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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330215/bioremediation-of-high-strength-agricultural-wastewater-using-ochrobactrum-sp-strain-sz1
#1
Chin Hong Neoh, Chi Yong Lam, Suriati Mat Ghani, Ismail Ware, Siti Hajar Mat Sarip, Zaharah Ibrahim
The biggest agricultural sector that contributes to the Malaysian economy is the oil palm industry. The effluent generated during the production of crude palm oil known as palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME undergoes anaerobic treatment that requires long retention time and produces large amount of methane that consequently contributes to global warming. In this study, an isolated bacteria was selected based on its ability to degrade kraft lignin (KL) and identified as Ochrobactrum sp. The bacteria were able to treat POME (from anaerobic pond) under the aerobic condition without addition of nutrient, resulting in a significant chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 71 %, removal rate of 1385 mg/l/day, and 12...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330142/an-overview-of-physico-chemical-mechanisms-of-biogas-production-by-microbial-communities-a-step-towards-sustainable-waste-management
#2
REVIEW
Ramansu Goswami, Pritam Chattopadhyay, Arunima Shome, Sambhu Nath Banerjee, Amit Kumar Chakraborty, Anil K Mathew, Shibani Chaudhury
Biogas is a combination of methane, CO2, nitrogen, H2S and traces of few other gases. Almost any organic waste can be biologically transformed into biogas and other energy-rich organic compounds through the process of anaerobic digestion (AD) and thus helping in sustainable waste management. Although microbes are involved in each step of AD, knowledge about those microbial consortia is limited due to the lack of phylogenetic and metabolic data of predominantly unculturable microorganisms. However, culture-independent methods like PCR-based ribotyping has been successfully employed to get information about the microbial consortia involved in AD...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325706/biochemical-methane-potential-from-sewage-sludge-effect-of-an-aerobic-pretreatment-and-fly-ash-addition-as-source-of-trace-elements
#3
César Huiliñir, Paula Pinto-Villegas, Alejandra Castillo, Silvio Montalvo, Lorna Guerrero
The effect of aerobic pretreatment and fly ash addition on the production of methane from mixed sludge is studied. Three assays with pretreated and not pretreated mixed sludge in the presence of fly ash (concentrations of 0, 10, 25, 50, 250 and 500mg/L) were run at mesophilic condition. It was found that the combined use of aerobic pretreatment and fly ash addition increases methane production up to 70% when the fly ash concentrations were lower than 50mg/L, while concentrations higher than 250mg/L cause up to 11% decrease of methane production...
March 18, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325703/investigation-of-sewage-sludge-treatment-using-air-plasma-assisted-gasification
#4
Nerijus Striūgas, Vitas Valinčius, Nerijus Pedišius, Robertas Poškas, Kęstutis Zakarauskas
This study presents an experimental investigation of downdraft gasification process coupled with a secondary thermal plasma reactor in order to perform experimental investigations of sewage sludge gasification, and compare process parameters running the system with and without the secondary thermal plasma reactor. The experimental investigation were performed with non-pelletized mixture of dried sewage sludge and wood pellets. To estimate the process performance, the composition of the producer gas, tars, particle matter, producer gas and char yield were measured at the exit of the gasification and plasma reactor...
March 18, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323135/effect-of-bioaugmentation-by-cellulolytic-bacteria-enriched-from-sheep-rumen-on-methane-production-from-wheat-straw
#5
E Gozde Ozbayram, Sabine Kleinsteuber, Marcell Nikolausz, Bahar Ince, Orhan Ince
The aim of this study was to determine the potential of bioaugmentation with cellulolytic rumen microbiota to enhance the anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic feedstock. An anaerobic cellulolytic culture was enriched from sheep rumen fluid using wheat straw as substrate under mesophilic conditions. To investigate the effects of bioaugmentation on methane production from straw, the enrichment culture was added to batch reactors in proportions of 2% (Set-1) and 4% (Set-2) of the microbial cell number of the standard inoculum slurry...
March 17, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323134/effect-of-operating-temperature-on-anaerobic-digestion-of-the-brazilian-waterweed-egeria-densa-and-its-microbial-community
#6
Keiko Watanabe, Mitsuhiko Koyama, Junko Ueda, Syuhei Ban, Norio Kurosawa, Tatsuki Toda
To develop an effective treatment for the globally invasive Brazilian waterweed Egeria densa, anaerobic digestion was observed at 37 °C, 55 °C, and 65 °C. The average methane production rate at 55 °C was 220 mL L(-1) day(-1), which was two-fold that at 37 °C and 65 °C. Volatile fatty acid accumulation was detected under thermophilic conditions; however, although there was methane production, the system did not shutdown. The microbial communities differed between mesophilic (37 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C and 65 °C) conditions...
March 16, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321646/selective-bio-oxidation-of-propane-to-acetone-using-methane-oxidizing-methylomonas-sp-%C3%A2-dh-1
#7
Dong Hoon Hur, Thu Thi Nguyen, Donghyuk Kim, Eun Yeol Lee
Propane is the major component of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Nowadays, the use of LPG is decreasing, and thus utilization of propane as a chemical feedstock is in need of development. An efficient biological conversion of propane to acetone using a methanotrophic whole cell as the biocatalyst was proposed and investigated. A bio-oxidation pathway of propane to acetone in Methylomonas sp. DH-1 was analyzed by gene expression profiling via RNA sequencing. Propane was oxidized to 2-propanol by particulate methane monooxygenase and subsequently to acetone by methanol dehydrogenases...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320620/effect-of-fe-0-addition-on-volatile-fatty-acids-evolution-on-anaerobic-digestion-at-high-organic-loading-rates
#8
Xin Kong, Shuyao Yu, Shuang Xu, Wen Fang, Jianguo Liu, Huan Li
Excessive acidification frequently occurs in the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) at high organic loading rates (OLR), due to the accumulation of non-acetic volatile fatty acids (VFA). In this study, the performance of Fe(0) in enhancing various VFA production and metabolism was investigated. The butyric acid concentration in a high OLR reactor with Fe(0) addition decreased from 7200 to 0mg/L after a short lag phase, and the total VFA (TVFA) concentration also decreased substantially...
March 17, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319775/dilute-alkali-pretreatment-of-softwood-pine-a-biorefinery-approach
#9
Ali Safari, Keikhosro Karimi, Marzieh Shafiei
Dilute alkali pretreatment was performed on softwood pine to maximize ethanol and biogas production via a biorefinery approach. Alkali pretreatments were performed with 0-2% w/v NaOH at 100-180°C for 1-5h. The liquid fraction of the pretreated substrates was subjected to anaerobic digestion. The solid fraction of the pretreatment was used for separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. High ethanol yields of 76.9‒78.0% were achieved by pretreatment with 2% (w/v) NaOH at 180°C. The highest biogas yield of 244mL/g volatile solid (at 25°C, 1bar) was achieved by the pretreatment with 1% (w/v) NaOH at 180°C...
March 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319766/sequential-ultrasound-and-low-temperature-thermal-pretreatment-process-optimization-and-influence-on-sewage-sludge-solubilization-enzyme-activity-and-anaerobic-digestion
#10
Patricio Neumann, Zenón González, Gladys Vidal
The influence of sequential ultrasound and low-temperature (55°C) thermal pretreatment on sewage sludge solubilization, enzyme activity and anaerobic digestion was assessed. The pretreatment led to significant increases of 427-1030% and 230-674% in the soluble concentrations of carbohydrates and proteins, respectively, and 1.6-4.3 times higher enzymatic activities in the soluble phase of the sludge. Optimal conditions for chemical oxygen demand solubilization were determined at 59.3kg/L total solids (TS) concentration, 30,500kJ/kg TS specific energy and 13h thermal treatment time using response surface methodology...
March 9, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318963/an-investigation-of-ultrasound-effect-on-digestate-solubilization-and-methane-yield
#11
Temesgen Garoma, David Pappaterra
In this study, different ultrasound power intensities of 0.05-0.21kW/L (4.13-16.52kWh/kg TS) were applied at a frequency of 20kHz and for durations of 5-20min to digestate obtained from a domestic wastewater treatment plant. The ultrasonic effect on digestate solubilization was revealed by increased levels of soluble Chemical Oxygen Demand (sCOD), soluble Total Organic Carbon (sTOC), and soluble Total Nitrogen (sTN) released into the solution. The highest material release was achieved at an ultrasonic energy intensity of 0...
March 16, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318933/anaerobic-oxidation-of-methane-coupled-to-thiosulfate-reduction-in-a-biotrickling-filter
#12
Chiara Cassarini, Eldon R Rene, Susma Bhattarai, Giovanni Esposito, Piet N L Lens
Microorganisms from an anaerobic methane oxidizing sediment were enriched with methane gas as the substrate in a biotrickling filter (BTF) using thiosulfate as electron acceptor for 213days. Thiosulfate disproportionation to sulfate and sulfide were the dominating sulfur conversion process in the BTF and the sulfide production rate was 0.5mmoll(-1)day(-1). A specific group of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), belonging to the Desulforsarcina/Desulfococcus group, was enriched in the BTF. The BTF biomass showed maximum sulfate reduction rate (0...
March 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318241/mitigating-greenhouse-gas-and-ammonia-emissions-from-swine-manure-management-a-system-analysis
#13
Yue Wang, Hongmin Dong, Zhiping Zhu, Pierre J Gerber, Hongwei Xin, Pete Smith, Carolyn Opio, Henning Steinfeld, Dave Chadwick
Gaseous emissions from animal manure are considerable contributor to global ammonia (NH3) and agriculture greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Given the demand to promote mitigation of GHGs while fostering sustainable development of the Paris Agreement, an improvement of management systems is urgently needed to help mitigate climate change and to improve atmospheric air quality. This study presents a meta-analysis and an integrated assessment of gaseous emissions and mitigation potentials for NH3, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) (direct and indirect) losses from four typical swine manure management systems (MMSs)...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315137/sheep-fed-with-banana-leaf-hay-reduce-ruminal-protozoa-population
#14
Cláudio Eduardo Silva Freitas, Eduardo Robson Duarte, Dorismar David Alves, Isabel Martinele, Marta D'Agosto, Franciane Cedrola, Angélica Alves de Moura Freitas, Franklin Delano Dos Santos Soares, Makenzi Beltran
A ciliate protozoa suppression can reduce methane production increasing the energy efficiency utilization by ruminants. The physicochemical characteristics of rumen fluid and the profile of the rumen protozoa populations were evaluated for sheep fed banana leaf hay in replacement of the Cynodon dactylon cv. vaqueiro hay. A total of 30 male sheep were raised in intensive system during 15 days of adaptation and 63 days of experimental period. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design that included six replicates of five treatments with replacement levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) of the grass vaquero for the banana leaf hay...
March 17, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314396/evaluating-the-influences-of-mixing-strategies-on-the-biochemical-methane-potential-test
#15
Bing Wang, Annika Björn, Sten Strömberg, Ivo Achu Nges, Mihaela Nistor, Jing Liu
Mixing plays an important role in the Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) test, but only limited efforts have been put into it. In this study, various mixing strategies were applied to evaluate the influences on the BMP test, i.e., no mixing, shaking in water bath, shake manually once per day (SKM), automated unidirectional and bidirectional mixing. The results show that the effects of mixing are prominent for the most viscous substrate investigated, as both the highest methane production and highest maximal daily methane production were obtained at the highest mixing intensity...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303760/intrinsic-gas-production-kinetics-of-selected-intermediates-in-anaerobic-filters-for-demand-orientated-energy-supply
#16
Johannes Hagen Krümpel, Lukas Illi, Andreas Lemmer
In consequence of a growing share of solar and wind power, recent research on biogas production highlighted a need for demand-orientated, flexible gas production to provide grid services and enable a decentralized stabilization of the electricity infrastructure. Two-staged anaerobic digestion is particularly suitable for shifting the methane production into times of higher demand due to the spatio-temporal separation of hydrolysis and methanogenesis. To provide a basis for predicting gas production in an Anaerobic Filter, kinetic parameters of gas production have been determined experimentally in this study...
March 17, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302185/in-vitro-ruminal-fermentation-characteristics-and-utilisable-cp-supply-of-sainfoin-and-birdsfoot-trefoil-silages-and-their-mixtures-with-other-legumes
#17
A Grosse Brinkhaus, U Wyss, Y Arrigo, M Girard, G Bee, J O Zeitz, M Kreuzer, F Dohme-Meier
The extensive protein degradation occurring during ensiling decreases the nutritive value of silages, but this might be counteracted by tannins. Therefore, silages from two legume species containing condensed tannins (CT) - sainfoin (SF) and birdsfoot trefoil (two cultivars: birdsfoot trefoil, cv. Bull (BTB) and birdsfoot trefoil, cv. Polom) - were compared for their in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics. The effect of combining them with two CT-free legume silages (lucerne (LU) and red clover (RC)) was also determined...
April 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300265/catalytic-routes-to-fuels-from-c1-and-oxygenate-molecules
#18
Shuai Wang, Iker Agirrezabal-Telleria, Aditya Bhan, Dante Simonetti, Kazuhiro Takanabe, Enrique Iglesia
This account illustrates concepts in chemical kinetics underpinned by the formalism of transition state theory using catalytic processes that enable the synthesis of molecules suitable as fuels from C1 and oxygenate reactants. Such feedstocks provide an essential bridge towards a carbon-free energy future, but their volatility and low energy density require the formation of new C-C bonds and the removal of oxygen. These transformations are described here through recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and site requirements in catalysis by surfaces, with emphasis on enabling concepts that tackle ubiquitous reactivity and selectivity challenges...
March 16, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299854/induction-of-a-transient-acidosis-in-the-rumen-simulation-technique
#19
M Eger, S Riede, G Breves
Feeding high concentrate diets to cattle results in an enhanced production of short-chain fatty acids by the micro-organisms in the rumen. Excessive fermentation might result in subclinical or clinical rumen acidosis, characterized by low pH, alterations in the microbial community and lactate production. Here, we provide an in vitro model of a severe rumen acidosis. A transient acidosis was induced in the rumen simulation technique by lowering bicarbonate, dihydrogen phosphate and hydrogen phosphate concentrations in the artificial saliva while providing a concentrate-to-forage ratio of 70:30...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298101/acetonitrile-cluster-solvation-in-a-cryogenic-ethane-methane-propane-liquid-implications-for-titan-lake-chemistry
#20
L René Corrales, Thomas D Yi, Samantha K Trumbo, David Shalloway, Jonathan I Lunine, David A Usher
The atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon, exhibits interesting UV- and radiation-driven chemistry between nitrogen and methane, resulting in dipolar, nitrile-containing molecules. The assembly and subsequent solvation of such molecules in the alkane lakes and seas found on the moon's surface are of particular interest for investigating the possibility of prebiotic chemistry in Titan's hydrophobic seas. Here we characterize the solvation of acetonitrile, a product of Titan's atmospheric radiation chemistry tentatively detected on Titan's surface [H...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
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