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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035975/breath-hydrogen-testing-in-east-and-southeast-asia
#1
Chu Kion Yao, Natural Hoi Sing Chu, Victoria Ping Yi Tan
Breath hydrogen tests are popular, noninvasive tests for the assessment of carbohydrate fermentation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional dyspepsia (FD). There is limited information regarding the utility of breath hydrogen and methane tests in IBS and FD patients in East and Southeast Asia. This review aims to summarize current literature about common indications of breath testing in this region, the genesis of functional gastrointestinal symptoms by provocative breath testing and provide suggestions for correct use...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033919/adaptation-of-methanogenic-inocula-to-anaerobic-digestion-of-maize-silage
#2
Martyna Wojcieszak, Adam Pyzik, Krzysztof Poszytek, Pawel S Krawczyk, Adam Sobczak, Leszek Lipinski, Otton Roubinek, Jacek Palige, Aleksandra Sklodowska, Lukasz Drewniak
A well-balanced microbial consortium is crucial for efficient biogas production. In turn, one of a major factor that influence on the structure of anaerobic digestion (AD) consortium is a source of microorganisms which are used as an inoculum. This study evaluated the influence of inoculum sources (with various origin) on adaptation of a biogas community and the efficiency of the biomethanization of maize silage. As initial inocula for AD of maize silage the samples from: (i) an agricultural biogas plant (ABP) which utilizes maize silage as a main substrate, (ii) cattle slurry (CS), which contain elevated levels of lignocelluloses materials, and (iii) raw sewage sludge (RSS) with low content of plant origin materials were used...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033020/the-seasonal-evolution-of-fruit-vegetable-and-yard-wastes-by-mono-co-and-tri-digestion-at-hyderabad-sindh-pakistan
#3
Muhammad Safar Korai, Rasool Bux Mahar, Muhammad Aslam Uqaili
The contribution of biowastes in municipal solid waste (MSW) is increasing day by day and being dumped in open atmosphere along with other wastes in every city of Pakistan. This study was formulated to evaluate the feasibility of biowastes such as fruit, vegetable and yard wastes of different seasons individual and mixing at different ratios to optimize methane production at Hyderabad Sindh, Pakistan. Batch digestion of selected samples was conducted for 40 days under mesophilic condition. Methane yield of individual fruit, vegetable and yard wastes (FrVYW) of summer and winter season was obtained in the range of 0...
October 9, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033019/processing-of-mycotoxin-contaminated-waste-streams-through-anaerobic-digestion
#4
L De Gelder, K Audenaert, B Willems, K Schelfhout, S De Saeger, M De Boevre
Food and feed stocks heavily contaminated with mycotoxins are rendered unfit for consumption and therefore discarded as waste. Due to the lack of guidelines and in accordance with the prudent avoidance principle, these waste streams are often incinerated. For better valorization, these streams could be used as input for anaerobic digestion. However, the degradation of multiple mycotoxins during anaerobic digestion and their effect on the methane production is currently unknown. In batch tests spiked with mycotoxins, aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and T-2 toxin were degraded for more than 90%...
October 9, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031797/impact-of-zero-valent-iron-nanoparticles-on-the-activity-of-anaerobic-granular-sludge-from-macroscopic-to-microcosmic-investigation
#5
Chuan-Shu He, Pan-Pan He, Hou-Yun Yang, Ling-Li Li, Yue Lin, Yang Mu, Han-Qing Yu
The study aimed at evaluating the influence of nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) on the activity of anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) from both macroscopic and microcosmic aspects using different methodologies. The tolerance response of AGS to nZVI was firstly investigated using short-term and long-term experiments, and also compared with anaerobic flocs. The Fe fate and distribution, the change of contents/structure of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and the variation of microbial community in the AGS after exposure to nZVI were further explored...
October 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031264/computing-vibrational-energy-levels-of-ch4-with-a-smolyak-collocation-method
#6
Gustavo Avila, Tucker Carrington
In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to apply collocation to compute vibrational energy levels of a five-atom molecule using an exact kinetic energy operator (with cross terms and coordinate-dependent coefficients). This is made possible by using (1) a pruned basis of products of univariate functions; (2) a Smolyak grid made from nested sequences of grids for each coordinate; (3) a collocation method that obviates the need to solve a generalized eigenvalue problem; (4) an efficient sequential transformation between the (nondirect product) grid and the (nondirect product) basis representations; and (5) hierarchical univariate functions that make it possible to avoid storing large intermediate vectors...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030563/methane-fluxes-from-coastal-sediments-are-enhanced-by-macrofauna
#7
Stefano Bonaglia, Volker Brüchert, Nolwenn Callac, Alessandra Vicenzi, Ernest Chi Fru, Francisco J A Nascimento
Methane and nitrous oxide are potent greenhouse gases (GHGs) that contribute to climate change. Coastal sediments are important GHG producers, but the contribution of macrofauna (benthic invertebrates larger than 1 mm) inhabiting them is currently unknown. Through a combination of trace gas, isotope, and molecular analyses, we studied the direct and indirect contribution of two macrofaunal groups, polychaetes and bivalves, to methane and nitrous oxide fluxes from coastal sediments. Our results indicate that macrofauna increases benthic methane efflux by a factor of up to eight, potentially accounting for an estimated 9...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030441/methanogenic-paraffin-biodegradation-alkylsuccinate-synthase-gene-quantification-and-dicarboxylic-acid-production
#8
Lisa K Oberding, Lisa M Gieg
Paraffinic n-alkanes (> C17) that are solid at ambient temperature comprise a large fraction of many crude oils. The comparatively low water solubility and reactivity of these long-chain alkanes can lead to their persistence in the environment following fuel spills, and pose serious problems for crude oil recovery operations by clogging oil production wells. However, the degradation of waxy paraffins under the anoxic conditions characterizing contaminated groundwater environments and deep subsurface energy reservoirs is poorly understood...
October 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029047/community-structure-of-rare-methanogenic-archaea-insight-from-a-single-functional-group
#9
Sizhong Yang, Matthias Winkel, Dirk Wagner, Susanne Liebner
The rare biosphere, the low-abundant microbial populations, is suggested to be a conserved way of microbial life. Here we conducted a molecular survey of rare methanogenic archaea in the environment targeting the mcrA gene in order to test if general concepts associated with the structure of the rare bacterial biosphere also apply to single functional groups. Similar to what is known about rare bacterial communities, the overall contribution of rare methanogens to the alpha diversity is much larger than to Bray-Curtis measures...
October 3, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028492/modelling-an-industrial-anaerobic-granular-reactor-using-a-multi-scale-approach
#10
H Feldman, X Flores-Alsina, P Ramin, K Kjellberg, U Jeppsson, D J Batstone, K V Gernaey
The objective of this paper is to show the results of an industrial project dealing with modelling of anaerobic digesters. A multi-scale mathematical approach is developed to describe reactor hydrodynamics, granule growth/distribution and microbial competition/inhibition for substrate/space within the biofilm. The main biochemical and physico-chemical processes in the model are based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model No 1 (ADM1) extended with the fate of phosphorus (P), sulfur (S) and ethanol (Et-OH). Wastewater dynamic conditions are reproduced and data frequency increased using the Benchmark Simulation Model No 2 (BSM2) influent generator...
September 20, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028292/dynamics-of-soil-biogeochemical-gas-emissions-shaped-by-remolded-aggregate-sizes-and-carbon-configurations-under-hydration-cycles
#11
Ali Ebrahimi, Dani Or
Changes in soil hydration status affect microbial community dynamics and shape key biogeochemical processes. Evidence suggests that local anoxic conditions may persist and support anaerobic microbial activity in soil aggregates (or in similar hot spots) long after the bulk soil becomes aerated. To facilitate systematic studies of interactions among environmental factors with biogeochemical emissions of CO2 , N2 O and CH4 from soil aggregates, we remolded silt soil aggregates to different sizes and incorporated carbon at different configurations (core, mixed, no addition)...
October 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027698/buffalo-heifers-selected-for-lower-residual-feed-intake-have-lower-feed-intake-better-dietary-nitrogen-utilisation-and-reduced-enteric-methane-production
#12
V K Sharma, S S Kundu, C Datt, S Prusty, M Kumar, U B Sontakke
This study was conducted to evaluate the utilisation of the residual feed intake (RFI) as a feed efficiency selection tool and its relationship with methane emissions. Eighteen Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) heifers were fed ad libitum with total mixed ration (TMR) for 120 days. Based on linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body size (MBW(0.75) ), heifers were assigned into low and high RFI groups. The RFI varied from -0.09 to +0.12 kg DM/day with average RFI of -0...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026017/response-to-comment-on-selective-anaerobic-oxidation-of-methane-enables-direct-synthesis-of-methanol
#13
Vitaly L Sushkevich, Dennis Palagin, Marco Ranocchiari, Jeroen A van Bokhoven
Periana argues that the stepwise reaction of methane with water is thermodynamically unfavorable and therefore impractical. We reply by presenting an in-depth thermodynamic analysis of each step in the process and show that the surface concentrations of the reactants and products as well as the stabilizing effect of additional water molecules, as discussed in the original paper, fully support the feasibility of the proposed reaction.
October 13, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024106/nutritional-evaluation-of-the-legume-macrotyloma-axillare-using-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-bioassays-in-sheep
#14
P M T Lima, G D Moreira, G Z Sakita, A S Natel, W T Mattos, F M A Gimenes, L Gerdes, C McManus, A L Abdalla, H Louvandini
This study consisted of two experiments with the following objectives: to evaluate the effects of tannins from the tropical legume macrotiloma (Macrotyloma axillare) on total gas and methane (CH4 ) production, as well as on ruminal fermentation parameters by performing an in vitro bioassay, with samples incubated with and without polyethylene glycol (PEG) in a semi-automatic system; and secondly in a 17 day in vivo experiment, to determine apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dietary nutrients and ruminal fermentation parameters of 12 intact 8- to 9-month-old Santa Inês (averaging 24...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022194/potential-for-cometabolic-biodegradation-of-1-4-dioxane-in-aquifers-with-methane-or-ethane-as-primary-substrates
#15
Paul B Hatzinger, Rahul Banerjee, Rachael Rezes, Sheryl H Streger, Kevin McClay, Charles E Schaefer
The objective of this research was to evaluate the potential for two gases, methane and ethane, to stimulate the biological degradation of 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D) in groundwater aquifers via aerobic cometabolism. Experiments with aquifer microcosms, enrichment cultures from aquifers, mesophilic pure cultures, and purified enzyme (soluble methane monooxygenase; sMMO) were conducted. During an aquifer microcosm study, ethane was observed to stimulate the aerobic biodegradation of 1,4-D. An ethane-oxidizing enrichment culture from these samples, and a pure culture capable of growing on ethane (Mycobacterium sphagni ENV482) that was isolated from a different aquifer also biodegraded 1,4-D...
October 11, 2017: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019666/airborne-methane-emission-measurements-for-selected-oil-and-gas-facilities-across-california
#16
Shobhit Mehrotra, Ian C Faloona, Maxime Suard, Stephen A Conley, Marc L Fischer
We report 65 individual measurements of methane emissions from 24 oil & gas facilities across California. Methane emission rates were estimated using in-situ methane and wind velocity measurements from a small aircraft by a novel Gauss' Theorem flux integral approach. The estimates are compared with annual mean emissions reported to the US-EPA and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) through their respective greenhouse gas reporting programs. The average emissions from 36 measurements of 10 gas storage facilities were within a factor of 2 of emissions reported to US-EPA or CARB, though large variance was observed and the reporting database did not contain all of the facilities...
October 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018917/in-vitro-response-of-rumen-microbiota-to-the-antimethanogenic-red-macroalga-asparagopsis-taxiformis
#17
Lorenna Machado, Nigel Tomkins, Marie Magnusson, David J Midgley, Rocky de Nys, Carly P Rosewarne
The red macroalga Asparagopsis taxiformis has been shown to significantly decrease methane production by rumen microbial communities. This has been attributed to the bioaccumulation of halogenated methane analogues produced as algal secondary metabolites. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of A. taxiformis supplementation on the relative abundance of methanogens and microbial community structure during in vitro batch fermentation. Addition of A. taxiformis (2% organic matter) or the halogenated methane analogue bromoform (5 μM) reduced methane production by over 99% compared to a basal substrate-only control...
October 10, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017872/anaerobic-digestion-of-cheese-whey-energetic-and-nutritional-potential-for-the-dairy-sector-in-developing-countries
#18
H Escalante, L Castro, M P Amaya, L Jaimes, J Jaimes-Estévez
Cheese whey (CW) is the main waste generated in the cheesemaking process and has high organic matter content and acidity. Therefore, CW disposal is a challenge for small to medium enterprises (SMEs) in the dairy industry that do not have any type of treatment plant. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive process for solving this problem. The aim of this research was to determine the biomethane and struvite precipitation potentials of CW from four dairy SMEs. First, changes in CW properties (organic matter and pH) were evaluated...
October 7, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017503/effect-of-bacterial-lipase-on-anaerobic-co-digestion-of-slaughterhouse-wastewater-and-grease-in-batch-condition-and-continuous-fixed-bed-reactor
#19
Maha Affes, Fathi Aloui, Fatma Hadrich, Slim Loukil, Sami Sayadi
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effects of bacterial lipase on biogas production of anaerobic co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater (SHWW) and hydrolyzed grease (HG). A neutrophilic Staphylococcus xylosus strain exhibiting lipolytic activity was used to perform microbial hydrolysis pretreatment of poultry slaughterhouse lipid rich waste. RESULTS: Optimum proportion of hydrolyzed grease was evaluated by determining biochemical methane potential...
October 10, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016146/the-effect-of-aldehyde-and-carboxyl-functionalities-on-the-surface-chemistry-of-biomass-derived-molecules
#20
Basar Caglar, J W Hans Niemantsverdriet, C J Kees-Jan Weststrate
The adsorption and decomposition of acetaldehyde and acetic acid were studied on Rh(100) to gain insight into the interaction of aldehyde and carboxyl groups of biomass-derived molecules with the surface. Temperature programmed reaction spectroscopy (TPRS) was used to monitor gaseous reaction products, whereas Reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) was used to determine the nature of surface intermediates and reaction paths. The role of adsorbate interactions in oxygenate decomposition chemistry by varying the surface coverage...
October 10, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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