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Non melanoma skin cancer

Vjekoslav Tomaić
Approximately 200 human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect human epithelial cells, of which the alpha and beta types have been the most extensively studied. Alpha HPV types mainly infect mucosal epithelia and a small group of these causes over 600,000 cancers per year worldwide at various anatomical sites, especially anogenital and head-and-neck cancers. Of these the most important is cervical cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer-related death in women in many parts of the world. Beta HPV types infect cutaneous epithelia and may contribute towards the initiation of non-melanoma skin cancers...
October 19, 2016: Cancers
R C Gerring, C T Ott, J M Curry, Z B Sargi, S T Wester
PurposeTo describe prognostic factors and survival outcomes in patients who underwent orbital exenteration for periocular non-melanoma cutaneous malignancies.MethodsThe authors performed an institutional review board-approved retrospective review of all patients who underwent orbital exenteration for non-melanoma periocular cutaneous malignancies at a tertiary care hospital system over a 10-year period. Patient demographics, tumor, and treatment data were recorded. Survival outcomes included disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS)...
October 21, 2016: Eye
James W Behan, Adam Sutton, Ashley Wysong
Skin cancer is the most common of human cancers and outnumbers all other types of cancer combined in the USA by over threefold. The majority of non-melanoma skin cancers are easily treated with surgery or locally destructive techniques performed under local anesthesia in the cost-effective outpatient setting. However, there is a subset of "high-risk" cases that prove challenging in terms of morbidity, mortality, adjuvant treatment required, as well as overall cost to the health care system. In our opinion, the term "high risk" when applied to skin cancer can mean one of three things: a high-risk tumor with aggressive histologic and/or clinical features with an elevated risk for local recurrence or regional/distant metastasis, a high-risk patient with the ongoing development of multiple skin cancers, and a high-risk patient based on immunosuppression...
December 2016: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Lea Bottlaender, Marie Perier-Muzet, Véronique Lapras, Luc Thomas, Stephane Dalle
BRAF inhibitors (vemurafenib and dabrafenib) are nowadays commonly prescribed in BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma and allow improvement of the overall survival and progression-free survival. They are, however, accompanied by many adverse effects which mainly affect the skin. We observed on computed tomographic scans in three different patients after 3 months of treatment, the onset of osteosclerotic lesions. In parallel, the computed tomographic scans showed a significant reduction in all of the previously identified metastases in all patients...
October 18, 2016: Melanoma Research
Julie Bonigen, Christine Raynaud-Donzel, José Hureaux, Nora Kramkimel, Astrid Blom, Géraldine Jeudy, Anne-Laure Breton, Thomas Hubiche, Christophe Bedane, Delphine Legoupil, Anne Pham-Ledard, Julie Charles, Maurice Pérol, Emilie Gérard, Patrick Combemale, Daphné Bonnet, Michèle-Léa Sigal, Emmanuel Mahé
Nivolumab (Opdivo(®) ), pembrolizumab (Keytruda(®) ), atezolizumab, and pidilizumabab are anti-PD1 monoclonal antibodies. Nivolumab is licensed in advanced melanoma and second-line therapy of advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. When activated, the programmed cell death (PD)-1 is implicated in the inhibition of the immune system. Anti-PD1 removes this inhibition and allows the immune system to control tumour cell progression.(1-4) Immune-mediated toxicity of this treatment have been reported, either organ-specific toxicities - i...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Josefa P Alameda, Manuel Navarro, Ángel Ramírez, Angustias Page, Cristian Suárez-Cabrera, Rodolfo Moreno-Maldonado, Jesús M Paramio, M Carmen Fariña, Marcela Del Río, M Jesús Fernández-Aceñero, Ana Bravo, M Llanos Casanova
IKKα plays a mandatory role in keratinocyte differentiation and exerts an important task in non-melanoma skin cancer development. However, it is not fully understood how IKKα exerts these functions. To analyze in detail the role of IKKα in epidermal stratification and differentiation, we have generated tridimensional (3D) cultures of human HaCaT keratinocytes and fibroblasts in fibrin gels, obtaining human skin equivalents that comprise an epidermal and a dermal compartments that resembles both the structure and differentiation of normal human skin...
October 8, 2016: Oncotarget
Alexander H Fischer, Timothy S Wang, Gayane Yenokyan, Sewon Kang, Anna L Chien
Importance: Indoor tanning is prevalent among young adults and women and is associated with increased risk of melanoma. Evidence suggests that indoor tanners may be more inclined to adopt poor photoprotective practices that further increase their risk of skin cancer; however, gaps in the literature exist in young adults and by indoor tanning frequency. Objective: To examine the association between indoor tanning frequency and behaviors related to skin cancer prevention and to investigate whether these associations vary by age group or sex...
October 12, 2016: JAMA Dermatology
Xiao-Juan Nie, Wen-Min Liu, Li Zhang
BACKGROUND Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most common type of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) globally. The aims of this study were to further systematically clarify the potential association of rs833061 (-460 C>T) and rs1570360 (-1154 G>A), two SNPs of VEGF, with the risk of cSCC and the prognostic impacts on cSCC patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS This hospital-based case-control study analyzed peripheral venous blood collected from 100 cSCC patients and 124 healthy controls, and gathered personal information on patients...
October 12, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Cynthia M Rigby, Srirupa Roy, Gagan Deep, Ruth Guillermo-Lagae, Anil K Jain, Deepanshi Dhar, David J Orlicky, Chapla Agarwal, Rajesh Agarwal
Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) are a growing problem given that solar UVB radiation exposure is increasing most likely due to depletion of the atmospheric ozone layer and lack of adequate sun protection. Better preventive methods are urgently required to reduce UV-caused photodamage and NMSC incidence. Earlier, we have reported that silibinin treatment activates p53 and reduces photodamage and NMSC, both in vitro and in vivo; but whether silibinin exerts its protective effects primarily through p53 remain unknown...
October 11, 2016: Carcinogenesis
Antonella Biasiotta, Daniela D'Arcangelo, Francesca Passarelli, Ezio Maria Nicodemi, Antonio Facchiano
BACKGROUND: Several cellular functions relate to ion-channels activity. Physiologically relevant chains of events leading to angiogenesis, cell cycle and different forms of cell death, require transmembrane voltage control. We hypothesized that the unordered angiogenesis occurring in solid cancers and vascular malformations might associate, at least in part, to ion-transport alteration. METHODS: The expression level of several ion-channels was analyzed in human solid tumor biopsies...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Lore Pil, Isabelle Hoorens, Katrien Vossaert, Vibeke Kruse, Isabelle Tromme, Niko Speybroeck, Lieve Brochez, Lieven Annemans
Skin cancer (melanoma- and non-melanoma skin cancer) is one of the most rapidly increasing cancers worldwide. This study analysed the current and future economic burden of skin cancer in Belgium and the cost-effectiveness of primary prevention of skin cancer. A retrospective bottom-up cost-of-illness study was performed, together with a Markov model in order to analyse the cost-effectiveness and the budget impact analysis of primary prevention of skin cancer in Belgium. Total prevalence of skin cancer in Belgium was estimated to triple in the next 20years...
October 3, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Markus V Heppt, Cecilia Dietrich, Saskia A Graf, Thomas Ruzicka, Julia K Tietze, Carola Berking
Melanoma is a common type of skin cancer with a high propensity to metastasize. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and immune checkpoint blockade have recently revolutionized the management of unresectable and metastatic disease. However, acquired resistance and primary non-response to therapy require novel treatment strategies and combinations. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief and up-to-date overview on the clinical management and current trial landscape in melanoma...
2016: Oncology Research and Treatment
Piotr Donizy, Maciej Kaczorowski, Przemyslaw Biecek, Agnieszka Halon, Teresa Szkudlarek, Rafal Matkowski
GOLPH2 and GOLPH3 are Golgi-related proteins associated with aggressiveness and progression of a number of cancers. Their prognostic significance in melanoma has not yet been analyzed. We performed immunohistochemical analysis for GOLPH2 and GOLPH3 in 20 normal skin, 30 benign nevi and 100 primary melanoma tissue samples and evaluated their expression in three compartments: cancer cells, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). High levels of both proteins in melanoma cells were associated with characteristics of aggressive disease, and shorter disease-free survival (DFS) and cancer-specific overall survival (CSOS)...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
J Bobrowska, J Moffat, K Awsiuk, J Pabijan, J Rysz, A Budkowski, M Reading, M Lekka
Various techniques have been already reported to differentiate between normal (non-malignant) and cancerous cells based on their physico-chemical properties. This is relatively simple when studied cancerous cells originate from distant stages of cancer progression. Here, studies on chemical properties of two closely related human melanoma cell lines are presented: WM115 melanoma cells were taken from the vertical growth phase while WM266-4 from the skin metastatic site of the same patient. Their chemical properties were studied by two techniques, namely time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectra (ToF SIMS) and photothermal microspectroscopy (PTMS), used to record mass and photothermal spectra of cells, respectively...
September 16, 2016: Analyst
Amelia K Smit, David Espinoza, Ainsley J Newson, Rachael L Morton, Georgina Fenton, Lucinda Freeman, Kate Dunlop, Phyllis N Butow, Matthew H Law, Michael G Kimlin, Louise A Keogh, Suzanne J Dobbinson, Judy Kirk, Peter A Kanetsky, Graham J Mann, Anne E Cust
BACKGROUND: Communication of personalised melanoma genomic risk information may improve melanoma prevention behaviours. METHODS: We evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of communicating personalised genomic risk of melanoma to the public, and its preliminary impact on behaviours and psychosocial outcomes. 118 people aged 22-69 years provided a saliva sample and were randomised to the control (non-personalised educational materials), or intervention (personalised booklet presenting melanoma genomic risk as absolute and relative risks and a risk category based on variants in 21 genes, telephone-based genetic counselling, and non-personalised educational materials)...
October 4, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
D W Donnelly, A T Gavin
ABSTRACT: Whilst survival rates for childhood cancers are excellent, it is known that these patients have an increased risk of death from disease recurrence and other causes. We investigate patterns, trends and survival of cancers in children and young adults in N. Ireland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 21 years (1993-2013) of cancer incidence data including non-malignant brain tumours from the N. Ireland Cancer Registry for persons aged 0-24 years was analysed using Joinpoint regresssion for trend and the Kaplan Meier method for survival analysis up to end 2013 with excess mortality calculated at one and five years after first cancer diagnosis using standardised mortality ratios...
September 2016: Ulster Medical Journal
Naseem Akhtar, Riaz A Khan
Skin cancer is among one of the most common human malignancies wide-spread world-over with mortality statistics rising continuously at an alarming rate. The increasing frequency of these malignancies has marked the need for adopting effective treatment plan coupled with better and site-specific delivery options for the desired therapeutic agent's availability at the affected site. The concurrent delivery approaches to cancerous tissues are under constant challenge and, as a result, are evolving and gaining advancements in terms of delivery modes, therapeutic agents and site-specificity of the therapeutics delivery...
September 30, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
Maxime Dougados, Désirée van der Heijde, Ying-Chou Chen, Maria Greenwald, Edit Drescher, Jiajun Liu, Scott Beattie, Sarah Witt, Inmaculada de la Torre, Carol Gaich, Terence Rooney, Douglas Schlichting, Stephanie de Bono, Paul Emery
BACKGROUND: Baricitinib is an oral, reversible, selective Janus kinase 1 and 2 inhibitor. METHODS: In this phase III, double-blind 24-week study, 684 biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD)-naïve patients with rheumatoid arthritis and inadequate response or intolerance to ≥1 conventional synthetic DMARDs were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to placebo or baricitinib (2 or 4 mg) once daily, stratified by region and the presence of joint erosions. Endpoint measures included American College of Rheumatology 20% response (ACR20, primary endpoint), Disease Activity Score (DAS28) and Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) score ≤3...
September 29, 2016: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Yuehong Chen, Marcia Friedman, Gang Liu, Atul Deodhar, Cong-Qiu Chu
Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) activity has profoundly changed the management of several immune-mediated inflammatory diseases with great benefit for patients. The application of TNF inhibitors (TNFi), however, also brings a new concern, malignancy. We performed a systemic review to collect the studies reporting cancer incidences and risks in TNFi users regardless of indications. TNFi were most frequently used in treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)...
September 26, 2016: Cytokine
Silvia Potenziani, Danielle Applebaum, Bhuvaneswari Krishnan, Carolina Gutiérrez, A Hafeez Diwan
Cowden Syndrome (CS) is an uncommon autosomal dominant multiorgan/system genodermatosis. It is characterized by the development of multiple hamartomas of endodermal, mesodermal and ectodermal origin, an increased lifetime risk of breast, thyroid, endometrial, and other cancers and an identifiable germline mutation. Mucocutaneous hamartomas are the most common lesions seen and mainly include facial trichilemmomas, oral mucosal papillomas, and benign acral keratoses. Herein, we report a case of a 63-year-old Caucasian male with a long-established diagnosis of CS and history of thyroid cancer, colonic polyps, and innumerable trichilemmomas, seborrheic keratoses, squamous papillomas, and non-melanoma skin cancers excised in the past...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
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