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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441753/coq10-deficiency-may-indicate-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-cr-vi-toxicity
#1
Xiali Zhong, Xing Yi, Rita de Cássia da Silveira E Sá, Yujing Zhang, Kaihua Liu, Fang Xiao, Caigao Zhong
To investigate the toxic mechanism of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) and search for an antidote for Cr(VI)-induced cytotoxicity, a study of mitochondrial dysfunction induced by Cr(VI) and cell survival by recovering mitochondrial function was performed. In the present study, we found that the gene expression of electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase (ETFDH) was strongly downregulated by Cr(VI) exposure. The levels of coenzyme 10 (CoQ10) and mitochondrial biogenesis presented by mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial DNA copy number were also significantly reduced after Cr(VI) exposure...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437076/series-of-znsn-oh-6-polyhedra-enhanced-co2-dissociation-activation-and-crystal-facet-based-homojunction-boosting-solar-fuel-synthesis
#2
Lanqin Tang, Zongyan Zhao, Yong Zhou, Bihu Lv, Peng Li, Jinhua Ye, Xiaoyong Wang, Min Xiao, Zhigang Zou
A series of ZnSn(OH)6 polyhedra are successfully explored with well-controlled area ratio of the exposed {100} and {111} facets. Band alignment of the exposed facet-based homojunction of the elegant polyhedron facilitates spatial separation of photogenerated electrons and holes on {111} and {100} surfaces, respectively. Optimal area ratio of {100} to {111} is the prerequisite for pronounced CO2 photocatalytic performance of high-symmetry cuboctahedra into methane (CH4). The synergistic effect of the excess electron accumulation and simultaneously the enhanced CO2 absorption and low dissociation activation energy on {111} reduction sites promote the yield of CO2 photocatalytic conversion product...
April 24, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433915/stimulation-of-the-anaerobic-digestion-of-the-dry-organic-fraction-of-municipal-solid-waste-ofmsw-with-carbon-based-conductive-materials
#3
Yan Dang, Dezhi Sun, Trevor L Woodard, Li-Ying Wang, Kelly P Nevin, Dawn E Holmes
Growth of bacterial and archaeal species capable of interspecies electron exchange was stimulated by addition of conductive materials (carbon cloth or granular activated carbon (GAC)) to anaerobic digesters treating dog food (a substitute for the dry-organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW)). Methane production (772-1428mmol vs <80mmol), volatile solids removal (78%-81% vs 54%-64%) and COD removal efficiencies (∼80% vs 20%-30%) were all significantly higher in reactors amended with GAC or carbon cloth than controls...
April 9, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433902/evaluation-of-different-types-of-anaerobic-seed-sludge-for-the-high-rate-anaerobic-digestion-of-pig-slurry-in-uasb-reactors
#4
Carlos Rico, Jesús A Montes, José Luis Rico
Three different types of anaerobic sludge (granular, thickened digestate and anaerobic sewage) were evaluated as seed inoculum sources for the high rate anaerobic digestion of pig slurry in UASB reactors. Granular sludge performance was optimal, allowing a high efficiency process yielding a volumetric methane production rate of 4.1LCH4L(-1)d(-1) at 1.5days HRT (0.248LCH4g(-1)COD) at an organic loading rate of 16.4gCODL(-1)d(-1). The thickened digestate sludge experimented flotation problems, thus resulting inappropriate for the UASB process...
April 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433584/electrohydrolysis-pretreatment-of-water-hyacinth-for-enhanced-hydrolysis
#5
Visva Bharati Barua, V Wilson Raju, Sophia Lippold, Ajay S Kalamdhad
This study investigates the use of electrohydrolysis pretreatment on water hyacinth to cut short the hydrolysis step and increase biogas production at the same time. Electrohydrolysis pretreatment of water hyacinth at 20V for 60min exhibited improved solubilisation (42.9%). Therefore, bio-chemical methane potential (BMP) test was carried out between water hyacinth pretreated at 20V for 60min and untreated water hyacinth. By the end of 30days, cumulative methane production of 2455±17mL CH4/g VS for electrohydrolysis pretreated substrate and 1936±27mL CH4/g VS for the untreated substrate was achieved...
April 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433507/use-of-bioreactor-landfill-for-nitrogen-removal-to-enhance-methane-production-through-ex-situ-simultaneous-nitrification-denitrification-and-in-situ-denitrification
#6
Xiaojie Sun, Hongxia Zhang, Zhaowen Cheng
High concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) derived from ex situ nitrification phase can inhibit methane production during ex situ nitrification and in situ denitrification bioreactor landfill. A combined process comprised of ex situ simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SND) in an aged refuse bioreactor (ARB) and in situ denitrification in a fresh refuse bioreactor (FRB) was conducted to reduce the negative effect of high concentrationsof NO3(-)-N. Ex situ SND can be achieved because NO3(-)-N concentration can be reduced and the removal rate of ammonium-nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) remains largely unchanged when the ventilation rate of ARB-A2 is controlled...
April 19, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432991/characteristics-of-adapted-hydrogenotrophic-community-during-biomethanation
#7
Lydia Rachbauer, Reinhard Beyer, Günther Bochmann, Werner Fuchs
The results presented in this study were carried out as concomitant experiments during the start-up and operation of a biomethanation unit to evaluate the effect of process parameters on carbon conversion, product formation (methane and acetate) and community composition. For that, two different samples were withdrawn from a trickle-bed reactor with immobilized enrichment culture of hydrogenotrophic methanogens adapted from sewage sludge. One sample was taken from the recirculation liquid during start-up phase while the other was withdrawn directly from the carrier material in the reactor...
April 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432951/microbial-communities-in-the-functional-areas-of-a-biofilm-reactor-with-anaerobic-aerobic-process-for-oily-wastewater-treatment
#8
Jianhua Li, Shanshan Sun, Ping Yan, Li Fang, Yang Yu, Yangdong Xiang, Di Wang, Yejing Gong, Yanjun Gong, Zhongzhi Zhang
Microbial communities in the functional areas of biofilm reactors with large height-diameter ratio using the anaerobic-aerobic (A/O) reflux process was investigated to treat heavy oil refinery wastewater without pretreatment. In the process, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN) removal reached 93.2% and 82.8%, and the anaerobic biofilm reactor was responsible for 95% and 99%, respectively. Areas for hydrolysis acidification and acetic acid production, methane production, and COD recovery were obvious in the anaerobic reactor...
April 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432623/performance-of-cstr-egsb-sbr-system-for-treating-sulfate-rich-cellulosic-ethanol-wastewater-and-microbial-community-analysis
#9
Lili Shan, Zhaohan Zhang, Yanling Yu, John Justo Ambuchi, Yujie Feng
Performance and microbial community composition were evaluated in a two-phase anaerobic and aerobic system treating sulfate-rich cellulosic ethanol wastewater (CEW). The system was operated at five different chemical oxygen demand (COD)/SO4(2-) ratios (63.8, 26.3, 17.8, 13.7, and 10.7). Stable performance was obtained for total COD removal efficiency (94.5%), sulfate removal (89.3%), and methane production rate (11.5 L/day) at an organic loading rate of 32.4 kg COD/(m(3)·day). The acidogenic reactor made a positive contribution to net VFAs production (2318...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432098/inhibitory-effect-of-coumarin-on-syntrophic-fatty-acid-oxidizing-and-methanogenic-cultures-and-biogas-reactor-microbiomes
#10
Denny Popp, Caroline M Plugge, Sabine Kleinsteuber, Hauke Harms, Heike Sträuber
Coumarins are widely found in plants as natural constituents having antimicrobial activity. When considering plants rich in coumarins for biogas production, adverse effects on microorganisms driving the anaerobic digestion process are expected. Furthermore, coumarin derivatives like warfarin, which are used as anti-coagulating medicine, are found in wastewater affecting its treatment. Coumarin as the structure common to all coumarins inhibits the anaerobic digestion process. However, details of this inhibition are still elusive...
April 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429333/effect-of-lactobacillus-reuteri-dsm-17938-on-methane-production-in-patients-affected-by-functional-constipation-a-retrospective-study
#11
V Ojetti, C Petruzziello, A Migneco, M Gnarra, A Gasbarrini, F Franceschi
OBJECTIVE: Constipation is a common symptom affecting up to 30% of the Western population and is strongly associated with the presence of intestinal methanogens, which may directly inhibit motor activity. Two recent studies performed on adult and children affected by chronic constipation showed that the supplementation with L. reuteri significantly improved bowel movements. Whether its action is related to a decreasing of methane (CH4) production has never been tested. We have therefore designed a study aimed at testing this hypothesis...
April 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428774/biochar-addition-increases-the-rates-of-dissimilatory-iron-reduction-and-methanogenesis-in-ferrihydrite-enrichments
#12
Guo-Wei Zhou, Xiao-Ru Yang, Christopher W Marshall, Hu Li, Bang-Xiao Zheng, Yu Yan, Jian-Qiang Su, Yong-Guan Zhu
Biochar contains quinones and aromatic structures that facilitate extracellular electron transfer between microbial cells and insoluble minerals. In this study, granulated biochar (1.2-2 mm) and powdered biochar (<0.15 mm) were amended to two ferrihydrite (in situ ferrihydrite and ex situ ferrihydrite) enrichments to investigate the effect of biochar with different particle sizes on dissimilatory iron(III)-reducing bacteria (DIRB) and methanogens. Biochar addition significantly stimulated the reduction of both in situ ferrihydrite and ex situ ferrihydrite and the production of methane...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428421/low-temperature-activation-of-methane-on-the-iro2-110-surface
#13
Zhu Liang, Tao Li, Minkyu Kim, Aravind Asthagiri, Jason F Weaver
Methane undergoes highly facile C-H bond cleavage on the stoichiometric IrO2(110) surface. From temperature-programmed reaction spectroscopy experiments, we found that methane molecularly adsorbed as a strongly bound σ complex on IrO2(110) and that a large fraction of the adsorbed complexes underwent C-H bond cleavage at temperatures as low as 150 kelvin (K). The initial dissociation probability of methane on IrO2(110) decreased from 80 to 20% with increasing surface temperature from 175 to 300 K. We estimate that the activation energy for methane C-H bond cleavage is 9...
April 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427657/tube-reactors-as-a-novel-ultrasonication-system-for-trouble-free-treatment-of-sludges
#14
Konrad Koch, Thomas Lippert, Natalia Hauck Sabadini, Jörg E Drewes
The performance of a novel low-maintenance tube reactor for ultrasonic treatment of sludge has been evaluated. The effects of sonication on the release of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) and anaerobic digestibility of raw and digested sewage sludge as well as agricultural sludge were studied. Results suggest that solubilization and digestibility is dependent on both type of sludge and the energy input. Digested and raw sludge showed high degree of solubilization, however, methane production was only increased for digested sludge...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423943/high-value-added-lipids-produced-by-microorganisms-a-potential-use-of-sugarcane-vinasse
#15
Bruna Soares Fernandes, João Paulo Fernandes Vieira, Fabiano Jares Contesini, Paulo Eduardo Mantelatto, Marcelo Zaiat, José Geraldo da Cruz Pradella
This review aims to present an innovative concept of high value added lipids produced by heterotrophic microorganisms, bacteria and fungi, using carbon sources, such as sugars, acids and alcohols that could come from sugarcane vinasse, which is the main byproduct from ethanol production that is released in the distillation step. Vinasse is a rich carbon source and low-cost feedstock produced in large amounts from ethanol production. In 2019, the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply estimates that growth of ethanol domestic consumption will be 58...
April 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423878/effects-of-alfalfa-flavonoids-on-the-production-performance-immune-system-and-ruminal-fermentation-of-dairy-cows
#16
Jinshun Zhan, Caixia Wu, Mingmei Liu, Xiaoshuang Su, Kang Zhan, Chungang Zhang, Guoqi Zhao
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of flavonoids from alfalfa on production performance, immunity, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows. Four primiparous Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. They were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) added 0 (control group, Con), 20, 60 and 100 mg alfalfa flavonoids extract (AFE) per kg of body weight (BW), respectively. The results showed that the feed intake and milk lactose content of the group receiving from 60 mg/kg...
March 25, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419718/shifting-microbial-communities-sustain-multiyear-iron-reduction-and-methanogenesis-in-ferruginous-sediment-incubations
#17
M S Bray, J Wu, B C Reed, C B Kretz, K M Belli, R L Simister, C Henny, F J Stewart, T J DiChristina, J A Brandes, D A Fowle, S A Crowe, J B Glass
Reactive Fe(III) minerals can influence methane (CH4 ) emissions by inhibiting microbial methanogenesis or by stimulating anaerobic CH4 oxidation. The balance between Fe(III) reduction, methanogenesis, and CH4 oxidation in ferruginous Archean and Paleoproterozoic oceans would have controlled CH4 fluxes to the atmosphere, thereby regulating the capacity for CH4 to warm the early Earth under the Faint Young Sun. We studied CH4 and Fe cycling in anoxic incubations of ferruginous sediment from the ancient ocean analogue Lake Matano, Indonesia, over three successive transfers (500 days in total)...
April 17, 2017: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418663/airborne-quantification-of-methane-emissions-over-the-four-corners-region
#18
Mackenzie L Smith, Alexander Gvakharia, Eric A Kort, Colm Sweeney, Stephen A Conley, Ian C Faloona, Tim Newberger, Russell Schnell, Stefan Schwietzke, Sonja Wolter
Methane (CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas and the primary component of natural gas. The San Juan Basin (SJB) is one of the largest coal-bed methane producing regions in North America and, including gas production from conventional and shale sources, contributes ~2% of U.S. natural gas production in 2015. In this work, we quantify the CH4 flux from the SJB using continuous atmospheric sampling from aircraft collected during the TOPDOWN2015 field campaign in April 2015. Using five independent days of measurements and the aircraft-based mass balance method, we calculate an average CH4 flux of 0...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414962/advanced-anaerobic-digestion-of-municipal-sludge-using-a-novel-and-energy-efficient-radio-frequency-pretreatment-system
#19
E Hosseini Koupaie, T Johnson, C Eskicioglu
Microwave (MW) sludge pretreatment systems are usually limited to a frequency of 2.45 GHz and the heating frequency is constrained by commercially available hardware. Studies using MW heating at this frequency have reported negative net energy balance (output energy as methane minus input electrical energy). This necessitates further research into more efficient thermal pretreatment technologies. In this research, a novel and highly efficient radio frequency (RF) pretreatment system at a frequency of 13.56 MHz was designed, implemented, and tested for the first time...
April 8, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411610/benchmark-study-of-the-structural-and-spectroscopic-parameters-of-the-hydroxymethyl-peroxy-hoch2oo-radical-and-its-decomposition-reaction-to-ho2-and-h2co
#20
Roberto Linguerri, Cristina Puzzarini, Muneerah Mogren Al Mogren, Joseph S Francisco, Majdi Hochlaf
The hydroxymethyl peroxy (HMOO) radical is a product of the oxidation of non-methane hydrocarbons. The present study provides the first accurate computational determination of critical spectroscopic features of the title radical that should aid in its experimental characterization. Structure, energetics, vibrational frequencies, and rotational parameters are reported for the three stable isomers on the ground electronic state of HMOO. While preliminary computations have been carried out using density functional theory as well as second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, for the accurate structural and spectroscopic characterization we made use of coupled-cluster techniques, herewith considering both standard and explicitly correlated methods...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
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