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spleen tumors

A A Yarovoy, O V Golubeva, S S Kleyankina, T V Yanchenko
Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JX) is a benign growth of fibrohistiocytoma range that mainly affects children. The most frequent localization of the tumor is skin integument. Non-cutaneous forms of JX are found in 5-10% of cases; they are manifested as deep lesions of soft tissues, involvement of various organs (oropharynx, lungs, liver, spleen, pericardium, gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system, bone marrow) including the organ of vision. JX can develop in any part of the eye and its appendages. Taking into consideration how rare this pathology is, its diagnosis and treatment are complicated...
2018: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Laura Aragoneses-Fenoll, Gloria Ojeda, María Montes-Casado, Yeny Acosta-Ampudia, Umberto Dianzani, Pilar Portolés, José M Rojo
Class IA phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) catalytic subunits p110α and p110δ are targets in cancer therapy expressed at high levels in T lymphocytes. The role of p110δ PI3K in normal or pathological immune responses is well established, yet the importance of p110α subunits in T cell-dependent immune responses is not clear. To address this problem, mice with p110α conditionally deleted in CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes (p110α-/- ΔT) were used. p110α-/- ΔT mice show normal development of T cell subsets, but slightly reduced numbers of CD4+ T cells in the spleen...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Brittany P Lassiter, Siqi Guo, Stephen J Beebe
Nano-pulse stimulation (NPS), previously called nsPEFs, induced a vaccine-like effect after ablation of orthotopic N1-S1 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), protecting rats from subsequent challenges with N1-S1 cells. To determine immunity, immune cell phenotypes were analyzed in naïve, treated and protected rats. NPS provides a positive, post-ablation immuno-therapeutic outcome by alleviating immunosuppressive T regulatory cells (Treg) in the tumor microenvironment (TME), allowing dendritic cell influx and inducing dynamic changes in natural killer cells (NKs), NKT-cells and T-lymphocytes in blood, spleen and liver...
March 13, 2018: Cancers
Wensheng Zhang, Wanzhuo He, Xiaodong Shi, Xiao Li, Yuanyuan Wang, Minghua Hu, Fangli Ma, Ning Tao, Guiqin Wang, Zhihai Qin
Despite decades of research, malignant tumors are extremely difficult to eliminate with conventional methods. Although surgical resection potentially eradicates the problem, only a few cases are suitable for operation, and other approaches often involve harmful consequences. Revolutionary methods are desperately needed to improve patient outcomes and diminish harmful side effects. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), downregulators of the innate and adaptive immune systems, have been widely studied over the past 2 decades...
March 13, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Rohit A Gupta, Meha N Motiwala, Ujawala N Mahajan, Sapna S Sabare
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The plant Sesbania grandiflora (Linn) belonging to the family Fabaceae is commonly known as sesbania, agathi, and katurai. The plant is accredited for alleviating a spectrum of ailments including inflammation, colitis, diarrhea, dysentery, leprosy, gout, rheumatism, jaundice, bronchitis, convulsion and anxiety. It is also used as antitumour, anthelmintic, and laxatives in Ayurveda and Siddha system of Indian traditional medicine. AIM: To reveal protective effect of Sesbania grandiflora in acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis in mice...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Frank J Simutis, Thomas P Sanderson, Gary D Pilcher, Michael J Graziano
The toxicity of avagacestat, a sulfonamide-based gamma (γ)-secretase inhibitor that was in development as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease, was evaluated in a comprehensive nonclinical toxicology program that included 6-month and 1-year repeat-dose toxicity studies in rats and dogs, respectively. There was a spectrum of mechanism-based changes attributed to inhibition of Notch signaling that regulates the differentiation and proliferation of cells throughout development and in adult tissues. In both rats and dogs, ovarian follicular degeneration and atrophy and a low incidence of granulosa cell hyperplasia and benign granulosa-thecal cell tumors were observed...
February 24, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Melda Onal, Alex H Carlson, Jeff D Thostenson, Nancy A Benkusky, Mark B Meyer, Seong M Lee, J Wesley Pike
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) production is regulated by both calciotropic hormones and inflammation. Consistent with this, elevated FGF23 levels are associated with inflammatory markers as well as parathyroid hormone (PTH) in various disease states, including chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the molecular mechanisms underpinning Fgf23 transcription in response to these regulators are largely unknown. We therefore utilized chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) data from an osteocyte cell line to identify potential regulatory regions of the Fgf23 gene...
January 2018: JBMR Plus
Mai Hazekawa, Kazuhiko Ono, Takuya Nishinakagawa, Tomoyo Kawakubo-Yasukochi, Manabu Nakashima
Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA), which exerts a wide range of anti-inflammatory effects, is rapidly cleared from the body (approximately 98%) by urinary excretion by 24 h after oral treatment in humans. PBA was almost entirely excreted to urine as phenylacetyl glutamine (PAGln). However, no data describe the potential anti-inflammatory effects of PAGln. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of PAGln on mouse spleen cells and peritoneal cavity cells, and explore the potential mechanism underlying this effect...
March 10, 2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Fang Zhu, Ismat Khatri, David Spaner, Reginald M Gorczynski
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B cells (CLL) are malignant cells which retain at least some functions of normal B cells. Paramount amongst the latter is that when such cells are appropriately stimulated, they are able to present antigens, including any potential tumor antigens, making them excellent choices as a candidate tumor vaccine. We show that following stimulation of CLL cells with Phorbol myristic acetate, IL-2, the TLR7 agonist imiquimod (P2I) and ionomycin (P2Iio), markedly increased expression of CD54 and CD83 was seen, indicative of B cell activation and a transition to antigen-presenting cells...
March 2, 2018: Leukemia Research
Hiromichi Kawaida, Ayako Kimura, Mitsuaki Watanabe, Hidenori Akaike, Naohiro Hosomura, Yoshihiko Kawaguchi, Hidetake Amemiya, Makoto Sudo, Hiroshi Kono, Masanori Matsuda, Hideki Fujii, Daisuke Ichikawa, Mitsuharu Fukasawa, Ei Takahashi, Katsuhiro Sano, Tomohiro Inoue
INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal duplication cyst is a congenital rare disease that may occur in any region from mouth to anus. Among them, gastric duplication cysts are very rare. CASE REPORT: Here we report A 23-year-old Japanese man who visited our hospital to evaluate an abdominal tumor. Abdominal computed tomography showed a well-circumscribed homogenous low-density mass measuring 6.2 × 6.0 cm between the pancreatic tail and the upper posterior wall on the gastric greater curvature, and the mass seemed to originate from the pancreatic tail...
February 24, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Claus Uhrenholt Christensen, Emilie Glavind, Karen Louise Thomsen, Yong Ook Kim, Sara Heebøll, Detlef Schuppan, Stephen Hamilton-Dutoit, Christian Würtz Heegaard, Henning Grønbæk
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatic cholesterol deposition drives inflammation and fibrosis in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The Niemann-Pick type C2 (NPC2) protein plays an important role in regulating intracellular cholesterol trafficking and homeostasis. We hypothesized that intravenous NPC2 supplementation reduces cholesterol accumulation, hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis in a nutritional NASH rat model. METHODS: Rats were fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet for four weeks resulting in moderately severe NASH...
2018: PloS One
Linda Kievit, Pia Kræmer, Stephen Hamilton-Dutoit, Henning Grønbæk
A 37-year-old male, who at the age of 8 years had been treated for right-sided Wilms' tumor with nephrectomy, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, presented with noncirrhotic portal hypertension (NCPH), grade 2 esophageal varices, and ascites. A CT scan demonstrated hypoplasia of liver segments 2 and 3. A liver biopsy showed portal tract fibrosis without cirrhosis, with histological features of NCPH. Liver vein catheterization showed a normal portal pressure gradient of 5 mm Hg while spleen to hepatic vein pressure was 29 mm Hg...
January 2018: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
Denis R Beckford Vera, Christof C Smith, Lisa M Bixby, Dylan M Glatt, Stuart S Dunn, Ryoichi Saito, William Y Kim, Jonathan S Serody, Benjamin G Vincent, Matthew C Parrott
The ability to non-invasively monitor tumor-infiltrating T cells in vivo could provide a powerful tool to visualize and quantify tumor immune infiltrates. For non-invasive evaluations in vivo, an anti-CD3 mAb was modified with desferrioxamine (DFO) and radiolabeled with zirconium-89 (Zr-89 or 89Zr). Radiolabeled 89Zr-DFO-anti-CD3 was tested for T cell detection using positron emission tomography (PET) in both healthy mice and mice bearing syngeneic bladder cancer BBN975. In vivo PET/CT and ex vivo biodistribution demonstrated preferential accumulation and visualization of tracer in the spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and bone marrow...
2018: PloS One
Najmeh Khosravianfar, Jamshid Hadjati, Afshin Namdar, Roobina Boghozian, Morteza Hafezi, Mahboubeh Ashourpour, Nasim Kheshtchin, Mahsa Banitalebi, Reza Mirzaei, Seyed Alireza Razavi
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are capable of suppressing the immune response. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) compared to other chemotherapy drugs have shown considerable decreases in the number of MDSCs without visible effects on T, B and natural killer cells, as well as dendritic cells (DCs). DC-based vaccines considered to be appropriate candidates for cancer immunotherapy. However, due to the presence of various factors like MDSCs in tumor microenvironment, DC vaccine cannot effectively perform its function...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Binghao Li, Yang Zeng, Patrick M Reeves, Chongzhao Ran, Qiuyan Liu, Xiying Qu, Yingying Liang, Zhao Liu, Jianping Yuan, Pierre R Leblanc, Zhaoming Ye, Ann E Sluder, Jeffrey A Gelfand, Timothy A Brauns, Huabiao Chen, Mark C Poznansky
AMD3100 (plerixafor), a CXCR4 antagonist, has been demonstrated to suppress tumor growth and modulate intratumoral T-cell trafficking. However, the effect of AMD3100 on immunomodulation remains elusive. Here, we explored immunomodulation and antitumor efficacy of AMD3100 in combination with a previously developed mesothelin-targeted, immune-activating fusion protein, VIC-008, in two syngeneic, orthotopic models of malignant mesothelioma (MM) in immunocompetent mice. We showed that combination therapy significantly suppressed tumor growth and prolonged animal survival in two mouse models...
March 6, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
Shungo Minami, Kyuma Suzuki, Shun Watanabe, Motohiko Sano, Goshi Kato
In this study, we investigated maturation-associated changes in non-specific immune responses of ayu against Flavobacterium psychrophilum. The gonadosomatic index was minimum on 16 June, began to increase on 17 July, and reached the maximum value during August. The highest phagocytic rate (16.3%) was observed on 16 June, which decreased significantly to 5.6% on 26 August. The number of viable bacteria after the serum treatment was highest during August, suggesting that bactericidal activity of the serum decreased along with the sexual maturation...
March 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Maryline Bourgine, Sandrine Crabe, Yadira Lobaina, Gerardo Guillen, Julio Cesar Aguilar, Marie-Louise Michel
Immunization routes and number of doses remain largely unexplored in therapeutic vaccination. The aim of the present work is to evaluate their impact on immune responses in naïve and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-carrier mouse models following immunization with a non-adjuvanted recombinant vaccine comprising the hepatitis B surface (HBsAg) and core (HBcAg) antigens. Mice were immunized either by intranasal (i.n.), subcutaneous (s.c.) or simultaneous (i.n. + s.c.) routes. Humoral immunity was detected in all the animal models with the induction of a potent antibody (Ab) response against HBcAg, which was stronger than the anti-HBs response...
March 3, 2018: Antiviral Research
Connie B Gilfillan, Sabine Kuhn, Camille Baey, Evelyn J Hyde, Jianping Yang, Christiane Ruedl, Franca Ronchese
In the steady state, tumors harbor several populations of dendritic cells (DCs) and myeloid cells that are key regulators of the intratumoral immune environment. Among these cells, migratory CD103+ cross-presenting DCs are thought to be critical for tumor-specific CTL responses and tumor resistance. However, it is unclear whether this prominent role also extends to immunotherapy. We used a murine orthotopic mammary tumor model, as well as Clec9A-diphtheria toxin receptor mice that can be depleted of the specialized cross-presenting CD8α+ and CD103+ DC1 subsets, to investigate the role of these DCs in immunotherapy...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Dan Li, Siyuan Cheng, Sijuan Zou, Dongling Zhu, Tinghui Zhu, Pilin Wang, Xiaohua Zhu
Recently, various immuno-PET tracers based on monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), engineered scaffold proteins and peptides were developed to target either programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) or programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), showing promise in assessment of immune checkpoints. We sought to develop an immunotherapeutic agent-based PET probe that enable real-time assessment of PD-L1 expression and evaluation of antibody drug biodistribution to select eligible candidates for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapies...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Hai-Lian Lyu, Jian-Xia Cao, Hai-Yi Wang, Zhan-Bo Wang, Ming-Gen Hu, Lu Ma, Ying-Wei Wang, Hui-Yi Ye
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to retrospectively analyze whether double-echo gradient-echo (GRE) chemical shift imaging (CSI) can differentiate between pancreatic metastases from clear cell renal cell carcinoma (PM-ccRCC) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET). METHODS: Institutional review board approval and informed consent were waived. CSI, T2WI, DWI, and DCE magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed in patients with PM-ccRCC and pNET. Eleven patients with PM-ccRCC and 24 patients with pNET were enrolled into this retrospective study...
March 3, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
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