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Diffusion of innovation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633064/an-innovative-approach-to-bioremediation-of-mercury-contaminated-soils-from-industrial-mining-operations
#1
Damien McCarthy, Grant C Edwards, Mae S Gustin, Andrew Care, Matthieu B Miller, Anwar Sunna
Soils contaminated with mercury (Hg) have proved expensive and logistically difficult to remediate. Research continues into finding suitable environmentally-friendly and efficient ways of achieving this end. Bioremediation is an option, which employs the strategies microorganisms have evolved to deal with Hg. One microbial strategy involves uptake and intracellular volatilisation of mercuric ions, which passively diffuse from the cell and back into the atmosphere. In this work, Pseudomonas veronii cells grown to stationary phase were immobilised in a xanthan gum-based biopolymer via encapsulation...
June 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630545/legal-knowledge-as-a-tool-for-social-change-la-mesa-por-la-vida-y-la-salud-de-las-mujeres-as-an-expert-on-colombian-abortion-law
#2
Ana Cristina González Vélez, Isabel Cristina Jaramillo
In May 2006, Colombia's Constitutional Court liberalized abortion, introducing three circumstances under which the procedure would not be considered a crime: (1) rape or incest; (2) a risk to the woman's health or life; and (3) fetal malformations incompatible with life. Immediately following the court's ruling, known as Sentence C-355, members of La Mesa por la Vida y Salud de las Mujeres (hereinafter La Mesa) began to mobilize to ensure the decision's implementation, bearing in mind the limited impact that the legal framework endorsed by the court has had in other countries in the region...
June 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628812/modelling-water-and-nutrient-fluxes-in-the-danube-river-basin-with-swat
#3
REVIEW
Anna Malagó, Faycal Bouraoui, Olga Vigiak, Bruna Grizzetti, Marco Pastori
This study provides an innovative process-based modelling approach using the SWAT model and shows its application to support the implementation of the European environmental policies in large river basins. The approach involves several pioneering modelling aspects: the inclusion of current management practices; an innovative calibration and validation methodology of streamflow and water quality; a sequential calibration starting from crop yields, followed by streamflow and nutrients; and the use of concentrations instead of loads in the calibration...
June 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622872/processes-of-local-alcohol-policy-making-in-england-does-the-theory-of-policy-transfer-provide-useful-insights-into-public-health-decision-making
#4
Lucy Gavens, John Holmes, Penny Buykx, Frank de Vocht, Matt Egan, Daniel Grace, Karen Lock, John D Mooney, Alan Brennan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent years have seen a rise in new and innovative policies to reduce alcohol consumption and related harm in England, which can be implemented by local, as opposed to national, policy-makers. The aim of this paper is to explore the processes that underpin the adoption of these alcohol policies within local authorities. In particular, it aims to assess whether the concept of policy transfer (i.e. a process through which knowledge about policies in one place is used in the development of policies in another time or place) provides a useful model for understanding local alcohol policy-making...
June 13, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618841/assessment-of-solid-microneedle-rollers-to-enhance-transmembrane-delivery-of-doxycycline-and-inhibition-of-mmp-activity
#5
Abbie Omolu, Maryse Bailly, Richard M Day
Many chronic wounds exhibit high matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity that impedes the normal wound healing process. Intradermal delivery (IDD) of sub-antimicrobial concentrations of doxycycline, as an MMP inhibitor, could target early stages of chronic wound development and inhibit further wound progression. To deliver doxycycline intradermally, the skin barrier must be disrupted. Microneedle rollers offer a minimally invasive technique to penetrate the skin by creating multiple microchannels that act as temporary conduits for drugs to diffuse through...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614165/magnet-hospital-recognition-in-hospital-systems-over-time
#6
Karen B Lasater, Michael R Richards, Nikila B Dandapani, Lawton R Burns, Matthew D McHugh
BACKGROUND: Magnet hospitals are recognized for nursing excellence and high-value patient outcomes, yet little is known about which and when hospitals pursue Magnet recognition. Concurrently, hospital systems are becoming a more prominent feature of the U.S. health care landscape. PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to examine Magnet adoption among hospital systems over time. APPROACH: Using American Hospital Association surveys (1998-2012), we characterized the proportion of Magnet hospitals belonging to systems...
June 13, 2017: Health Care Management Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613912/molecular-and-immune-biomarkers-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-a-perspective-from-members-of-the-pulmonary-pathology-society
#7
Vera Luiza Capelozzi, Timothy Craig Allen, Mary Beth Beasley, Philip T Cagle, Don Guinee, Lida P Hariri, Aliya N Husain, Deepali Jain, Sylvie Lantuejoul, Brandon T Larsen, Ross Miller, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Mehrad Mitra, Kirtee Raparia, Anja Roden, Frank Schneider, Lynette M Sholl, Maxwell Lawrence Smith
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a multifactorial syndrome with high morbidity and mortality rates, characterized by deficiency in gas exchange and lung mechanics that lead to hypoxemia, dyspnea, and respiratory failure. Histologically, ARDS is characterized by an acute, exudative phase, combining diffuse alveolar damage and noncardiogenic edema, followed by a later fibroproliferative phase. Despite an enhanced understanding of ARDS pathogenesis, the capacity to predict the development of ARDS and to risk-stratify patients with the disease remains limited...
June 14, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608209/simultaneous-detection-of-activity-and-relative-molecular-mass-of-adenylate-kinases-after-sds-page-and-blotting
#8
Silvia Ravera, Isabella Panfoli
Adenylate kinases (AKs) are ubiquitous monomeric phosphotransferases, which play a pivotal role in the energetic metabolism. At the present, nine isoforms are known. AKs catalyze the following reversible reaction: ATP + AMP ↔ 2 ADP, even though isoform 3 uses GTP instead ATP. For many years, the activity of AKs has been detected only after native polyacrylamide gel separations, i.e. in the absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate or methanol. In this work, we report the possibility to detect the activity of the isoforms able to use ATP as substrate, directly onto gel or nitrocellulose sheets, after denaturing SDS-PAGE and electroblotting...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603145/a-retrospective-on-the-vision-for-i-progress-in-community-health-partnerships-i-i-research-education-and-action-i
#9
Milton Mickey Eder, Jessica Holzer, Karen Calhoun, Larkin L Strong
The organizers founded Progress in Community Health Partnerships with a commitment to improving our understanding of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and its use in community-academic/institutional health partnerships. Following Rogers's Diffusion of Innovations, they reasoned that expanded adoption would occur through academic and community partner recognition of CBPR's relative advantage over previous approaches; its compatibility with the values, past experience and needs of potential adopters; its ease of understanding and use; its capacity for experimentation and refinement; and its production of observable results...
2017: Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601777/recovery-of-lactic-acid-from-the-pretreated-fermentation-broth-based-on-a-novel-hyper-cross-linked-meso-micropore-resin-modeling
#10
Mingkai Song, Pengfei Jiao, Taotao Qin, Kangkang Jiang, Jingwei Zhou, Wei Zhuang, Yong Chen, Dong Liu, Chenjie Zhu, Xiaochun Chen, Hanjie Ying, Jinglan Wu
An innovative benign process for recovery lactic acid from its fermentation broth is proposed using a novel hyper-cross-linked meso-micropore resin and water as eluent. This work focuses on modeling the competitive adsorption behaviors of glucose, lactic acid and acetic acid ternary mixture and explosion of the adsorption mechanism. The characterization results showed the resin had a large BET surface area and specific pore structure with hydrophobic properties. By analysis of the physicochemical properties of the solutes and the resin, the mechanism of the separation is proposed as hydrophobic effect and size-exclusion...
May 31, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592681/pay-off-biased-social-learning-underlies-the-diffusion-of-novel-extractive-foraging-traditions-in-a-wild-primate
#11
Brendan J Barrett, Richard L McElreath, Susan E Perry
The type and variety of learning strategies used by individuals to acquire behaviours in the wild are poorly understood, despite the presence of behavioural traditions in diverse taxa. Social learning strategies such as conformity can be broadly adaptive, but may also retard the spread of adaptive innovations. Strategies like pay-off-biased learning, by contrast, are effective at diffusing new behaviour but may perform poorly when adaptive behaviour is common. We present a field experiment in a wild primate, Cebus capucinus, that introduced a novel food item and documented the innovation and diffusion of successful extraction techniques...
June 14, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580995/simulation-of-intermediate-transport-in-nanoscale-scaffolds-for-multistep-catalytic-reactions
#12
Erica Earl, Scott Calabrese Barton
Efficient catalytic cascades that involve several sequential reactions are found frequently in nature. The efficiency of multi-step biochemical pathways is enhanced by substrate channelling, wherein the product of one reaction is directed toward and acts as substrate to the next sequential reaction. Such mechanisms can partially overcome diffusion, which is often fast compared to reaction rates, and promotes loss of intermediates. Biochemical substrate channelling is achieved by the architecture and scaffolding of enzymes, and mimicking these natural structures could lead to innovative catalyst designs...
June 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578711/hospital-based-health-technology-assessment-for-the-adoption-of-innovative-medical-devices-within-french-hospitals-opportunities-and-challenges-for-industry
#13
Camille Dutot, Grégoire Mercier, Isabelle Borget, Côme de Sauvebeuf, Nicolas Martelli
OBJECTIVES: Within French university hospitals, some internal committees are in charge of conducting hospital-based health technology assessment (Hb-HTA) to support managerial decisions regarding the adoption of innovations. For manufacturers, hospitals are usually the entry point for new and innovative medical devices, which cannot be accessed without the Hb-HTA committees' approval. Thus, the main objective of this pilot survey was to explore manufacturers' insights into Hb-HTA processes...
June 5, 2017: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574021/isolation-of-bacteria-from-diabetic-foot-ulcers-with-special-reference-to-anaerobe-isolation-by-simple-two-step-combustion-technique-in-candle-jar
#14
Jayeeta Haldar, Poulami Mukherjee, Satinath Mukhopadhyay, Prasanta Kumar Maiti
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Although polymicrobial infections involving both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria are very common in diabetic foot ulcers, in many centres of developing countries, anaerobes are rarely isolated due to technical difficulties. This can be overcome by using a new simple, innovative technique of a combination of candle combustion and use of acidified copper-coated steel wool, as reported here. METHODS: In-house developed method was used in a prospective clinico-microbiological study for anaerobes from randomly selected 43 patients with diabetic foot ulcers along with conventional method of anaerobic culture in GasPak system and aerobic culture by standard laboratory procedures...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571540/caffeic-acid-in-dermatological-formulations-in-vitro-release-profile-and-skin-absorption
#15
Caroline Magnani Spagnol, Leonardo Delello Di Filippo, Vera Lucia Borges Isaac, Marcos Antonio Corrêa, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
Caffeic acid (CA) is a cinnamic acid derivative, found in many vegetable products, with powerful antioxidant activity, the ability to increase collagen production and capacity to prevent premature aging of the skin. The classic emulsions of CA are widely used by the consumer to provide a pleasant, refreshing sensorial experience; however, preparations developed in the form of dry film are presented as a technological alternative due to its facile and safe transportation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the release, permeation, and retention of CA in a film and emulsion through in vitro experiments...
June 1, 2017: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562811/use-of-the-diffusion-of-innovation-model-in-venous-ulcers-by-specialized-professionals
#16
Eline Lima Borges, Maria Helena Larcher Caliri, Vanderlei José Haas, Aidê Ferreira Ferraz, Josimare Otoni Spira, Ana Carolina Tyrone
Objective: To analyze the influence of the evidence and of the opinion of peers on the decisions of specialists regarding the agreement with recommendations for prevention and treatment of venous ulcer. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study with two interventions: provision of studies with the evidence of the recommendations and provision of the opinion of peers, with sample of 73 specialized doctors and nurses. Delphi technique was used in the search for agreement, with three rounds...
May 2017: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558757/multiscalar-cellular-automaton-simulates-in-vivo-tumour-stroma-patterns-calibrated-from-in-vitro-assay-data
#17
J A Delgado-SanMartin, J I Hare, E J Davies, J W T Yates
BACKGROUND: The tumour stroma -or tumour microenvironment- is an important constituent of solid cancers and it is thought to be one of the main obstacles to quantitative translation of drug activity between the preclinical and clinical phases of drug development. The tumour-stroma relationship has been described as being both pro- and antitumour in multiple studies. However, the causality of this complex biological relationship between the tumour and stroma has not yet been explored in a quantitative manner in complex tumour morphologies...
May 30, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553616/the-oncolytic-virotherapy-era-in-cancer-management-prospects-of-applying-h-1-parvovirus-to-treat-blood-and-solid-cancers
#18
Assia L Angelova, Mathias Witzens-Harig, Angel S Galabov, Jean Rommelaere
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and leukemia are among the most common cancers worldwide. While the treatment of NHL/leukemia of B-cell origin has much progressed with the introduction of targeted therapies, few treatment standards have been established for T-NHL/leukemia. As presentation in both B- and T-NHL/leukemia patients is often aggressive and as prognosis for relapsed disease is especially dismal, this cancer entity poses major challenges and requires innovative therapeutic approaches. In clinical trials, oncolytic viruses (OVs) have been used against refractory multiple myeloma (MM)...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544505/understanding-the-mechanisms-of-gold-shell-growth-onto-polymer-microcapsules-to-control-shell-thickness
#19
Alison L Tasker, James Hitchcock, Elaine A Baxter, Dr Olivier J Cayre, Simon Biggs
Polymer microcapsules have been used commercially for decades, however they have an inherent flaw which renders them impractical as a carrier of small, volatile molecules. The porous nature of the polymer shell allows for diffusion of the encapsulated molecules into the bulk. The use of metal shells is an innovative way to prevent undesired loss of small molecules from the core of microcapsules, however it is important, particularly when using expensive metals to ensure that the resulting shell is as thin as possible...
May 21, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539080/keeping-candles-lit-the-role-of-concierge-medicine-in-the-future-of-primary-care
#20
Rocco Palumbo
Universal coverage and financial sustainability are two competing aims in primary care. Patient empowerment and patient engagement have been suggested as essential ingredients of the recipe for innovative primary care models aimed at sustaining universal coverage. Concierge medicine is achieving a growing popularity among both scholars and practitioners as a direct primary care practice which allows to bridge the gap between patient empowerment and patient engagement. However, ethical and legal concerns hinder the diffusion of concierge models in the current primary care practices...
May 2017: Health Services Management Research
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