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Ophthalmic fluoroquinolone

Vincenzo Papa, Anna Rita Blanco, Marcello Santocono
PURPOSE: To characterize the ocular flora in a consecutive group of patients having cataract surgery and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile of isolates to several ophthalmic antibiotics. SETTING: Hospital Di Stefano, Catania, Italy. DESIGN: Observational case series. METHODS: Conjunctival and eyelid cultures from patients were obtained 14 days before surgery and, if positive, repeated the day of the surgery...
September 2016: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Luisa C Domingos, Matheus Vilardo L Moreira, Kelly M Keller, Fernando Antônio B Viana, Marília M Melo, Benito Soto-Blanco
The fourth-generation fluoroquinolones are widely used as ophthalmic antimicrobials. This study aimed to validate a new analytical technique for simultaneous quantification of gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, and besifloxacin concentrations in the cornea and aqueous humor by liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF/MS) at 10min and 1h after instillation of topical ophthalmic antimicrobial suspensions. It was used twenty-two male dogs without ocular lesions verified by ophthalmic and histologic examinations...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Shiwen Song, Dongyang Zhao, Jing Sun, Qiuyan Miao, Xiaojie Liu, Yanling Wang, Lu Zhong, Meng Xu, Peng Zhang
Lomefloxacin is a kind of synthetic fluoroquinolone antibiotic, which is used for the treatment of infectious diseases. In this study, a rapid and efficient liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assay was developed to determine the concentration of lomefloxacin in rabbit aqueous humor quantitatively. Aqueous humor samples were extracted by protein precipitation. Ofloxacin was chosen as internal standard. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Kinetex C18 (50mm×2.10mm, 2.6μm, Phenomenex Corp, USA) column, with a gradient of methanol (0...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Andreana Marino, Anna Rita Blanco, Giovanna Ginestra, Antonia Nostro, Giuseppe Bisignano
In recent years, the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains has been observed in ocular infections. Resistance of MRSA to second- and third-generation fluoroquinolones has increased interest in the fourth-generation fluoroquinolones. In this study, the antibacterial activity of gemifloxacin against MRSA ocular isolates in vitro and in a modified ex vivo rabbit keratitis model was investigated. In vitro susceptibility test results indicated that the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of gemifloxacin were lower than the MICs of other fluoroquinolones, including moxifloxacin (MIC50 range, 0...
October 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Seunghun Lee, Jun Ho Lee, Jin Hyoung Park, Yeoreum Yoon, Wan Kyun Chung, Hungwon Tchah, Myoung Joon Kim, Ki Hean Kim
Moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin are fourth-generation fluoroquinolone antibiotics used in the clinic to prevent or treat ocular infections. Their pharmacokinetics in the cornea is usually measured from extracted ocular fluids or tissues, and in vivo direct measurement is difficult. In this study multiphoton microscopy (MPM), which is a 3D optical microscopic technique based on multiphoton fluorescence, was applied to the measurement of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin distribution in the cornea. Intrinsic multiphoton fluorescence properties of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin were characterized, and their distributions in mouse cornea in vivo were measured by 3D MPM imaging...
2016: Scientific Reports
Takashi Suzuki, Toshihiro Yamamoto, Yuichi Ohashi
The incidence of fluoroquinolone-resistant staphylococcal isolates from the conjunctival sac is increasing. We compared pharmacological effects of levofloxacin (LVFX) against Staphylococcus epidermidis using an in vitro pharmacokinetic (PK) model simulating the concentration in the bulbar conjunctiva after applying eye drops of 0.5% and 1.5% LVFX. We used S. epidermidis conjunctival sac isolates [minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of LVFX, 0.125 μg/mL]. LVFX-resistant strains were obtained from parental strains after culture with LVFX...
June 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Francis S Mah, Christine M Sanfilippo
This comprehensive review summarizes the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension, 0.6% and examines its role in the treatment of ocular surface bacterial infections. Besifloxacin possesses balanced activity against bacterial topoisomerase II (also called DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV. It has shown a low potential to select for bacterial resistance in vitro and demonstrated strong in vitro activity against many Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and anaerobic organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSA and MRSE, respectively)...
June 2016: Ophthalmology and Therapy
Charu Sharma, Nihar R Biswas, Shreesh Ojha, Thirumurthy Velpandian
OBJECTIVE: Corneal permeability of drugs is an important factor used to assess the efficacy of topical preparations. Transcorneal penetration of drugs from aqueous formulation is governed by various physiological, physiochemical, and formulation factors. In the present study, we investigated the effect of formulation factors like concentration, pH, and volume of instillation across the cornea using cassette dosing technique for ophthalmic fluoroquinolones (FQs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sterile cocktail formulations were prepared using four congeneric ophthalmic FQs (ofloxacin, sparfloxacin, pefloxacin mesylate, and gatifloxacin) at concentrations of 0...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Ama Sadaka, Marlene L Durand, Robert Sisk, Michael S Gilmore
PURPOSE: To review antibiotic resistance associated with S. aureus endophthalmitis and the virulence of S. aureus. METHODS: Review of the current and prospective approaches for treating S. aureus endophthalmitis. RESULTS: Bacterial endophthalmitis remains to be a major threat for vision. S. aureus endophthalmitis specifically, carries a poor visual prognosis making early diagnosis and treatment crucial. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) endophthalmitis represents a significant number of S...
December 17, 2015: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Monika Lazicka-Gałecka, Tomasz Gałecki, Jacek P Szaflik
Levofloxacin 0.5% ophthalmic solution is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent with a broad spectrum of activity against Gram positive and negative bacteria. For those reasons it is highly effective in treating common external infections of the eye including blepharitis, conjunctivitis, keratitis. In terms of microbial eradication and clinical cure rate it is significantly more effective than ofloxacin 0.3% ophthalmic solution, and non inferior to moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution. After topical administration of levofloxacin 0...
2015: Klinika Oczna
Tsan-Chi Chen, Tzu-Yun Tsai, Shu-Wen Chang
Topical fluoroquinolones are widely used to prevent ocular infections after ophthalmic surgery. However, they have been shown to affect the corneal cell motility, whose mechanism remains indefinite. The purpose of this study was to investigate how fluoroquinolones affect corneal stromal cell motility. Human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs) were incubated in ciprofloxacin (CIP), levofloxacin (LEV), or moxifloxacin (MOX) at 0, 10, 50, and 100 μg/ml for up to 3 days. Effect of CIP, LEV, or MOX on HCF migration was monitored using migration assay...
April 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Christine M Sanfilippo, Ian Morrissey, Regina Janes, Timothy W Morris
PURPOSE/AIM: Bacterial infections of the ocular surface are commonly treated empirically with broad spectrum antibiotics. Due to concerns over increasing antibiotic resistance, we evaluated current susceptibility patterns of the ocular bacterial pathogens in Europe. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Non-consecutive ocular isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were collected in 2011 from centers in France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Slovak Republic, Spain, and the United Kingdom...
May 2016: Current Eye Research
Masamichi Fukuda, Hiroshi Sasaki
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of fluoroquinolone-based antibacterial ophthalmic solutions on cell proliferation in vitro and corneal wound healing in vivo. METHODS: Staten's Serum institute rabbit corneal cells were exposed to phosphate-buffered saline, 1.5% and 0.5% levofloxacin, 0.5% moxifloxacin, and 0.3% gatifloxacin, for 2 min, following which the cells were incubated without the drug. The cell viability was evaluated after 24 or 72 h of incubation. Rabbit corneal epithelial abrasion models created using n-heptanol were instilled with saline or fluoroquinolone-based solutions 7 times at 30-min intervals, following which corneal epithelial wound healing was evaluated from 30 min to 48 h by the measurement of electrical corneal resistance (CR) ratios...
November 2015: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Frank A Bucci, Ruth E Evans, Loretta M Amico, Timothy W Morris, Angel T Fluet, Christine M Sanfilippo, Heleen H DeCory, Timothy L Comstock
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the ocular bacterial flora in patients scheduled to undergo cataract surgery and compare the antibacterial effects of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension 0.6% and moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution 0.5% in these patients. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, laboratory-masked clinical trial. Patients received besifloxacin or moxifloxacin "quater in die" or QID (four times a day) for 3 days before cataract surgery in the surgical eye and 1 hour before surgery in the nonsurgical fellow eye...
2015: Clinical Ophthalmology
Hidenori Inoue, Takashi Suzuki, Tomoyuki Inoue, Takaaki Hattori, Ryohei Nejima, Daisuke Todokoro, Saichi Hoshi, Hiroshi Eguchi, Hitoshi Miyamoto, Yuichi Ohashi
PURPOSE: Moraxella species are rare causative pathogens of severe sight-threatening keratitis. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical presentation, predisposing risk factors, in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility, and treatment associated with Moraxella keratitis. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 30 culture-proven cases of Moraxella keratitis from multiple centers in Japan. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 58.4 ± 23...
September 2015: Cornea
Victoria S Chang, Deepinder K Dhaliwal, Leela Raju, Regis P Kowalski
PURPOSE: We compared the resistance patterns of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) keratitis isolates with the common topically applied ophthalmic antimicrobials. METHODS: We reviewed the antibiotic susceptibility results of 122 MRSA and 276 MSSA keratitis isolates from January 1993 to November 2012. In vitro susceptibility testing of each Staphylococcus aureus (SA) isolate was performed using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion based on modified serum interpretations for cefoxitin, bacitracin, cefazolin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, gentamicin, moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, polymyxin B, sulfamethoxazole, tobramycin, and trimethoprim...
June 2015: Cornea
Shuhei Hidaka, Mitsutoshi Kobayashi, Kunihide Ando, Yoshikazu Fujii
Lomefloxacin is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic used for the treatment of bacterial extraocular disease. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of lomefloxacin eye drops for bacterial extraocular disease in horses. Lomefloxacin ophthalmic solution (0.3%) was instilled three times daily for 2-5 days in 65 horses diagnosed with bacterial extraocular disease based on clinical findings. Clinical observations and bacteriological examinations were performed at the start of treatment, 2 and 5 days after the start of treatment, and at the discontinuation or termination of treatment...
July 2015: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Junsung Lee, Sangkyung Choi
PURPOSE: To identify the risk factors associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in patients undergoing cataract surgery. METHODS: A total of 1,125 patients (1,125 eyes) who underwent cataract surgery at Veterans Health Service Medical Center from May 2011 to July 2012 were enrolled in this study. Conjunctival cultures were obtained from the patients on the day of surgery before instillation of any ophthalmic solutions. The medical records of patients with positive coagulase negative staphylococcus (CNS) and Staphylococcus aureus (S...
February 2015: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
Min-Hee Kang, Min-Joo Chae, Jang-Won Yoon, So-Young Lee, Jong-Hyun Yoo, Hee-Myung Park
Resistance to fluoroquinolones and methicillin was determined for 49 ophthalmic isolates of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from dogs with and without ophthalmic disease. Resistance was observed for ciprofloxacin (40.8%), ofloxacin (38.8%), enrofloxacin (38.8%), levofloxacin (34.7%), and moxifloxacin (4.1%). Eighteen isolates, 16 of which were resistant to oxacillin, were mecA-positive. Nine of the 16 oxacillin-resistant mecA-positive S. pseudintermedius isolates were resistant to more than one fluoroquinolone and 2 isolates were resistant to 5 fluoroquinolones...
July 2014: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Tracy D Mahvan, Jaime R Hornecker, Whitney A Buckley, Suzanne Clark
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of besifloxacin in bacterial conjunctivitis treatment. DATA SOURCES: Searches were made on MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE (January 2007 to January 2014) using the terms besifloxacin and Besivance. References from these publications were reviewed for additional resources. Additional information was collected from Bausch & Lomb, the manufacturer of Besivance;; and American Academy of Ophthalmology. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: English-language documents were reviewed for pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety, with priority on clinical trials...
May 2014: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
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