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Diffusion of innovation

Kayori Takahashi, Seika Ohuchi, Keizo Saito, Makoto Hirasawa, Hiromu Sakurai
The preparation of nanoscale fine bubbles in water is an innovative technology, but no precise method for simultaneously measuring the size and concentration of such bubbles had previously been developed. We have developed a method for simultaneously determining the size and concentration of fine bubbles in water by a light-scattering technique. Dynamic light scattering gives the diffusion constant and particle size of fine bubbles, whereas static light scattering provides their concentration or molar mass...
January 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Afroza Hasin, Sylvia Smith
OBJECTIVE: To understand market managers' level of communication and use of technology that might influence decision to adopt Electronic Benefits Transfer (EBT) at farmers' markets. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using the Theory of Diffusion of Innovation. SETTING: Electronic survey administered in midwest states of Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin. PARTICIPANTS: Farmers' market managers in Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin...
January 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Heather I Greenwood, Rita I Freimanis, Bianca M Carpentier, Bonnie N Joe
Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive imaging modality for the detection of breast cancer, and it is indicated for breast cancer screening in patients at high-risk of developing breast cancer. It is limited to this group given the high cost. In addition, breast MRI is also indicated for evaluating the extent of disease in patients with new breast cancer diagnoses, monitoring the response to neoadjuvant treatment, and evaluating implant integrity. New promising innovations in breast MRI include fast abbreviated MRI, and functional techniques including diffusion-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy are promising particularly as regards to treatment response...
February 2018: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Prakash Shrestha, Yunxi Cui, Jia Wei, Sagun Jonchhe, Hanbin Mao
Due to the fast diffusion, small molecules such as hydronium ions (H3O+) are expected to be homogeneously distributed, even close to the site-of-origin. Given the importance of H3O+ in numerous processes, it is surprising that H3O+ concentration ([H3O+]) is yet to be profiled near its generation site with nanometer resolution. Here, we innovated a single-molecule method to probe [H3O+] in nanometer proximity of individual alkaline phosphatases. We designed a mechanophore with cytosine(C)-C mismatch pairs in a DNA hairpin...
December 29, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Anthony J Burand, Lauren Boland, Alex J Brown, James A Ankrum
Objective: Techniques to validate successful delivery of cell products are expensive, time-consuming, and require transport of the animal to imaging facilities, preventing their widespread use as documentation tools. The goal of this study was to determine if a low-cost portable microscope could provide sufficient performance to be used to document delivery of cell products and track retention over time. Approach: A Dino-Lite fluorescence microscope and an Odyssey CLx whole-animal scanner were compared on the basis of resolution, sensitivity, and linearity...
December 1, 2017: Advances in Wound Care
Casey J Roulette, Mark A Caudell, Jennifer W Roulette, Robert J Quinlan, Marsha B Quinlan, Murugan Subbiah, Douglas R Call
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, efforts to control antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are aggravated by unregulated drug sales and use, and high connectivity between human, livestock, and wildlife populations. Our previous research indicates that Maasai agropastoralists-who have high exposure to livestock and livestock products and self-administer veterinary antibiotics-harbor antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli). Here, we report the results of a public health intervention project among Maasai aimed at reducing selection and transmission of E...
December 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Mengjiao Li, Qinglin Deng, Junyong Wang, Kai Jiang, Zhigao Hu, Junhao Chu
Improving the conductivity and charge transfer kinetics is favourable for innovation of sustainable energy devices such as metal oxide/sulfide-based electrodes. Herein, with an intercalation pseudocapacitance effect, an in situ polymerization-carbonization process for novel carbon-sealed vertical MoS2-SnO2 anchored on graphene aerogel (C@MoS2-SnO2@Gr) has enabled excellent rate performance and durability of the anode of lithium ion batteries to be achieved. The integrated carbon layer and graphene matrix provide a bicontinuous conductive network for efficient electron/ion diffusion pathways...
December 15, 2017: Nanoscale
Jan-Hendrik Sommerling, Maria Betania Carreira de Matos, Ellen Hildebrandt, Alberto Dessy, Robbert J Kok, Hermann Nirschl, Gero Leneweit
Many food preparations, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics use water in oil (W/O) emulsions stabilized by phospholipids. Moreover, recent technological developments try to produce liposomes or lipid coated capsules from W/O emulsions, but are faced with colloidal instabilities. To explore these instability mechanisms, emulsification by sonication was applied in three cycles and the sample stability was studied for 3 hours after each cycle. Clearly identifiable temporal structures of instability provide evidence about the emulsion morphology: an initial regime of about 10 minutes is shown to be governed by coalescence after which Ostwald ripening dominates...
December 8, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Sanjay Konakondla, Cameron J Brimley, Jesna Mathew Sublett, Edward Stefanowicz, Sarah Flora, Gino Mongelluzzo, Clemens M Schirmer
Whole brain tractography using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequences can be used to map cerebral connectivity; however, this can be time-consuming due to the manual component of image manipulation required, calling for the need for a standardized, automated, and accurate fiber tracking protocol with automatic whole brain tractography (AWBT). Interpreting conventional two-dimensional (2D) images, such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as an intraoperative three-dimensional (3D) environment is a difficult task with recognized inter-operator variability...
September 29, 2017: Curēus
Claudia Ghisetti
This paper contributes to the emerging literature on the adoption of environmental innovation, by investigating the so far unexplored role of governmental demand in stimulating 'greener' production choices. Specifically, the role of innovative public procurement in driving the adoption and diffusion of sustainable manufacturing technologies is analysed. Results, based on firm-level data in the 28 Member States of the European Union, Switzerland and the USA, are obtained through non-parametric matching techniques...
December 2017: Technological Forecasting and Social Change
Valentina Damioli, Alberto Salvadori, Gian Paolo Beretta, Cosetta Ravelli, Stefania Mitola
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 (VEGFR2) is a pro-angiogenic receptor, expressed on endothelial cells (ECs). Although biochemical pathways that follow the VEGFR2 activation are well established, knowledge about the dynamics of receptors on the plasma membrane remains limited. Ligand stimulation induces the polarization of ECs and the relocation of VEGFR2, either in cell protrusions or in the basal aspect in cells plated on ligand-enriched extracellular matrix (ECM). We develop a mathematical model in order to simulate the relocation of VEGFR2 on the cell membrane during the mechanical adhesion of cells onto a ligand-enriched substrate...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Avelino Corma, Urbano Díaz
The design of new hybrid materials with tailored properties at the nano-, meso- and macro-scale, with the use of structural functional nanobuilding units, is carried out to obtain specific multi-functional materials. Organization into controlled 1D, 2D and 3D architectures with selected functionalities is key for developing advanced catalysts, but this is hardly accomplished using conventional techniques. The use of pre-formed nanostructures, derived either from known materials or made with specific innovative synthetic methodologies, has enormous potential in the generation of multi-site catalytic materials for one-pot processes...
November 30, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Nancy M Albert
In nursing, the terms "innovation" and "innovative" are used freely, especially when individuals or groups either develop something new or improve upon current practice. Innovation is often considered adjunct work, not part of foundational work that aims to meet the vision, mission, and values of the organization. Nurse leaders must include innovation as an important theme of this foundational work. Innovation must become a core expectation of all nurses and nursing team members. Team members can provide ideas that lead to innovations...
January 2018: Nursing Administration Quarterly
Helen B Connors, Diane J Skiba, Pamela R Jeffries, Mary Anne Rizzolo, Diane M Billings
AIM: This article reports the development, implementation, and outcomes of the Health Information Technology Scholars (HITS) program. BACKGROUND: HITS is one of nine faculty development collaborative projects funded by the Health Resource Service Administration to integrate information and other technologies in nursing education and practice. METHOD: In addition to evaluating the content and context of the program, the evaluation includes descriptive statistics, goal attainment scaling, diffusion of innovation index, utilization of knowledge survey, and exemplars from scholars...
January 2017: Nursing Education Perspectives
Zane Schnurman, John G Golfinos, J Thomas Roland, Douglas Kondziolka
OBJECTIVE It is common for a medical disorder to be managed or researched by individuals who work within different specialties. It is known that both neurosurgeons and neurotologists manage vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients. While overlap in specialty focus has the potential to stimulate multidisciplinary collaboration and innovative thinking, there is a risk of specialties forming closed-communication loops, called knowledge silos, which may inhibit knowledge diffusion. This study quantitatively assessed knowledge sharing between neurosurgery and otolaryngology on the subject of VS...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
Stefano Bambi, Andrea Guazzini, Christian De Felippis, Alberto Lucchini, Laura Rasero
 Introduction: according to available literature workplace incivility, lateral violence and bullying among nurses are widely diffused. Their negative consequences and the outcomes on nurses and healthcare organizations have been well described. However, real pro-active and reactive actions to manage these issues, seem to be poorly recognized and investigated. AIM: to summarize the results of international studies regarding the prevention of individual and collective reactions towards workplace incivility, lateral violence, and bullying between nurses...
November 30, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
O Rodriguez-Gomez, A Sanabria, A Perez-Cordon, D Sanchez-Ruiz, C Abdelnour, S Valero, I Hernandez, M Rosende-Roca, A Mauleon, L Vargas, M Alegret, A Espinosa, G Ortega, M Guitart, A Gailhajanet, O Sotolongo-Grau, S Moreno-Grau, S Ruiz, M Tarragona, J Serra, E Martin, E Peleja, F Lomeña, F Campos, A Vivas, M Gomez-Chiari, M A Tejero, J Giménez, P Pesini, M Sarasa, G Martinez, A Ruiz, L Tarraga, M Boada
BACKGROUND: Long-term longitudinal studies with multimodal biomarkers are needed to delve into the knowledge of preclinical AD. Subjective cognitive decline has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of cognitive impairment. Thus, including individuals with SCD in observational studies may be a cost-effective strategy to increase the prevalence of preclinical AD in the sample. OBJECTIVES: To describe the rationale, research protocols and baseline characteristics of participants in the Fundació ACE Healthy Brain Initiative (FACEHBI)...
2017: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
Kim Bergeron, Samiya Abdi, Kara DeCorby, Gloria Mensah, Benjamin Rempel, Heather Manson
BACKGROUND: There is limited research on capacity building interventions that include theoretical foundations. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify underlying theories, models and frameworks used to support capacity building interventions relevant to public health practice. The aim is to inform and improve capacity building practices and services offered by public health organizations. METHODS: Four search strategies were used: 1) electronic database searching; 2) reference lists of included papers; 3) key informant consultation; and 4) grey literature searching...
November 28, 2017: BMC Public Health
Olivia Gómez-Laserna, Paola Cardiano, Marta Diez-Garcia, Nagore Prieto-Taboada, Leire Kortazar, María Ángeles Olazabal, Juan Manuel Madariaga
This work is focused on the development of an innovative multi-analytical methodology to estimate the impact suffered by building materials in coastal environments. With the aim of improving the in situ spectroscopic assessment, which is often based on XRF and Raman spectrometers, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy was implemented in the diagnosis study. In this way, the additional benefits from DRIFT were compared to the usual in situ analyses of building materials, which often have interferences from fluorescence and reststrahlen effects...
November 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Maite Solans-Domènech, Marta Millaret, Núria Radó-Trilla, Johanna Caro-Mendivelso, Carme Carrion, Gaietà Permanyer-Miralda, Joan M V Pons
OBJECTIVE: To quantify how exhaustive and critical were stories reporting medical innovations published in print media and to analyze the characteristics that may be related. METHOD: Content analysis of the newspapers stories related to the discovery, introduction or improvement of a medical innovation through a questionnaire with ten criteria that allows calculating an overall score of exhaustiveness. The critical view was also included. RESULTS: We analyzed 204 newspapers stories that on average obtained a comprehensiveness score of 4...
November 24, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
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