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Methane production

Shuji Matsushita, Daisuke Komizo, Linh Thi Thuy Cao, Yoshiteru Aoi, Tomonori Kindaichi, Noriatsu Ozaki, Hiroyuki Imachi, Akiyoshi Ohashi
Biogenic manganese oxide (BioMnOx) can efficiently adsorb various minor metals. The production of BioMnOx in reactors to remove metals during wastewater treatment processes is a promising biotechnological method. However, it is difficult to preferentially enrich manganese-oxidizing bacteria (MnOB) to produce BioMnOx during wastewater treatment processes. A unique method of cultivating MnOB using methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) to produce soluble microbial products is proposed here. MnOB were successfully enriched in a methane-fed reactor containing MOB...
December 1, 2017: Water Research
Kei Ohkubo, Kensaku Hirose
Chlorine dioxide radical (ClO2*) was found to act as an efficient oxidizing agent in the aerobic oxygenation of methane to methanol and formic acid under photoirradiation. Photochemical oxygenation of methane occurred in a two-phase system comprising perfluorohexane and water under ambient conditions (298 K, 1 atm). The yields of methanol and formic acid were 14% and 85%, respectively, with a methane conversion of 99% without formation of the further oxygenated products such as CO2 and CO. Ethane was also photochemically converted into ethanol (19%) and acetic acid (78%)...
December 11, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Hui Song, Xianguang Meng, Thang Duy Dao, Wei Zhou, Huimin Liu, Li Shi, Huabin Zhang, Tadaaki Nagao, Tetsuya Kako, Jinhua Ye
Photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) is attractive for the production of valuable fuels and mitigating the influence of greenhouse gas emission. However, the extreme inertness of CO2 and the sluggish kinetics of photo-excited charge carrires transfer process greatly limit the conversion efficiency of CO2 photoreduction. Herein, we report that the plasmonic coupling effect of Pt and Au nanoparticles (NPs) profoundly enhance the efficiency of CO2 reduction through dry reforming of methane reaction assisted by light illumination, reducing activation energies for CO2 reduction ~30% below thermal activation energies and achieving a reaction rate 2...
December 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Dandan Liu, Tianye Zheng, Cees Buisman, Annemiek Ter Heijne
Methane-producing bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are a promising technology to convert renewable surplus electricity into the form of storable methane. One of the key challenges for this technology is the search for suitable cathode materials with improved biocompatibility and low cost. Here, we study heat-treated stainless steel felt (HSSF) for its performance as biocathode. The HSSF had superior electrocatalytic properties for hydrogen evolution compared to untreated stainless steel felt (SSF) and graphite felt (GF), leading to a faster start-up of the biocathodes...
December 4, 2017: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
A R Bayat, I Tapio, J Vilkki, K J Shingfield, H Leskinen
Four lipid supplements varying in chain length or degree of unsaturation were examined for their effects on milk yield and composition, ruminal CH4 emissions, rumen fermentation, nutrient utilization, and microbial ecology in lactating dairy cows. Five Nordic Red cows fitted with rumen cannulas were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square with five 28-d periods. Treatments comprised total mixed rations based on grass silage with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 60:40 supplemented with no lipid (CO) or 50 g/kg of diet dry matter (DM) of myristic acid (MA), rapeseed oil (RO), safflower oil (SO), or linseed oil (LO)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Giovanni Bittante, Alessio Cecchinato, Stefano Schiavon
Ruminants (and milk production) contribute to global climate change through enteric methane emissions (EME), and any attempt to reduce them is complicated by the fact that they are difficult and expensive to measure directly. In the case of dairy cows, a promising indirect method of estimating EME is to use the milk fatty acid profile as a proxy, as a relationship exists between microbial activity in the rumen and the molecules available for milk synthesis in the mammary gland. In the present study, we analyzed the detailed fatty acid profiles (through gas chromatography) of a large number of milk samples from 1,158 Brown Swiss cows reared on 85 farms with the aim of testing in the field 2 equations for estimating EME taken from a published meta-analysis...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Jie Zhang, Shuo Jiao, Yahai Lu
Natural wetlands and anthropogenic paddy fields are the dominant biogenic sources of atmospheric methane emission which have been speculated as the most probable sources for the increase of post-2006 atmospheric methane. Regional differences in CH4 emission is possibly due to microbial biogeographic distribution. Here we collected soils from 19 wetlands from different regions in China. The methane production capacity (MPC) was measured for each soil samples and varied from 1.11 to 841.94mg/kg dry soil. High throughput sequencing was employed to investigate the diversity and composition of bacterial, archaeal and methanogenic communities...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Bo Hu, Derek F Harris, Dennis R Dean, T Leo Liu, Zhi-Yong Yang, Lance C Seefeldt
Nitrogenases catalyze biological dinitrogen (N2) reduction to ammonia (NH3), and also reduce a number of non-physiological substrates, including carbon dioxide (CO2) to formate (HCOO-) and methane (CH4). Three versions of nitrogenase are known (Mo-, V-, and Fe-nitrogenase), each showing different reactivities towards various substrates. Normally, electrons for substrate reduction are delivered by the Fe protein component of nitrogenase, with energy coming from the hydrolysis of 2 ATP to 2 ADP+2 Pi for each electron transferred...
December 5, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
Yangyang Li, Fuqing Xu, Yu Li, Jiaxin Lu, Shuyan Li, Ajay Shah, Xuehua Zhang, Hongyu Zhang, Xiaoyan Gong, Guoxue Li
Anaerobic co-digestion is commonly believed to be benefical for biogas production. However, additional of co-substrates may require additional energy inputs and thus affect the overall energy efficiency of the system. In this study, reactor performance and energy analysis of solid state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of tomato residues with dairy manure and corn stover were investigated. Different fractions of tomato residues (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%, based on volatile solid weight (VS)) were co-digested with dairy manure and corn stover at 15% total solids...
December 6, 2017: Waste Management
Yeqing Li, Fang Yan, Tao Li, Ying Zhou, Hao Jiang, Mingyu Qian, Quan Xu
In this study, an integrated process was developed to produce methane and high-quality bio-briquette (BB) using corn straw (CS) through high-solid anaerobic digestion (HS-AD). CS was anaerobic digested by using a leach bed reactor at four leachate recirculation strategies. After digesting for 28 days, highest methane yield of 179.6 mL/g-VS, which was corresponded to energy production of 5.55 MJ/kg-CS, was obtained at a higher initial recirculation rate of 32 L-leachate per day. Compared with bio-briquette manufactured from raw CS and lignite, the compressive, immersion and falling strength properties of bio-briquette made from AD-treated CS (solid digestate) and lignite were significantly improved...
November 28, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Soroush Saheb-Alam, Abhijeet Singh, Malte Hermansson, Frank Persson, Anna Schnürer, Britt-Marie Wilén, Oskar Modin
The enrichment of CO2-reducing microbial bio-cathodes is challenging. Previous research has shown that a promising approach could be to first enrich bio-anodes and then lower the potential so the electrodes are converted into bio-cathodes. However, the effect of such a transition on the microbial community on the electrode has not been studied. The goal of this study was, thus, to compare the start-up of bio-cathodes from pre-enriched anodes with direct start-up from bare electrodes and to investigate changes in microbial community composition...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Shujuan Lian, Marcell Nikolausz, Ivonne Nijenhuis, Athaydes Francisco Leite, Hans Hermann Richnow
Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) production for pesticides was banned by Stockholm Convention (2009) due to its harmful and adverse effects on the environment. Despite this measure, many areas contaminated with former HCH production-waste products still require management. As a potential solution contributing to clean-up of these sites, anaerobic digestion (AD) of pesticide-contaminated biomass to produce biogas is a promising strategy. High pesticide concentrations, however, may inhibit biogas production. Therefore, laboratory-scale batch reactors were set up to investigate biogas reactor performance in presence of HCH...
November 24, 2017: Bioresource Technology
K Ghyselbrecht, A Monballiu, M H Somers, I Sigurnjak, E Meers, L Appels, B Meesschaert
Anaerobic digestion is widely used to produce renewable energy. However, the main drawback is the limited conversion efficiency of organic matter. Applying an advanced oxidation process (AOP) as a digestate post-treatment is able to increase this conversion efficiency but will also lead to the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite or nitrate. In this lab scale study, the fate of the latter in the digester was investigated. Nitrite and nitrate were therefore added in concentrations that could arise from rate limiting ammonium concentrations (1...
December 8, 2017: Environmental Technology
Ivonne Figueroa-González, Gloria Moreno, Julián Carrillo-Reyes, Arturo Sánchez, Guillermo Quijano, Germán Buitrón
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of one-step temperature increase, from 35 to 55 °C, on the methane production of a mesophilic granular sludge (MGS) treating wine vinasses and the effluent of a hydrogenogenic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. RESULTS: One-step temperature increase from mesophilic to thermophilic conditions improved methane production regardless of the substrate tested. The biomethane potentials obtained under thermophilic conditions were 1...
December 7, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
Xiaosha Luo, Xufeng Yuan, Shiyu Wang, Fanrong Sun, Zhanshan Hou, Qingxiu Hu, Limei Zhai, Zongjun Cui, Yajie Zou
Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is a potential biomass material generated during mushroom cultivation. In this study, the methane yield and microbial community resulting from co-digestion of SMS and dairy manure (DM) at different mixing ratios (0:4, 1:1, 3:1, and 1:3), were evaluated. Co-digestion analysis showed that the methane yield from the mixtures was 6%-61% higher than the yield from SMS or DM alone, indicating a synergistic effect of co-digestion of SMS with DM. For the SMS of F.velutipes (SFv) and P...
November 29, 2017: Bioresource Technology
R Kyle Bennett, Lisa M Steinberg, Wilfred Chen, Eleftherios T Papoutsakis
Methylotrophy describes the ability of organisms to utilize reduced one-carbon compounds, notably methane and methanol, as growth and energy sources. Abundant natural gas supplies, composed primarily of methane, have prompted interest in using these compounds, which are more reduced than sugars, as substrates to improve product titers and yields of bioprocesses. Engineering native methylotophs or developing synthetic methylotrophs are emerging fields to convert methane and methanol into fuels and chemicals under aerobic and anaerobic conditions...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
A M S Paulo, A F Salvador, J I Alves, R Castro, A A M Langenhoff, A J M Stams, A J Cavaleiro
1-Hexadecene-contaminated wastewater is produced in oil refineries and can be treated in methanogenic bioreactors, although generally at low conversion rates. In this study, a microbial culture able to degrade 1-hexadecene was enriched, and different stimulation strategies were tested for enhancing 1-hexadecene conversion to methane. Seven and three times faster methane production was obtained in cultures stimulated with yeast extract or lactate, respectively, while cultures amended with crotonate lost the ability to degrade 1-hexadecene...
December 7, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Feixiang Zan, Ji Dai, Yuze Hong, Meiyin Wong, Feng Jiang, Guanghao Chen
Food waste (FW) is a worldwide environmental issue due to its huge production amount. FW separation from municipal solid waste followed by different treatment strategies has been widely accepted. Food waste disposer (FWD) is a promising approach to separate and collect household food waste (HFW), which has been widely applied in many countries. However, the feasibility of FWD application in many countries is still being debated due to the major concerns over the impact of FWD on the wastewater treatment plants...
December 2, 2017: Waste Management
Seongjin Oh, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Shusuke Hayashi, Yutaka Suzuki, Satoshi Koike, Yasuo Kobayashi
Background: Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) is an agricultural byproduct containing alkylphenols that has been shown to favorably change the rumen fermentation pattern only under experimentally fixed feeding conditions. Investigation of CNSL potency in rumen modulation under a variety of feeding regimens, and evidence leading to the understanding of CNSL action are obviously necessary for further CNSL applications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potency of CNSL for rumen modulation under different dietary conditions, and to visually demonstrate its surfactant action against selected rumen bacteria...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
R Kyle Bennett, Jacqueline E Gonzalez, W Brian Whitaker, Maciek R Antoniewicz, Eleftherios T Papoutsakis
Synthetic methylotrophy aims to develop non-native methylotrophic microorganisms to utilize methane or methanol to produce chemicals and biofuels. We report two complimentary strategies to further engineer a previously engineered methylotrophic E. coli strain for improved methanol utilization. First, we demonstrate improved methanol assimilation in the presence of small amounts of yeast extract by expressing the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) from Bacillus methanolicus. Second, we demonstrate improved co-utilization of methanol and glucose by deleting the phosphoglucose isomerase gene (pgi), which rerouted glucose carbon flux through the oxidative PPP...
December 5, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
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