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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352735/s-nitrosated-poly-propylene-sulfide-nanoparticles-for-enhanced-nitric-oxide-delivery-to-lymphatic-tissues
#1
Alex Schudel, Lauren F Sestito, Susan N Thomas
Nitric oxide (NO) is a therapeutic implicated for the treatment of diseases affecting lymphatic tissues, which range from infectious and cardiovascular diseases to cancer. Existing technologies available for NO therapy, however, provide poor bioactivity within lymphatic tissues. In this work, we address this technology gap with a NO encapsulation and delivery strategy leveraging the formation of S-nitrosothiols on lymphatic-targeting Pluronic-stabilized, poly(propylene sulfide)-core nanoparticles (SNO-NP). We evaluated in vivo the lymphatic versus systemic delivery of NO resulting from intradermal administration of SNO-NP benchmarked against a commonly used, commercially available small molecule S-nitrosothiol NO donor, examined signs of toxicity systemically as well as localized to the site of injection, and investigated SNO effects on lymphatic transport and NP uptake by LN-resident cells...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352706/environmental-conditions-in-health-care-facilities-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-coverage-and-inequalities
#2
Ryan Cronk, Jamie Bartram
Safe environmental conditions and the availability of standard precaution items are important to prevent and treat infection in health care facilities (HCFs) and to achieve Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets for health and water, sanitation, and hygiene. Baseline coverage estimates for HCFs have yet to be formed for the SDGs; and there is little evidence describing inequalities in coverage. To address this, we produced the first coverage estimates of environmental conditions and standard precaution items in HCFs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); and explored factors associated with low coverage...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351785/theorizing-the-complexity-of-hiv-disclosure-in-vulnerable-populations-a-grounded-theory-study
#3
Subash Thapa, Karin Hannes, Anne Buve, Shivani Bhattarai, Catharina Mathei
BACKGROUND: HIV disclosure is an important step in delivering the right care to people. However, many people with an HIV positive status choose not to disclose. This considerably complicates the delivery of adequate health care. METHODS: We conducted a grounded theory study to develop a theoretical model explaining how local contexts impact on HIV disclosure and what the mechanisms are that determine whether people choose to disclose or not. We conducted in-depth interviews among 23 people living with HIV, 8 health workers and 5 family and community members, and 1 community development worker in Achham, Nepal...
January 19, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351782/stakeholders-perspectives-on-facilitators-of-and-barriers-to-the-utilisation-of-and-access-to-maternal-health-services-in-eritrea-a-qualitative-study
#4
Chol Chol, Cynthia Hunter, Berhane Debru, Berhana Haile, Joel Negin, Robert G Cumming
BACKGROUND: Wars affect maternal health services by destroying health systems. Eritrea experienced two wars with neighbouring Ethiopia. Despite this, the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Eritrea fell by 69% from 1590 per 100,000 live births in 1990 to 501 in 2015. This study aimed to examine facilitators of and barriers to the utilisation of and access to maternal health services in Eritrea. METHODS: Using in-depth interviews and field observations for data collection, this qualitative study was conducted in five healthcare facilities in Asmara, the capital of Eritrea, in February and March 2016...
January 19, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351651/radiotherapy-proton-beam-profilometry-with-sccvd-diamond-detector-in-single-particle-mode
#5
Marzena Rydygier, Marcin Jastrzab, Dawid Krzempek, Tomasz Nowak, Leszek Grzanka, Piotr Bednarczyk, Liliana Stolarczyk
Proton radiotherapy requires precise knowledge of the volumetric dose distribution. In proton beam delivery systems, based on narrow pencil beams, a contribution from small doses in low-intensity regions, consisting mainly of scattered protons, may have not negligible influence on total dose delivered to patient. Insufficient information about dose profile can cause underestimation of dose and potential delivery of inflated dose during hadrontherapy treatment. Presented work aims to verify applicability of diamond detectors, produced by Chemical Vapor Deposition method, for therapeutic proton beam profilometry at large fields...
January 17, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351299/what-influences-where-they-seek-care-caregivers-preferences-for-under-five-child-healthcare-services-in-urban-slums-of-malawi-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#6
Edgar Arnold Lungu, Amarech Guda Obse, Catherine Darker, Regien Biesma
Access to and utilisation of quality healthcare promotes positive child health outcomes. However, to be optimally utilised, the healthcare system needs to be responsive to the expectations of the population it serves. Health systems in many sub-Saharan African countries, including Malawi, have historically focused on promoting access to health services by the rural poor. However, in the context of increasing urbanisation and consequent proliferation of urban slums, promoting health of children under five years of age in these settings is a public health imperative...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351277/ex-ante-assessment-of-different-vaccination-based-control-schedules-against-the-peste-des-petits-ruminants-virus-in-sub-saharan-africa
#7
Pachka Hammami, Renaud Lancelot, Joseph Domenech, Matthieu Lesnoff
BACKGROUND: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious and widespread viral infection of small ruminants (goats and sheep), causing heavy economic losses in many developing countries. Therefore, its progressive control and global eradication by 2030 was defined as a priority by international organizations addressing animal health. The control phase of the global strategy is based on mass vaccination of small ruminant populations in endemic regions or countries. It is estimated that a 70% post-vaccination immunity rate (PVIR) is needed in a given epidemiological unit to prevent PPR virus spread...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351202/antimicrobial-peptides-diversity-mechanism-of-action-and-strategies-to-improve-the-activity-and-biocompatibility-in-vivo
#8
REVIEW
Prashant Kumar, Jayachandran N Kizhakkedathu, Suzana K Straus
Antibiotic resistance is projected as one of the greatest threats to human health in the future and hence alternatives are being explored to combat resistance. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have shown great promise, because use of AMPs leads bacteria to develop no or low resistance. In this review, we discuss the diversity, history and the various mechanisms of action of AMPs. Although many AMPs have reached clinical trials, to date not many have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) due to issues with toxicity, protease cleavage and short half-life...
January 19, 2018: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351185/brief-report-lead-levels-in-selected-electronic-cigarettes-from-canada-and-the-united-states
#9
Zachary R Dunbar, Ananth Das, Richard J O'Connor, Maciej L Goniewicz, Binnian Wei, Mark J Travers
Few published studies have investigated the presence of lead in the e-liquid of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). Lead inhalation is associated with increased risk of stroke, heart disease, and other diseases. This study used a novel application of graphite furnace technology to compare the concentration of lead between e-liquids of different packaging and product designs using e-liquids that are or were commercially available in the United States and Canada. Eleven nicotine-free disposable ENDS devices and 12 bottled refill solutions that contained nicotine were purchased from retailers in Canada and the United States between 2015 and 2017...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351125/central-inhibition-of-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-is-analgesic-in-experimental-neuropathic-pain
#10
Louise S C Nicol, Peter Thornton, Jon P Hatcher, Colin P Glover, Carl I Webster, Matthew Burrell, Kessia Hammett, Clare A Jones, Matthew A Sleeman, Andrew Billinton, Iain Chessell
With less than 50% of patients responding to the current standard of care and poor efficacy and selectivity of current treatments, neuropathic pain continues to be an area of considerable unmet medical need. Biological therapeutics such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) provide better intrinsic selectivity; however, delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) remains a challenge. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is well described in inflammation-induced pain, and early-phase clinical trials evaluating its antagonism have exemplified its importance as a peripheral pain target...
January 16, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350909/dual-drug-delivery-system-based-on-biodegradable-organosilica-core-shell-architectures
#11
Jiang-Lan Li, Ying-Jia Cheng, Chi Zhang, Han Cheng, Jun Feng, Ren-Xi Zhuo, Xuan Zeng, Xian-Zheng Zhang
To overcome drug resistance, efficient cancer therapeutic strategies using combination of small-molecule drugs and macromolecule drugs are highly desired. However, due to their significant differences in molecular weight and size, it is difficult to load them simultaneously in one vector and to release them individually. Here, a biodegradable organosilica based core/shell-structured nanocapsule was designed and used as a dual stimuli-responsive drug vector to solve this problem. Biodegradable organosilica shell coated outside the macromolecule model drug "core" would be disrupted by high glutathione (GSH) levels inside tumor cells, resulting in the escape of the entrapped drugs...
January 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350902/hierarchically-self-assembled-supramolecular-host-guest-delivery-system-for-delivery-of-chemotherapeutics-to-drug-resistant-cancer-tumours
#12
Hongwei Cheng, Xiaoshan Fan, Xiaoyuan Wang, Enyi Ye, Xian Jun Loh, Zibiao Li, Yun-Long Wu
In this report, a new star-like copolymer -CD-g-(PNIPAAm-b-POEGA)x consisting of a -CD core, grafted with temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and biocompatible poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) acrylate) (POEGA) in a block copolymer of the arms, was used to deliver chemotherapeutics to drug resistant cancer tumours. The first step of the self-assembly process involves the encapsulation of chemotherapeutics through host-guest inclusion complexation between the -cyclodextrin cavity and the anti-cancer drug...
January 19, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350699/medical-cannabis-the-oncology-nurse-s-role-in-patient-education-about-the-effects-of-marijuana-on-cancer-palliation%C3%A2
#13
Carey S Clark
BACKGROUND: Cannabis, also known as marijuana, is legal either medicinally or recreationally in 29 states and the District of Columbia, with a majority of the U.S. adult population now living in states where cannabis is legal for medicinal use. As an advocate for patient autonomy and informed choice, the oncology nurse has an ethical responsibility to educate patients about and support their use of cannabis for palliation.
. OBJECTIVES: This article aims to discuss the human endocannabinoid system as a basis for better understanding the palliative and curative nature of cannabis as a medicine, as well as review cannabis delivery methods and the emerging role of the oncology nurse in this realm...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350694/collaborative-practice-model-improving-the-delivery-of-bad-news
#14
Pamela N Bowman, Kim Slusser, Deborah Allen
Ideal bad news delivery requires skilled communication and team support. The literature has primarily focused on patient preferences, impact on care decisions, healthcare roles, and communication styles, without addressing systematic implementation. This article describes how an interdisciplinary team, led by advanced practice nurses, developed and implemented a collaborative practice model to deliver bad news on a unit that had struggled with inconsistencies. Using evidence-based practices, the authors explored current processes, role perceptions and expectations, and perceived barriers to developing the model, which is now the standard of care and an example of interprofessional team collaboration across the healthcare system...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350685/re-orchestration-of-blood-flow-by-micro-circulations
#15
P A R Meyer
Haemoglobin Video Imaging (HVI) demonstrates conjunctival and episcleral blood flow in man with the resolution of a single erythrocyte. A new method for establishing vessel hierarchy in micro-circulations is described, which recognises either delivery or drainage vessels and references vessel order to the capillary. These tools have been used to characterise blood flow.Anterior ciliary arteries show pulsatile variation in diameter. The episcleral arterial circle that they supply has functional apices with pulsatile flow reversal...
January 19, 2018: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350605/in-situ-administration-of-abciximab-for-thrombus-resolution-during-intracranial-bypass-surgery-case-report
#16
Ian A Buchanan, Brian Lee, Arun P Amar, Steven L Giannotta
Abciximab is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist that functions to prevent platelet aggregation, thus reducing thrombus initiation and propagation. It has been widely used during percutaneous endovascular interventions, such as aneurysm coil embolization, angioplasty, atherectomy, and stent placement, as both a preventative and a salvage therapy. The use of abciximab in cardiac and neurosurgical procedures has been associated with a reduced incidence of ischemic complications and a decreased need for repeated intervention...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350513/racial-ethnic-variation-in-devices-used-to-access-patient-portals
#17
Eva Chang, Katherine Blondon, Courtney R Lyles, Luesa Jordan, James D Ralston
OBJECTIVES: We examined racial/ethnic variation in the devices used by patients to access medical records through an online patient portal. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis. METHODS: Using data from 318,700 adults enrolled in an integrated delivery system between December 2012 and November 2013, we examined: 1) online patient portal use that directly engages the electronic health record and 2) portal use over desktops/laptops only, mobile devices only, or both device types...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350505/bridging-the-digital-divide-mobile-access-to-personal-health-records-among-patients-with-diabetes
#18
Ilana Graetz, Jie Huang, Richard J Brand, John Hsu, Cyrus K Yamin, Mary E Reed
OBJECTIVES: Some patients lack regular computer access and experience a digital divide that causes them to miss internet-based health innovations. The diffusion of smartphones has increased internet access across the socioeconomic spectrum, and increasing the channels through which patients can access their personal health records (PHRs) could help bridge the divide in PHR use. We examined PHR use through a computer-based Web browser or mobile device. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional historical cohort analysis...
January 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350351/convection-enhanced-delivery-of-cetuximab-conjugated-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-for-treatment-of-spontaneous-canine-intracranial-gliomas
#19
A Courtenay Freeman, Simon R Platt, Shannon Holmes, M Kent, Kelsey Robinson, Elizabeth Howerth, Joe Eagleson, Alexandros Bouras, Milota Kaluzova, Constantinos G Hadjipanayis
Cetuximab conjugated iron-oxide nanoparticles (cetuximab-IONPs) have shown both in-vitro and in-vivo anti-tumor efficacy against gliomas. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the safety and potential efficacy of cetuximab-IONPs for treatment of spontaneously occurring intracranial gliomas in canines after convection-enhanced delivery (CED). The use of CED allowed for direct infusion of the cetuximab-IONPs both intratumorally and peritumorally avoiding the blood brain barrier (BBB) and limiting systemic effects...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350055/therapeutic-strategies-and-nano-drug-delivery-applications-in-management-of-ageing-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Govindarajan Karthivashan, Palanivel Ganesan, Shin-Young Park, Joon-Soo Kim, Dong-Kug Choi
In recent years, the incidental rate of neurodegenerative disorders has increased proportionately with the aging population. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most commonly reported neurodegenerative disorders, and it is estimated to increase by roughly 30% among the aged population. In spite of screening numerous drug candidates against various molecular targets of AD, only a few candidates - such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are currently utilized as an effective clinical therapy. However, targeted drug delivery of these drugs to the central nervous system (CNS) exhibits several limitations including meager solubility, low bioavailability, and reduced efficiency due to the impediments of the blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
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