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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088403/ginkgo-fruit-extract-as-an-additive-to-modify-rumen-microbiota-and-fermentation-and-to-mitigate-methane-production
#1
S Oh, R Shintani, S Koike, Y Kobayashi
Ginkgo fruit, an unused byproduct of the ginkgo nut industry, contains antimicrobial compounds known as anacardic acids. Two major cultivars of ginkgo, Kyuju (K) and Tokuro (T), were evaluated for their potential as a feed additive for ruminants. In batch culture, we incubated a mixture of hay and concentrate in diluted rumen fluid with or without 1.6% (fruit equivalent) ginkgo fruit extract. We conducted another series of batch culture studies to determine the dose response of fermentation. We also conducted continuous culture using the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC) with cultivar K and carried out a pure culture study to monitor the sensitivity of 17 representative rumen bacterial species to ginkgo extract and component phenolics...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081525/effect-of-free-nitrous-acid-pre-treatment-on-primary-sludge-at-low-exposure-times
#2
S Zahedi, P Icaran, Z Yuan, M Pijuan
The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of different free nitrous acid (FNA) concentrations at low pre-treatment times (PTs) (1, 2 and 5h) and without pH control with mild agitation on primary sludge (PS) biodegradability and methane production (MP). Increasing PTs resulted in an increase in the solubility of the organic matter (around 25%), but not on cell-mortality (>75% in all the cases with FNA) and neither on methane generation. FNA pre-treatment at low PTs improve MP (around 16% at PT of 1h and 650mg N-NO2(-)/L)...
January 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081161/factors-related-with-ch4-and-n2o-emissions-from-a-paddy-field-clues-for-management-implications
#3
Chun Wang, Derrick Y F Lai, Jordi Sardans, Weiqi Wang, Congsheng Zeng, Josep Peñuelas
Paddy fields are major sources of global atmospheric greenhouse gases, including methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The different phases previous to emission (production, transport, diffusion, dissolution in pore water and ebullition) despite well-established have rarely been measured in field conditions. We examined them and their relationships with temperature, soil traits and plant biomass in a paddy field in Fujian, southeastern China. CH4 emission was positively correlated with CH4 production, plant-mediated transport, ebullition, diffusion, and concentration of dissolved CH4 in porewater and negatively correlated with sulfate concentration, suggesting the potential use of sulfate fertilizers to mitigate CH4 release...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078649/acidogenic-digestion-of-pre-pulping-extracts-for-production-of-fuels-and-bioproducts-via-carboxylate-platform-processing
#4
Rakhi Baddam, G Peter van Walsum
Hemicellulose extracted from wood prior to processing the wood into paper or composite materials can be a resource for the production of biofuels or bioproducts. Mixed microbial cultures are capable of converting biomass into mixed carboxylic acids, which can be purified as products or converted to biofuels or other biochemicals. Mixed cultures are robust conversion systems and do not require added enzymes to hydrolyze biomass to sugars. We produced mixed carboxylic acids using mesophilic and thermophilic fermentation of raw, unconditioned green liquor and hot water hardwood extracts, as well as baseline sugar solutions...
January 11, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078549/functionalized-ionic-liquid-assisted-chromatography-free-synthesis-of-bis-indolyl-methanes
#5
Sunita Choudhary, Khima Pandey, Saroj Budania, Anil Kumar
A chromatography-free synthesis of bis(indolyl)methanes has been developed using sulfonic acid and sulfonyl hydrazine-functionalized ionic liquids as catalyst and scavenger, respectively. The employed excess aldehyde for completion of the reaction was scavenged by sulfonyl hydrazine-functionalized ionic liquid. Purification of products without column chromatography, ease of monitoring and shorter reaction time are the salient features of the developed protocol. The reuse and regeneration of the catalyst and scavenger have been achieved up to 5 and 2 times, respectively, without significant loss of activity...
January 11, 2017: Molecular Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078520/effects-of-screenhouse-cultivation-and-organic-materials-incorporation-on-global-warming-potential-in-rice-fields
#6
Guochun Xu, Xin Liu, Qiangsheng Wang, Ruiheng Xiong, Yuhao Hang
Global rice production will be increasingly challenged by providing healthy food for a growing population at minimal environmental cost. In this study, a 2-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a novel rice cultivation mode (screenhouse cultivation, SHC) and organic material (OM) incorporation (wheat straw and wheat straw-based biogas residue) on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and rice yields. In addition, the environmental factors and soil properties were also determined...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076447/lower-methane-emissions-from-yak-compared-with-cattle-in-rusitec-fermenters
#7
Jiandui Mi, Jianwei Zhou, Xiaodan Huang, Ruijun Long
Globally methane (CH4) emissions from ruminant livestock account for 29% of total CH4 emissions. Inherited variation about CH4 emissions of different animal species might provide new opportunity for manipulating CH4 production. Six rumen-simulating fermenters (Rusitec) were set up for this study lasting for 16 d. The diet consisted of forage to concentrate ratio of 50:50 with barley straw as the forage. Treated vessels were supplied with rumen fluid from yak or cattle (3 vessels per animal species). Microbial growth was measured using 15N as a marker...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072520/bioenergy-potential-from-food-waste-in-california
#8
Hanna Marie Breunig, Ling Jin, Alastair Robinson, Corinne Donahue Scown
Food waste makes up approximately 15% of municipal solid waste generated in the United States, and 95% is ultimately landfilled. Its bioavailable carbon and nutrient content makes it a major contributor to landfill methane emissions, but also presents an important opportunity for energy recovery. This paper presents the first detailed analysis of monthly food waste generation in California at a county level, and its potential contribution to the state's energy production. We develop and analyze a set of scenarios that rely on excess capacity at existing anaerobic digester (AD) and solid biomass combustion facilities, and alternatives that allow for new facility construction...
January 10, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070677/potential-activity-of-subglacial-microbiota-transported-to-anoxic-river-delta-sediments
#9
Karen A Cameron, Marek Stibal, Nikoline S Olsen, Andreas B Mikkelsen, Bo Elberling, Carsten S Jacobsen
The Watson River drains a portion of the SW Greenland ice sheet, transporting microbial communities from subglacial environments to a delta at the head of Søndre Strømfjord. This study investigates the potential activity and community shifts of glacial microbiota deposited and buried under layers of sediments within the river delta. A long-term (12-month) incubation experiment was established using Watson River delta sediment under anaerobic conditions, with and without CO2/H2 enrichment. Within CO2/H2-amended incubations, sulphate depletion and a shift in the microbial community to a 52% predominance of Desulfosporosinus meridiei by day 371 provides evidence for sulphate reduction...
January 9, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069197/low-strength-ultrasonication-positively-affects-methanogenic-granules-toward-higher-ad-performance-hydrolytic-enzyme-excretions
#10
Si-Kyung Cho, Yeo-Myeong Yun, Seung Gu Shin
In our previous studies, enhanced methane (CH4) production using low-strength ultrasonication was achieved and the results were evidenced by physico-chemical and molecular biological approaches. As a final continuation study, the effects of low-strength ultrasonication on the activities of hydrolytic enzymes (amylase, cellulase, and protease) were investigated on methanogenic granules given that hydrolysis regulates the whole anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Up to 213% enhanced hydrolytic enzyme activities were observed, and they seem to be highly related to the enhanced CH4 production...
May 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066511/biomass-waste-to-energy-valorisation-technologies-a-review-case-for-banana-processing-in-uganda
#11
REVIEW
Robert Gumisiriza, Joseph Funa Hawumba, Mackay Okure, Oliver Hensel
BACKGROUND: Uganda's banana industry is heavily impeded by the lack of cheap, reliable and sustainable energy mainly needed for processing of banana fruit into pulp and subsequent drying into chips before milling into banana flour that has several uses in the bakery industry, among others. Uganda has one of the lowest electricity access levels, estimated at only 2-3% in rural areas where most of the banana growing is located. In addition, most banana farmers have limited financial capacity to access modern solar energy technologies that can generate sufficient energy for industrial processing...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064477/fast-optimization-of-limgmnox-la2o3-catalysts-for-the-oxidative-coupling-of-methane
#12
Zhinian Li, Lei He, Shenliang Wang, Wuzhong Yi, Shihui Zou, Liping Xiao, Jie Fan
The development of efficient catalyst for oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) reaction represents a grand challenge in direct conversion of methane into other useful products. Here, we reported that a newly developed combinatorial approach can be used for ultrafast optimization of La2O3-based multicomponent metal oxide catalysts in OCM reaction. This new approach integrated inkjet printing assisted synthesis (IJP-A) with multidimensional group testing strategy (m-GT) tactfully takes the place of conventionally high-throughput synthesis-and-screen experiment...
January 9, 2017: ACS Combinatorial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064132/energy-efficient-methane-production-from-macroalgal-biomass-through-chemo-disperser-liquefaction
#13
K Tamilarasan, S Kavitha, J Rajesh Banu, P Arulazhagan, Ick Tae Yeom
In this study, an effort has been made to reduce the energy cost of liquefaction by coupling a mechanical disperser with a chemical (sodium tripolyphosphate). In terms of the cost and specific energy demand of liquefaction, the algal biomass disintegrated at 12,000rpm for 30min, and an STPP dosage of about 0.04g/gCOD was chosen as an optimal parameter. Chemo disperser liquefaction (CDL) was found to be energetically and economically sustainable in terms of liquefaction, methane production, and net profit (15%, 0...
December 30, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063654/biochar-decreases-nitrogen-oxide-and-enhances-methane-emissions-via-altering-microbial-community-composition-of-anaerobic-paddy-soil
#14
Ning Wang, Zhi-Zhou Chang, Xi-Mei Xue, Jian-Guang Yu, Xiao-Xia Shi, Lena Q Ma, Hong-Bo Li
Biochar application to agricultural soil is an appealing approach to mitigate nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions. However, the underlying microbial mechanisms are unclear. In this study, a paddy soil slurry was incubated anaerobically for 14d with biochar amendments produced from rice straw at 300, 500, or 700°C (B300, B500, and B700) to study their influences on greenhouse gas emissions. Illumina sequencing was used to characterize shift of soil bacterial and archaeal community composition. After peaking at day 1, N2O emission then sharply decreased to low levels while CH4 started to emit at day 3 then continually increased with incubation...
January 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063283/microbial-community-redundancy-in-anaerobic-digestion-drives-process-recovery-after-salinity-exposure
#15
Jo De Vrieze, Marlies E R Christiaens, Diego Walraedt, Arno Devooght, Umer Zeeshan Ijaz, Nico Boon
Anaerobic digestion of high-salinity wastewaters often results in process inhibition due to the susceptibility of the methanogenic archaea. The ability of the microbial community to deal with increased salinity levels is of high importance to ensure process perseverance or recovery after failure. The exact strategy of the microbial community to ensure process endurance is, however, often unknown. In this study, we investigated how the microbial community is able to recover process performance following a disturbance through the application of high-salinity molasses wastewater...
December 26, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063193/influence-of-protein-fermentation-and-carbohydrate-source-on-in%C3%A2-vitro-methane-production
#16
J L Vanegas, J González, M D Carro
Incubations were carried out with batch cultures of ruminal micro-organisms from sheep to analyse the influence of the N source on in vitro CH4 production. The two substrates were mixtures of maize starch and cellulose in proportions of 75:25 and 25:75 (STAR and CEL substrates, respectively), and the three nitrogen (N) sources were ammonia (NH4 Cl), casein (CA) and isolated soya bean protein (SP). Five isonitrogenous treatments were made by replacing non-protein-N (NPN) with CA or SP at levels of 0 (NPN), 50 (CA50 and SP50, respectively) and 100% (CA100 and SP100) of total N...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061938/influence-of-different-electron-acceptors-on-the-anaerobic-degradation-of-curly-leaf-pondweed
#17
Shu-Chuan Peng, Xu Xu, Ding Ma, Tian-Hu Chen, Jin Wang
  Curly-leaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus) was utilized as the representative to investigate the biodecomposition process of aquatic plants under different reducible conditions. Results showed that the methane production was inhibited when different electron acceptors (Fe(III), <inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="02257-ilm01.gif"/> and <inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="02257-ilm09.gif"/>) were available. The methane production was decreased by 57% when Fe(III) and <inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="http://www...
December 1, 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055128/a-decade-of-boreal-rich-fen-greenhouse-gas-fluxes-in-response-to-natural-and-experimental-water-table-variability
#18
David Olefeldt, Eugénie S Euskirchen, Jennifer Harden, Evan Kane, A David McGuire, Mark P Waldrop, Merritt R Turetsky
Rich fens are common boreal ecosystems with distinct hydrology, biogeochemistry and ecology that influence their carbon (C) balance. We present growing season soil chamber methane emission (FCH4 ), ecosystem respiration (ER), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), and gross primary production (GPP) fluxes from a nine year water table manipulation experiment in an Alaskan rich fen. The study included major flood and drought years, where wetting and drying treatments further modified the severity of droughts. Results support previous findings from peatlands that drought causes reduced magnitude of growing season FCH4 , GPP, and NEE, thus reducing or reversing their C sink function...
January 5, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052078/morphological-characterization-of-a-new-and-easily-recognizable-nuclear-male-sterile-mutant-of-sorghum-sorghum-bicolor
#19
Zhanguo Xin, Jian Huang, Ashley R Smith, Junping Chen, John Burke, Scott E Sattler, Dazhong Zhao
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is one of the most important grain crops in the world. The nuclear male sterility (NMS) trait, which is caused by mutations on the nuclear gene, is valuable for hybrid breeding and genetic studies. Several NMS mutants have been reported previously, but none of them were well characterized. Here, we present our detailed morphological characterization of a new and easily recognizable NMS sorghum mutant male sterile 8 (ms8) isolated from an elite inbred BTx623 mutagenized by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052075/field-based-estimates-of-global-warming-potential-in-bioenergy-systems-of-hawaii-crop-choice-and-deficit-irrigation
#20
Meghan N Pawlowski, Susan E Crow, Manyowa N Meki, James R Kiniry, Andrew D Taylor, Richard Ogoshi, Adel Youkhana, Mae Nakahata
Replacing fossil fuel with biofuel is environmentally viable from a climate change perspective only if the net greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of the system is reduced. The effects of replacing annual arable crops with perennial bioenergy feedstocks on net GHG production and soil carbon (C) stock are critical to the system-level balance. Here, we compared GHG flux, crop yield, root biomass, and soil C stock under two potential tropical, perennial grass biofuel feedstocks: conventional sugarcane and ratoon-harvested, zero-tillage napiergrass...
2017: PloS One
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