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Methane production

Si Young Lee, Hyejin Jung, Nak-Kyoon Kim, Hyung-Suk Oh, Byoung Koun Min, Yun Jeong Hwang
Oxygen-Cu (O-Cu) combination catalysts have recently achieved highly improved selectivity for ethylene production from the electrochemical CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR). In this study, we developed anodized copper (AN-Cu) Cu(OH)2 catalysts by a simple electrochemical synthesis method and achieved ~40% Faradaic efficiency for ethylene production, and high stability over 40 hours. Notably, the initial reduction conditions applied to AN-Cu were critical to achieving selective and stable ethylene production activity from the CO2RR, as the initial reduction condition af-fects the structures and chemical states, crucial for highly selective and stable ethylene production over methane...
June 18, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Atef M Saleem, Gabriel O Ribeiro, Wenzhu Z Yang, Tao Ran, Karen A Beauchemin, Emma J McGeough, Kim H Ominski, Erasmus K Okine, Tim A McAllister
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of adding engineered biocarbon to a high-forage diet on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestion, and enteric methane (CH4) production in a semi-continuous culture artificial rumen system (RUSITEC). The experiment was a completely randomized block design with four treatments assigned to sixteen fermentation vessels (four/treatment) in two RUSITEC apparatuses. The basal diet consisted of 60% barley silage, 27% barley grain, 10% canola meal, and 3% supplement (DM basis) with biocarbon added at 0, 0...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Julián Carrillo-Reyes, Blanca Aidé Albarrán-Contreras, Germán Buitrón
Winery wastewaters are acidic effluents with high content of organic matter and nutrients. Different initial values of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ranging from 4 to 50 g L-1 , were tested in batch assays to evaluate the fermentative hydrogen production followed by a methane production step. The influence of adding a typical nutrient solution for hydrogen production was investigated. Nutrients include N-NH4 , Mg, Fe, Co, Mn, I, Ni, and Zn. The best hydrogen production potential was obtained at a COD of 50 g L-1 without nutrient addition...
June 18, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Ina Vollmer, Bart van der Linden, Samy Ould-Chikh, Antonio Aguilar-Tapia, Irina Yarulina, Edy Abou-Hamad, Yuri G Sneider, Alma I Olivos Suarez, Jean-Louis Hazemann, Freek Kapteijn, Jorge Gascon
The mechanism of methane activation on Mo/HZSM-5 is not yet fully understood, despite the great interest in methane dehydroaromatization (MDA) to replace aromatics production in oil refineries. It is difficult to assess the exact nature of the active site due to fast coking. By pre-carburizing Mo/HZSM-5 with carbon monoxide (CO), the MDA active site formation was isolated from coke formation. With this a clear 13 C NMR signal solely from the active site and not obscured by coke was obtained, and it revealed two types of likely molecular Mo (oxy-)carbidic species in addition to the β-Mo2 C nanoparticles often mentioned in the literature...
June 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Éric Dumont
In order to limit ammonia (NH3 ) emissions from pig farms, various air cleaning solutions are widely applied. However, the literature data report that these systems (chemical scrubbers, bioscrubbers and biofilters) can be both inefficient and promote nitrous oxide (N2 O) production. As air cleaning technologies should not contribute to secondary trace gases that may have a stronger environmental impact than the raw gas compounds themselves, the objective of this study was to quantify the effect of NH3 treatment in pig farms on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions...
June 14, 2018: New Biotechnology
O R Drehmel, T M Brown-Brandl, J V Judy, S C Fernando, P S Miller, K E Hales, P J Kononoff
Feeding fat to lactating dairy cows may reduce methane production. Relative to cellulose, fermentation of hemicellulose is believed to result in less methane; however, these factors have not been studied simultaneously. Eight multiparous, lactating Jersey cows averaging (±SD) 98 ± 30.8 d in milk and body weight of 439.3 ± 56.7 kg were used in a twice-replicated 4 × 4 Latin square to determine the effects of fat and hemicellulose on energy utilization and methane production using a headbox-type indirect calorimetry method...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Claire Bougrier, Delphine Dognin, Cécile Laroche, Jesús Andrés Cacho Rivero
The brewery industry generates a large amount of by-products and notably Brewer's Spent Grain (BSG) which seems an attractive substrate for anaerobic digestion. Nevertheless, previous studies have shown risk of inhibition in the mono-digestion of lignocellulosic substrates. One way to stabilize the reaction is the addition of trace elements. The current study evaluates and compares the stability of BSG anaerobic mono-digestion with and without addition of trace elements for several BSG samples. Based on the average composition of the BSG, two levels of nutrients addition were defined and tested on 4 different BSG samples...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Maria Antonia Mariezcurrena-Berasain, Gisela Velázquez-Garduño, Perla Mabel Marín-Mendoza, Alberto Barbabosa Pliego, Luis Fernando Vega Castillo, Benjamín Valladares Carranza, Ameer Khusro, Eziuche Amadika Ugbogu, Abdelfattah Z M Salem
The current context was investigated to evaluate the antibacterial potency of aqueous extract of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) leaves against bacterial pathogens isolated from the digestive system associated organs of rabbit. Another part of this study was also aimed to estimate the influence of varied doses of aqueous extract of C. sativum (AECS) leaves on in vitro gas production (GP), methane (CH4 ) production, and some other pivotal fermentation parameters from caecal samples of rabbits. The pathogenic bacteria were isolated from mouth, caecum, and anus of rabbits, and further identified through morphological, biochemical, and molecular tools...
June 12, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Renáta Sándor, Fiona Ehrhardt, Lorenzo Brilli, Marco Carozzi, Sylvie Recous, Pete Smith, Val Snow, Jean-François Soussana, Christopher D Dorich, Kathrin Fuchs, Nuala Fitton, Kate Gongadze, Katja Klumpp, Mark Liebig, Raphaël Martin, Lutz Merbold, Paul C D Newton, Robert M Rees, Susanne Rolinski, Gianni Bellocchi
Simulation models quantify the impacts on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in grassland systems caused by changes in management practices. To support agricultural policies, it is however important to contrast the responses of alternative models, which can differ greatly in their treatment of key processes and in their response to management. We applied eight biogeochemical models at five grassland sites (in France, New Zealand, Switzerland, United Kingdom and United States) to compare the sensitivity of modelled C and N fluxes to changes in the density of grazing animals (from 100% to 50% of the original livestock densities), also in combination with decreasing N fertilization levels (reduced to zero from the initial levels)...
June 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jian Lin Chen, Terry W J Steele, David C Stuckey
Two types of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), i.e. Ni ferrite nanoparticles (Fe2 NiO4 ) and Ni Zn ferrite nanoparticles (Fe4 NiO4 Zn) containing the trace metals Ni and Fe, were added to the anaerobic digestion of synthetic municipal wastewater at concentrations between 1 and 100 mg Ni L-1 in order to compare their effects on biogas (methane) production and sludge activity. Using the production of methane over time as a measure, the assays revealed that anaerobic digestion was stimulated by the addition of 100 mg Ni L-1 in Fe2 NiO4 NPs, while it was inhibited by the addition of 1-100 mg Ni L-1 in Fe4 NiO4 Zn NPs...
June 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Zora Váradyová, Dominika Mravčáková, Monika Holodová, Ľubomira Grešáková, Jana Pisarčíková, Marcin Barszcz, Marcin Taciak, Anna Tuśnio, Svetlana Kišidayová, Klaudia Čobanová
Two experiments were conducted on sheep to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with zinc and a medicinal plant mixture on haematological parameters and microbial activity in the rumen and large intestine. In Experiment 1, 24 male lambs were randomly divided into four groups: One group was fed an unsupplemented basal diet (control), and three groups were fed a diet supplemented with 70 mg Zn/kg diet in the form of Zn sulphate (ZnSO4 ), a Zn-chelate of glycine hydrate (Zn-Gly) or a Zn-proteinate (Zn-Pro), for five months...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Makoto Matsushita, Kenta Magara, Yu Sato, Naoya Shinzato, Hiroyuki Kimura
Accretionary prisms are thick layers of sedimentary material piled up at convergent plate boundaries. Large amounts of anaerobic groundwater and methane (CH4 ) are contained in the deep aquifers associated with accretionary prisms. In order to identify microbial activity and CH4 production processes in the deep aquifers associated with the Cretaceous accretionary prism in Okinawa Island, Japan, we performed geochemical and microbiological studies using anaerobic groundwater and natural gas (mainly CH4 ) samples collected through four deep wells...
June 13, 2018: Microbes and Environments
Sepehr Hamzehlouia, Shaffiq A Jaffer, Jamal Chaouki
Natural gas is a robust and environmentally friendlier alternative to oil resources for energy and chemicals production. However, gas is distributed globally within shales and hydrates, which are generally remote and difficult reserves to produce. The accessibility, transportation, and distribution, therefore, bring major capital costs. With today's low and foreseen low price of natural gas, conversion of natural gas to higher value-added chemicals is highly sought by industry. Dry reforming of methane (DRM) is a technology pathway to convert two critical greenhouse gas components, CH4 and CO2 , to syngas, a commodity chemical feedstock...
June 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jessica P Porterfield, Sandra Eibenberger, David Patterson, Michael C McCarthy
We have developed a method to quantify reaction product ratios using high resolution microwave spectroscopy in a cryogenic buffer gas cell. We demonstrate the power of this method with the study of the ozonolysis of isoprene, CH2[double bond, length as m-dash]C(CH3)-CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CH2, the most abundant, non-methane hydrocarbon emitted into the atmosphere by vegetation. Isoprene is an asymmetric diene, and reacts with O3 at the 1,2 position to produce methyl vinyl ketone (MVK), formaldehyde, and a pair of carbonyl oxides: [CH3CO-CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CH2 + CH2[double bond, length as m-dash]OO] + [CH2[double bond, length as m-dash]O + CH3COO-CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CH2]...
June 12, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Laura Treu, Stefano Campanaro, Panagiotis G Kougias, Cristina Sartori, Ilaria Bassani, Irini Angelidaki
Biogas upgrading via carbon dioxide hydrogenation is an emerging technology for electrofuel production. The biomethanation efficiency is strongly dependent on a balanced microbial consortium, whose high- resolution characterization along with their functional potential and interactions are pivotal for process optimization. The present work is the first genome-centric metagenomic study on mesophilic and thermophilic biogas upgrading reactors aiming to define the metabolic profile of more than 200 uncultivated microbes involved in hydrogen assisted methanogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Zhongzhong Wang, Qidong Yin, Mengqi Gu, Kai He, Guangxue Wu
Effect of dosing ferroferric oxide (Fe3 O4 ) on the anaerobic treatment of azo dye Reactive Red 2 (RR2) was investigated in two anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs). System performance, dye degradation pathways, and microbial activities and structure were examined. The addition of Fe3 O4 significantly improved treatment efficiency, with the removal efficiency of RR2 increased by 116%, the maximum methane (CH4 ) yield potential and the peak CH4 production rate improved by 7.7% and 22.3%, and the lag phase shortened by 39...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Ninghai Kou, Zhixin Xiang, Weiti Cui, Longna Li, Wenbiao Shen
Previous results have shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), mainly catalyzed by l-cysteine desulfhydrase (DES) in plants, triggers adventitious rooting. The objective of this study was to test whether H2 S is involved in methane (CH4 )-induced adventitious root development in cucumber explants. First, we observed that the activities of DES, endogenous H2 S production, and thereafter adventitious root development were induced by CH4 and NaHS (an H2 S donor). Some responses were sensitive to hypotaurine (HT; a scavenger of H2 S), showing that endogenous H2 S production and adventitious rooting were obviously blocked...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Frank E Muller-Karger, Yrene M Astor, Claudia R Benitez-Nelson, Kristen N Buck, Kent A Fanning, Laura Lorenzoni, Enrique Montes, Digna T Rueda-Roa, Mary I Scranton, Eric Tappa, Gordon T Taylor, Robert C Thunell, Luis Troccoli, Ramon Varela
TheCARIACO(Carbon Retention in a Colored Ocean) Ocean Time-Series Program station, located at 10.50°N, 64.66°W, observed biogeochemical and ecological processes in the Cariaco Basin of the southwestern Caribbean Sea from November 1995 to January 2017. The program completed 232 monthly core cruises, 40 sediment trap deployment cruises, and 40 microbiogeochemical process cruises. Upwelling along the southern Caribbean Sea occurs from approximately November to August. High biological productivity (320-628 g C m-2 y-1 ) leads to large vertical fluxes of particulate organic matter, but only approximately 9-10 g C m-2 y-1 fall to the bottom sediments (∼1-3% of primary production)...
June 11, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
M R Sousa, C J S Oliveira, J M Carneiro, A C Lopes, E Rodríguez, E A F Vasconcelos, G B M Holanda, P G C Landim, M E R Silva, P I M Firmino, A B Dos Santos
This study aimed to evaluate different air dosing strategies such as microaeration flow rates and air dosing points to enhance H2 S removal in microaerobic systems treating low-strength wastewaters. Efficiency and stability of the reactors as well as biogas quality were assessed, and microbial community changes were evaluated using PCR-DGGE technique. The results showed that the air dosing point affected the H2 S concentration and that air dosing at the headspace promoted the highest H2 S removal efficiency...
June 11, 2018: Environmental Technology
Lei Yue, Na Wang, Shaodong Zhou, Xiaoyan Sun, Maria Schlangen, Helmut Schwarz
While pristine [TaO2]+ is rather inert in its thermal reactions with both methane and molecular hydrogen, the cluster oxide becomes reactive upon ligation with the closed-shell ligand CO2. While the presence of CO2 increases the intrinsic barriers of the C-H and H-H bond activation steps, the efficiency of the overall reaction to generate the insertion product [Ta(R)(OH)O]+ (R = CH3, H) is greatly enhanced due to the superb leaving group properties of CO2. The ligand effect of CO2 has been well mimicked by the electric field of a negative point charge, and mechanistic aspects are addressed by high-level quantum chemical calculations...
June 10, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
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