu, Cemal Orhan, Omer Ersin Muz, Nurhan Sahin, Vijaya Juturu, Kazım Sahin
BACKGROUND: Several studies associated high-fat intakes with a high incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Lutein and Zeaxanthin isomers (L/Zi) may counteract reactive oxygen species produced by oxidative stress. The present study was conducted to determine the possible effects of L/Zi administration on lipid profile, protein genes associated with oxidative stress and inflammation pathways in the obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in rodents. METHODS: Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were allocated into four groups as follows: (i) Control, (ii) Control + L/Zi, (iii) High Fat Diet (HFD), and (iv) HFD+ L/Z...
July 24, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738764/neuroprotection-by-endo-cannabinoids-in-glaucoma-and-retinal-neurodegenerative-diseases
#19
Cinzia Rapino, Daniel Tortolani, Lucia Scipioni, Mauro Maccarrone
Emerging neuroprotective strategies are being explored to preserve the retina from degeneration, that occurs in eye pathologies like glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinitis pigmentosa. Incidentally, neuroprotection of retina is a defending mechanism designed to prevent or delay neuronal cell death, and to maintain neural function following an initial insult, thus avoiding loss of vision. Numerous studies have investigated potential neuroprotective properties of plant-derived phytocannabinoids, as well as of their endogenous counterparts collectively termed endocannabinoids (eCBs), in several degenerative diseases of the retina...
July 24, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738418/molecular-pathway-to-protection-from-age-dependent-photoreceptor-degeneration-in-mef2-deficiency
#20
Saumya Nagar, Dorit Trudler, Scott R McKercher, Juan Piña-Crespo, Nobuki Nakanishi, Shu-Ichi Okamoto, Stuart A Lipton
Purpose: Photoreceptor degeneration in the retina is a major cause of blindness in humans. Elucidating mechanisms of degenerative and neuroprotective pathways in photoreceptors should afford identification and development of therapeutic strategies. Methods: We used mouse genetic models and improved methods for retinal explant cultures. Retinas were enucleated from Mef2d+/+ and Mef2d-/- mice, stained for MEF2 proteins and outer nuclear layer thickness, and assayed for apoptotic cells...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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