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Methane production

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549287/unconventional-energy-resources-in-a-crowded-subsurface-reducing-uncertainty-and-developing-a-separation-zone-concept-for-resource-estimation-and-deep-3d-subsurface-planning-using-legacy-mining-data
#1
Alison A Monaghan
Over significant areas of the UK and western Europe, anthropogenic alteration of the subsurface by mining of coal has occurred beneath highly populated areas which are now considering a multiplicity of 'low carbon' unconventional energy resources including shale gas and oil, coal bed methane, geothermal energy and energy storage. To enable decision making on the 3D planning, licensing and extraction of these resources requires reduced uncertainty around complex geology and hydrogeological and geomechanical processes...
May 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549251/enhanced-methane-production-and-its-kinetics-model-of-thermally-pretreated-lignocellulose-waste-material
#2
C Veluchamy, Ajay S Kalamdhad
The objective of the study was to assess the effect of substrate concentration by specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of thermally pretreated pulp and paper mill sludge. Different substrate concentration through food to microorganism ratio varied from 1.0 to 3.0 was carried out in a mesophilic condition as biochemical methane potential assay. Experimental results offered that cellulose removal rate spikes up to 60.2%. The specific methane gas production and biodegradability were increased up to 303mL of CH4/g VS and 73% respectively...
May 15, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548824/improved-mechanistic-understanding-of-natural-gas-methane-emissions-from-spatially-resolved-aircraft-measurements
#3
Stefan Schwietzke, Gabrielle Petron, Stephen A Conley, Cody Pickering, Ingrid Mielke-Maday, Edward J Dlugokencky, Pieter P Tans, Tim Vaughn, Clay S Bell, Daniel Zimmerle, Sonja Wolter, Clark King, Allen B White, Timothy Coleman, Laura Bianco, Russell Schnell
Divergence in recent oil and gas related methane emission estimates between aircraft studies (basin total for a midday window) and emissions inventories (annualized regional and national statistics) indicate the need for better understanding the experimental design, including temporal and spatial alignment and interpretation of results. Our aircraft based methane emission estimates in a major US shale gas basin resolved from West to East show (i) similar spatial distributions for two days, (ii) strong spatial correlations with reported NG production (R(2)=0...
May 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548213/metal-dependent-strengthening-and-weakening-of-m-h-and-m-c-bonds-by-an-oxo-ligand-thermal-gas-phase-activation-of-methane-by-omh-and-mh-m-mo-ti
#4
Marjan Firouzbakht, Shaodong Zhou, Patricio González-Navarrete, Maria Schlangen, Martin Kaupp, Helmut Schwarz
The thermal gas-phase reactions of methane with [OMoH]+ and [MoH]+ were investigated by using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) complemented by quantum-chemical calculations. In contrast to the inertness of [MoH]+ towards methane, [OMoH]+ activates the C-H bond to form the ionic product [OMo(CH₃)]+ concomitantly with the liberation of H2. The origin of the varying reactivities is traced back to a different influence of the oxo ligand on the Mo-C and Mo-H bonds. While the presence of this ligand weakens both the Ti-H and the Ti-CH₃ bonds, both the Mo-H and Mo-CH₃ bonds are strengthened...
May 26, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546964/application-of-the-initial-rate-method-in-anaerobic-digestion-of-kitchen-waste
#5
Lei Feng, Yuan Gao, Wei Kou, Xianming Lang, Yiwei Liu, Rundong Li, Meiling Yu, Lijie Shao, Xiaoming Wang
This article proposes a methane production approach through sequenced anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste, determines the hydrolysis constants and reaction orders at both low total solid (TS) concentrations and high TS concentrations using the initial rate method, and examines the population growth model and first-order hydrolysis model. The findings indicate that the first-order hydrolysis model better reflects the kinetic process of gas production. During the experiment, all the influential factors of anaerobic fermentation retained their optimal values...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545330/carbon-isotopic-signature-reveals-the-geographical-trend-in-methane-consumption-and-production-pathways-in-alpine-ecosystems-over-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau
#6
Tomomichi Kato, Keita Yamada, Yanhong Tang, Naohiro Yoshida, Eitaro Wada
On the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, isotopic signatures in soil-atmosphere CH4 fluxes were investigated in nine grasslands and three wetlands. In the grasslands, the fractionation factor for soil CH4 uptake, αsoil, was much smaller than the usually reported value of 0.9975-1.0095. Stepwise multiple variation analysis indicates that αsoil is higher for higher soil water contents but is lower for higher C/N ratios of soil surface biomass. In the three wetlands, the soil-emitted δ(13)C-CH4 was similar (-55.3 ± 5...
May 25, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544127/control-of-product-distribution-and-mechanism-by-ligation-and-electric-field-in-the-thermal-activation-of-methane
#7
Lei Yue, Jilai Li, Shaodong Zhou, Xiaoyan Sun, Maria Schlangen, Sason Shaik, Helmut Schwarz
Selective oxidative coupling of methane using metal-oxide-based catalysts constitutes one of the central challenges in the valorization of this inert hydrocarbon. Ligands have been known for decades to profoundly affect the electronic character of metal centers with the benefit to fine-tune the chemical features of, for example, cationic metal oxides. A well-studied case concerns the axial-ligand effect exerted in iron-oxo complexes, wherein by changing the electronic structure, the axial ligand fine-tunes the reactivity...
May 24, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541949/application-of-batch-tests-to-assess-antibiotic-loads-in-anaerobic-processes
#8
Diana C Rodríguez, Yudy A Londoño, Gustavo A Peñuela
The presence of antibiotics in drinking water and wastewater has not been widely studied because the sanitary engineering sector mainly focuses on the removal of organic matter and nutrients. There is a lack of environmental regulations for pollutants like antibiotics. Batch tests analyse biodegradability to measure the anaerobic degradation potential of the substrate, or they can be used as toxicity tests. Oxytetracycline, florfenicol (FLO), ceftiofur (CEF) and penicillin G (PEN), commonly used in Colombia for the treatment of livestock diseases, were added in different concentrations to anaerobic sludge contained in serological glass bottles...
May 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536735/effects-of-co-inoculating-rice-straw-with-ruminal-microbiota-and-anaerobic-sludge-digestion-performance-and-spatial-distribution-of-microbial-communities
#9
Yuying Deng, Zhenxing Huang, Mingxing Zhao, Wenquan Ruan, Hengfeng Miao, Hongyan Ren
Ruminal microbiota (RM) were co-inoculated with anaerobic sludge (AS) at different ratios to study the digestion of rice straw in batch experiments. The CH4 yield reached 273.64 mL/g volatile solid (VS) at a co-inoculum ratio of 1:1. The xylanase and cellulase activities were 198.88-212.88 and 24.51-29.08 U/mL in co-inoculated samples, respectively, and were significantly different compared to the results for single inoculum (p < 0.05). Higher ratios of AS enhanced acetoclastic methanogenesis, and propionate accumulation could be the main reason for the longer lag phase observed in samples with a higher RM ratio...
May 24, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531859/the-role-of-conductive-materials-in-the-start-up-period-of-thermophilic-anaerobic-system
#10
Wangwang Yan, Nan Shen, Yeyuan Xiao, Yun Chen, Faqian Sun, Vinay Kumar Tyagi, Yan Zhou
The major obstacle for thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD) is the inhibited microorganism activity and process instability during the start-up period. This study proposed a strategy to accelerate and stabilize the thermophilic reactors start-up via adding conductive materials. The results show that methane production rate in conductive materials supplemented (CMS) reactors was almost two times higher than the control reactors. Caloramator sp., a candidate of electroactive bacteria, was significantly enriched in the carbon nano-tube (CNT) supplemented groups (12...
May 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531853/methane-production-in-an-anaerobic-osmotic-membrane-bioreactor-using-forward-osmosis-effect-of-reverse-salt-flux
#11
Sheng Li, Youngjin Kim, Sherub Phuntsho, Laura Chekli, Ho Kyong Shon, TorOve Leiknes, Noreddine Ghaffour
This study investigated the impact of reverse salt flux (RSF) on microbe community and bio-methane production in a simulated fertilizer driven FO-AnMBR system using KCl, KNO3 and KH2PO4 as draw solutes. Results showed that KH2PO4 exhibited the lowest RSF in terms of molar concentration 19.1mM/(m(2).h), while for KCl and KNO3 it was 32.2 and 120.8mM/(m(2).h), respectively. Interestingly, bio-methane production displayed an opposite order with KH2PO4, followed by KCl and KNO3. Pyrosequencing results revealed the presence of different bacterial communities among the tested fertilizers...
May 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529503/response-of-methanogenic-microbial-communities-to-desiccation-stress-in-flooded-and-rain-fed-paddy-soil-from-thailand
#12
Andreas Reim, Marcela Hernández, Melanie Klose, Amnat Chidthaisong, Monthira Yuttitham, Ralf Conrad
Rice paddies in central Thailand are flooded either by irrigation (irrigated rice) or by rain (rain-fed rice). The paddy soils and their microbial communities thus experience permanent or arbitrary submergence, respectively. Since methane production depends on anaerobic conditions, we hypothesized that structure and function of the methanogenic microbial communities are different in irrigated and rain-fed paddies and react differently upon desiccation stress. We determined rates and relative proportions of hydrogenotrophic and aceticlastic methanogenesis before and after short-term drying of soil samples from replicate fields...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529500/co-existence-of-methanogenesis-and-sulfate-reduction-with-common-substrates-in-sulfate-rich-estuarine-sediments
#13
Michal Sela-Adler, Zeev Ronen, Barak Herut, Gilad Antler, Hanni Vigderovich, Werner Eckert, Orit Sivan
The competition between sulfate reducing bacteria and methanogens over common substrates has been proposed as a critical control for methane production. In this study, we examined the co-existence of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction with shared substrates over a large range of sulfate concentrations and rates of sulfate reduction in estuarine systems, where these processes are the key terminal sink for organic carbon. Incubation experiments were carried out with sediment samples from the sulfate-methane transition zone of the Yarqon (Israel) estuary with different substrates and inhibitors along a sulfate concentrations gradient from 1 to 10 mM...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529051/ultrasound-assisted-biogas-production-from-co-digestion-of-wastewater-sludges-and-agricultural-wastes-comparison-with-microwave-pre-treatment
#14
B Aylin Alagöz, Orhan Yenigün, Ayşen Erdinçler
This study investigates the effect of ultrasonication and microwave sludge disintegration/pre-treatment techniques on the anaerobic co-digestion efficiency of wastewater sludges with olive and grape pomaces. The effects of both co-digestion and sludge pre-treatment techniques were evaluated in terms of the organic removal efficiency and the biogas production. The "co-digestion" of wastewater sludge with both types of pomaces was revealed to be a much more efficient way for the biogas production compared to the single (mono) sludge digestion...
May 11, 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528874/animal-health-and-greenhouse-gas-intensity-the-paradox-of-periparturient-parasitism
#15
J G M Houdijk, B J Tolkamp, J A Rooke, M R Hutchings
Here we provide the first known direct measurements of pathogen challenge impacts on greenhouse gas (GHG) production, yield and intensity. Twin-rearing ewes were ad libitum fed pelleted lucerne from day -32 to 36 (day 0 is parturition), and repeatedly infected with 10,000 Teladorsagia circumcincta infective larvae (n=16), or sham-dosed with water (n=16). A third group of 16 ewes were fed at 80% of uninfected ewes' feed intake during lactation. Methane emissions were measured in respiration chambers (day 30 to -36) whilst total tract apparent nutrient digestibility around day 28 informed calculated manure methane and nitrous oxide emissions estimates...
May 18, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527805/effects-of-replacement-of-late-harvested-grass-silage-and-barley-with-early-harvested-silage-on-milk-production-and-methane-emissions
#16
E H Cabezas-Garcia, S J Krizsan, K J Shingfield, P Huhtanen
This study evaluated the effects of gradual replacement of a mixture of late-cut grass silage (LS) and barley with early-cut grass silage (ES) on milk production, CH4 emissions, and N utilization in Swedish Red cows. Two grass silages were prepared from the same primary growth of timothy grass sward but harvested 2 wk apart [11.0 and 9.7 MJ of metabolizable energy/kg of dry matter (DM)]. Four diets, fed as a total mixed ration, were formulated to meet the metabolizable energy and protein requirements of 35 kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM) by gradually replacing a mixture of LS and barley with ES (0, 33, 67, and 100% of the forage component of the diet), whereas the proportion of barley decreased from 47...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527796/genetic-parameters-of-mid-infrared-methane-predictions-and-their-relationships-with-milk-production-traits-in-holstein-cattle
#17
P B Kandel, M-L Vanrobays, A Vanlierde, F Dehareng, E Froidmont, N Gengler, H Soyeurt
Many countries have pledged to reduce greenhouse gases. In this context, the dairy sector is one of the identified sectors to adapt production circumstances to address socio-environmental constraints due to its large carbon footprint related to CH4 emission. This study aimed mainly to estimate (1) the genetic parameters of 2 milk mid-infrared-based CH4 proxies [predicted daily CH4 emission (PME, g/d), and log-transformed predicted CH4 intensity (LMI)] and (2) their genetic correlations with milk production traits [milk (MY), fat (FY), and protein (PY) yields] from first- and second-parity Holstein cows...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526787/development-of-multi-well-plate-methods-using-pure-cultures-of-methanogens-to-identify-new-inhibitors-for-suppressing-ruminant-methane-emissions
#18
M R Weimar, J Cheung, D Dey, C McSweeney, M Morrison, Y Kobayashi, W B Whitman, V Carbone, L R Schofield, R S Ronimus, G M Cook
Hydrogenotrophic methanogens typically require strictly anaerobic culturing conditions in glass tubes with overpressures of H2 and CO2 that are both time-consuming and costly. To increase the throughput for screening chemical compound libraries, 96-well microtiter plate methods for the growth of a marine (environmental) methanogen Methanococcus maripaludis strain S2 and the rumen methanogen Methanobrevibacter species AbM4 were developed. A number of key parameters (inoculum size, reducing agents for media preparation, duration of assay, inhibitor solvents and culture volume) were optimised to achieve robust and reproducible growth in a high-throughput microtiter plate format...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526272/enhancement-of-waste-activated-sludge-was-anaerobic-digestion-by-means-of-pre-and-intermediate-treatments-technical-and-economic-analysis-at-a-full-scale-wwtp
#19
Giuseppe Campo, Alberto Cerutti, Mariachiara Zanetti, Gerardo Scibilia, Eugenio Lorenzi, Barbara Ruffino
Anaerobic digestion (AD) is the most commonly applied end-treatment for the excess of waste activated sludge (WAS) generated in biological wastewater treatment processes. The efficacy of different typologies of pre-treatments in liberating intra-cellular organic substances and make them more usable for AD was demonstrated in several studies. However, the production of new extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) that occur during an AD process, due to microbial metabolism, self-protective reactions and cell lysis, partially neutralizes the benefit of pre-treatments...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526189/potential-impact-of-salinity-on-methane-production-from-food-waste-anaerobic-digestion
#20
Jianwei Zhao, Yiwen Liu, Dongbo Wang, Fei Chen, Xiaoming Li, Guangming Zeng, Qi Yang
Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of sodium chloride (NaCl) inhibited the production of methane from food waste anaerobic digestion. However, the details of how NaCl affects methane production from food waste remain unknown by now and the efficient approach to mitigate the impact of NaCl on methane production was seldom reported. In this paper, the details of how NaCl affects methane production was first investigated via a series of batch experiments. Experimental results showed the effect of NaCl on methane production was dosage dependent...
May 16, 2017: Waste Management
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