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Methane production

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935210/mechanistic-insight-on-the-oxidation-of-organic-phenylselenides-by-h%C3%A2-o%C3%A2
#1
Giovanni Ribaudo, Massimo Bellanda, Ileana Menegazzo, Lando Peter Wolters, Marco Bortoli, Gerardo Ferrer-Sueta, Giuseppe Zagotto, Laura Orian
The oxidation of organic phenylselenides by H₂O₂ is investigated in model compounds, i.e. n-butyl phenyl selenide (PhSe(n-Bu)), bis(phenylselanyl)methane (PhSeMeSePh), diphenyl diselenide (PhSeSePh) and 1,2-bis(phenylselanyl)ethane (PhSeEtSePh). Through a combined experimental (¹H and ⁷⁷Se NMR) and computational approach, we characterize the direct oxidation of monoselenide to selenoxide, the stepwise double oxidation of PhSeMeSePh leading to different diastereomeric diselenoxides, the complete oxidation of the diphenyldiselenide leading to selenium-selenium bond cleavage and subsequent formation of the phenylseleninic product...
December 9, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933799/substitution-of-a-single-amino-acid-reverses-the-regiospecificity-of-the-baeyer-villiger-monooxygenase-pnte-in-the-biosynthesis-of-the-antibiotic-pentalenolactone
#2
Ke Chen, Shiwen Wu, Lu Zhu, Chengde Zhang, Wensheng Xiang, Zixin Deng, Haruo Ikeda, David E Cane, Dongqing Zhu
In the biosynthesis of pentalenolactone (1), PenE and PntE, orthologous proteins from Streptomyces exfoliatus and S. arenae, respectively, catalyze the flavin-dependent Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of 1-deoxy-11-oxopentalenic acid (4) to the lactone pentalenolactone D (5), in which the less-substituted methylene carbon has migrated. By contrast, the paralogous PtlE enzyme from S. avermitilis catalyzes the oxidation of 4 to neopentalenolactone D (6), in which the more substituted methane substitution has undergone migration...
December 6, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933055/responses-of-methanogenic-and-methanotrophic-communities-to-elevated-atmospheric-co2-and-temperature-in-a-paddy-field
#3
Yuan Liu, Xiaoyu Liu, Kun Cheng, Lianqing Li, Xuhui Zhang, Jufeng Zheng, Jinwei Zheng, Genxing Pan
Although climate change is predicted to affect methane (CH4) emissions in paddy soil, the dynamics of methanogens and methanotrophs in paddy fields under climate change have not yet been fully investigated. To address this issue, a multifactor climate change experiment was conducted in a Chinese paddy field using the following experimental treatments: (1) enrichment of atmospheric CO2 concentrations (500 ppm, CE), (2) canopy air warming (2°C above the ambient, WA), (3) combined CO2 enrichment and warming (CW), and (4) ambient conditions (CK)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931939/ex-situ-biogas-upgrading-and-enhancement-in-different-reactor-systems
#4
Panagiotis G Kougias, Laura Treu, Daniela Peñailillo Benavente, Kanokwan Boe, Stefano Campanaro, Irini Angelidaki
Biogas upgrading is envisioned as a key process for clean energy production. The current study evaluates the efficiency of different reactor configurations for ex-situ biogas upgrading and enhancement, in which externally provided hydrogen and carbon dioxide were biologically converted to methane by the action of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. The methane content in the output gas of the most efficient configuration was >98%, allowing its exploitation as substitute to natural gas. Additionally, use of digestate from biogas plants as a cost efficient method to provide all the necessary nutrients for microbial growth was successful...
December 2, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931936/biochemical-methane-potential-of-fractions-of-organic-matter-extracted-from-a-municipal-solid-waste-leachate-impact-of-their-hydrophobic-character
#5
Camille Baccot, Virginie Pallier, Geneviève Feuillade-Cathalifaud
Many data on anaerobic digestion (AD) and co-digestion of municipal solid waste leachate (MSWL) are already available in literature. They mainly deal with its performances to decrease the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of MSWL and no information is given on the impact of the specific characteristics of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in leachate on these performances. DOM in leachate evolves towards more aromatic and hydrophobic compounds during landfilling with increasing specific ultra-violet absorbance index (SUVA) and hydrophobic character...
December 5, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929052/effects-of-nitrogen-and-biochar-amendment-on-soil-methane-concentration-profiles-and-diffusion-in-a-rice-wheat-annual-rotation-system
#6
Xin Xu, Zhen Wu, Yubing Dong, Ziqiang Zhou, Zhengqin Xiong
The CH4 emissions from soil were influenced by the changeable CH4 concentrations and diffusions in soil profiles, but that have been subjected to nitrogen (N) and biochar amendment over seasonal and annual time frames. Accordingly, a two-year field experiment was conducted in southeastern China to determine the amendment effects on CH4 concentrations and diffusive effluxes as measured by a multilevel sampling probe in paddy soil during two cycles of rice-wheat rotations. The results showed that the top 7-cm soil layers were the primary CH4 production sites during the rice-growing seasons...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927081/effects-of-inoculum-to-substrate-and-co-digestion-with-bagasse-on-biogas-production-of-fish-waste
#7
Jie Xu, Ahmed M Mustafa, Kuichuan Sheng
To overcome the biogas inhibition in anaerobic digestion of fish waste (FW), effects of inoculum to substrate (I/S, based on VS) and co-digestion with bagasse on biogas production of fish waste were studied in batch reactors. I/S value was from 0.95 to 2.55, bagasse content in co-digestion (based on VS) was 25%, 50%, 75%. The highest biogas yield (433.4 mL/gVS) with 73.34% methane content was obtained at I/S value of 2.19 in mono-digestion of FW, the biogas production was inhibited and the methane content was below 70% when I/S was below 1...
December 7, 2016: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926429/biologically-produced-methane-as-a-renewable-energy-source
#8
D E Holmes, J A Smith
Methanogens are a unique group of strictly anaerobic archaea that are more metabolically diverse than previously thought. Traditionally, it was thought that methanogens could only generate methane by coupling the oxidation of products formed by fermentative bacteria with the reduction of CO2. However, it has recently been observed that many methanogens can also use electrons extruded from metal-respiring bacteria, biocathodes, or insoluble electron shuttles as energy sources. Methanogens are found in both human-made and natural environments and are responsible for the production of ∼71% of the global atmospheric methane...
2016: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924402/age-related-response-of-rumen-microbiota-to-mineral-salt-and-effects-of-their-interactions-on-enteric-methane-emissions-in-cattle
#9
C Liu, X H Li, Y X Chen, Z H Cheng, Q H Duan, Q H Meng, X P Tao, B Shang, H M Dong
Mineral salt bricks are often used in cow raising as compensation for mineral losses to improve milk yield, growth, and metabolic activity. Generally, effects of minerals are partially thought to result from improvement of microbial metabolism, but their influence on the rumen microbiota has rarely been documented to date. In this study, we investigated the response of microbiota to mineral salt in heifer and adult cows and evaluated ruminal fermentation and enteric methane emissions of cows fed mineral salts...
December 6, 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921378/origin-of-the-excellent-performance-of-ru-on-nitrogen-doped-carbon-nanofibers-for-co2-hydrogenation-to-ch4
#10
Laura Roldán, Yanila Marco, Enrique García-Bordejé
Carbon materials have rarely been used as support for CO2 methanation, which is usually carried out using catalysts supported on metal oxides. Here, it is shown that Ru nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (NCNF) provide competitive CH4 production rate and stability compared to Al2 O3 -supported catalysts. Contrary to the general belief about the inert nature of carbon supports, it is demonstrated that NCNF is a non-innocent spectator in CO2 methanation due to its ability to store a high amount of COad reaction intermediates...
December 6, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921191/a-review-of-the-public-health-impacts-of-unconventional-natural-gas-development
#11
REVIEW
P J Saunders, D McCoy, R Goldstein, A T Saunders, A Munroe
The public health impact of hydraulic fracturing remains a high profile and controversial issue. While there has been a recent surge of published papers, it remains an under-researched area despite being possibly the most substantive change in energy production since the advent of the fossil fuel economy. We review the evidence of effects in five public health domains with a particular focus on the UK: exposure, health, socio-economic, climate change and seismicity. While the latter would seem not to be of significance for the UK, we conclude that serious gaps in our understanding of the other potential impacts persist together with some concerning signals in the literature and legitimate uncertainties derived from first principles...
December 5, 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919545/the-effects-of-pre-aeration-and-inoculation-on-solid-state-anaerobic-digestion-of-rice-straw
#12
Ying Zhou, Chao Li, Ivo Achu Nges, Jing Liu
Pre-aeration was investigated for enhancing biodegradation of recalcitrant lignocellulosic structure of rice straw under various low temperatures regimes (25, 35 and 45°C) and aeration durations (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8days). It was demonstrated aerated rice straw for 2days at 35°C resulted in highest hydrolytic efficiency and biochemical methane potential (BMP) (355.3±18.7mlCH4/gVS). Furthermore, both methane yields and initiation speeds of the solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) were inversely proportional to substrate-to-inoculum ratios due to the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and poor mass transfer...
November 29, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913879/termitarium-inhabiting-bacillus-spp-enhanced-plant-growth-and-bioactive-component-in-turmeric-curcuma-longa-l
#13
Ankit Kumar Chauhan, Dinesh Kumar Maheshwari, Shrivardhan Dheeman, Vivek K Bajpai
Curcumin (diferuloyl methane) is the main bioactive component of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) having remarkable multipotent medicinal and therapeutic applications. Two Bacilli isolated from termitarium soil and identified as Bacillus endophyticus TSH42 and Bacillus cereus TSH77 were used for bacterization of rhizome for raising C. longa ver. suguna for growth and enhancement. Both the strains showed remarkable PGP activities and also chemotactic in nature with high chemotactic index. Turmeric plants bacterized with strains B...
December 2, 2016: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913414/distinct-anaerobic-bacterial-consumers-of-cellobiose-derived-carbon-in-boreal-fens-differing-in-ch4-vs-co2-production-ratio
#14
Heli Juottonen, Alexander Eiler, Christina Biasi, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Kim Yrjälä, Hannu Fritze
: Northern peatlands in general have high methane (CH4) emissions, but individual peatlands show considerable variation as CH4 sources. Particularly in nutrient poor peatlands, CH4 production can be low and exceeded by carbon dioxide (CO2) production from unresolved anaerobic processes. To clarify the role anaerobic bacterial degraders play in this variation, we compared consumers of cellobiose-derived carbon in two fens differing in nutrient status and the ratio of CH4 and CO2 produced...
December 2, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912989/assessment-of-methane-production-from-shredder-waste-in-landfills-the-influence-of-temperature-moisture-and-metals
#15
Ehsan Fathi Aghdam, Charlotte Scheutz, Peter Kjeldsen
In this study, methane (CH4) production rates from shredder waste (SW) were determined by incubation of waste samples over a period of 230days under different operating conditions, and first-order decay kinetic constants (k-values) were calculated. SW and sterilized SW were incubated under different temperatures (20-25°C, 37°C, and 55°C), moisture contents (35% and 75% w/w) and amounts of inoculum (5% and 30% of the samples wet weight). The biochemical methane potential (BMP) from different types of SW (fresh, old and sieved) was determined and compared...
November 29, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912182/influence-of-the-gas-liquid-flow-configuration-in-the-absorption-column-on-photosynthetic-biogas-upgrading-in-algal-bacterial-photobioreactors
#16
Alma Toledo-Cervantes, Cindy Madrid-Chirinos, Sara Cantera, Raquel Lebrero, Raúl Muñoz
The potential of an algal-bacterial system consisting of a high rate algal pond (HRAP) interconnected to an absorption column (AC) via recirculation of the cultivation broth for the upgrading of biogas and digestate was investigated. The influence of the gas-liquid flow configuration in the AC on the photosynthetic biogas upgrading process was assessed. AC operation in a co-current configuration enabled to maintain a biomass productivity of 15gm(-2)d(-1), while during counter-current operation biomass productivity decreased to 8...
November 23, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906983/tithonia-diversifolia-as-a-supplementary-feed-for-dairy-cows
#17
Rafael Sandin Ribeiro, Stephanie Amelia Terry, João Paulo Sacramento, Sylvia Rocha E Silveira, Cláudia Braga Pereira Bento, Elsa Fernandes da Silva, Hilário Cuquetto Mantovani, Marco Antônio Sundfeld da Gama, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro Pereira, Thierry Ribeiro Tomich, Rogério Martins Maurício, Alexandre Vieira Chaves
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of Tithonia diversifolia as a supplementary forage on dairy cow performance and methane production. Nine lactating Holstein × Zebu dairy cows (519 ± 53.3 kg of body weight and 66 ± 13.3 d in milk) were paired by milk yield (21.3 ± 2.34 kg/d) and body weight and randomly assigned to three dietary treatments in a Latin square design with 21-d experimental periods (14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for measurements and sample collection). The dietary treatments included the control diet consisting of fresh sugar cane plus concentrate (44:56, % of diet DM), and two treatment diets containing different levels of fresh T...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905614/methanobactins-from-genome-to-function
#18
Laura M K Dassama, Grace E Kenney, Amy C Rosenzweig
Methanobactins (Mbns) are ribosomally produced, post-translationally modified peptide (RiPP) natural products that bind copper with high affinity using nitrogen-containing heterocycles and thioamide groups. In some methanotrophic bacteria, Mbns are secreted under conditions of copper starvation and then re-internalized as a copper source for the enzyme particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO). Genome mining studies have led to the identification and classification of operons encoding the Mbn precursor peptide (MbnA) as well as a number of putative transport, regulatory, and biosynthetic proteins...
December 1, 2016: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905538/potential-and-optimization-of-two-phase-anaerobic-digestion-of-oil-refinery-waste-activated-sludge-and-microbial-community-study
#19
Qinghong Wang, Ying Liang, Peng Zhao, Qing X Li, Shaohui Guo, Chunmao Chen
Oil refinery waste activated sludge produced from oil wastewater biological treatment is a major industrial sludge. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of oil refinery waste activated sludge was studied for the first time. Thermal pretreatment under 170 °C is effective on sludge solubilization. At the optimum hydrolytic-acidogenic condition which was pH of 6.5, temperature of 55 °C and HRT of 2 days, 2754 mg/L volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were produced and acetic acid and butyric acid were the key components...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905505/surface-protonics-promotes-catalysis
#20
R Manabe, S Okada, R Inagaki, K Oshima, S Ogo, Y Sekine
Catalytic steam reforming of methane for hydrogen production proceeds even at 473 K over 1 wt% Pd/CeO2 catalyst in an electric field, thanks to the surface protonics. Kinetic analyses demonstrated the synergetic effect between catalytic reaction and electric field, revealing strengthened water pressure dependence of the reaction rate when applying an electric field, with one-third the apparent activation energy at the lower reaction temperature range. Operando-IR measurements revealed that proton conduction via adsorbed water on the catalyst surface occurred during electric field application...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
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