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Diffusion of innovation

Qiu Hong Cui, Qian Peng, Yi Luo, Yuqian Jiang, Yongli Yan, Cong Wei, Zhigang Shuai, Cheng Sun, Jiannian Yao, Yong Sheng Zhao
The ability to steer the flow of light toward desired propagation directions is critically important for the realization of key functionalities in optical communication and information processing. Although various schemes have been proposed for this purpose, the lack of capability to incorporate an external electric field to effectively tune the light propagation has severely limited the on-chip integration of photonics and electronics. Because of the noninteractive nature of photons, it is only possible to electrically control the flow of light by modifying the refractive index of materials through the electro-optic effect...
March 2018: Science Advances
Iakovos Theodoulou, Akshaya Mohan Reddy, Jeremy Wong
BACKGROUND: Workforce planning in the British healthcare system (NHS) is associated with significant costs of agency staff employment. The introduction of a novel software (ABG) as a 'people to people economy' (P2PE) platform for temporary staff recruitment offers a potential solution to this problem. Consequently, the focus of this study was twofold - primarily to explore the locum doctor landscape, and secondarily to evaluate the implementation of P2PE in the healthcare industry. METHODS: Documentary analysis was conducted alongside thirteen semi structured interviews across five informant groups: two industry experts, two healthcare consultants, an executive director, two speciality managers and six doctors...
March 20, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Longfei Liu, Deyun Li, Chengliang Li, Rong Ji, Xiaofei Tian
Due to considerable application of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and its refractory degradation, the widespread distribution of PFOA has already resulted in its' risks to environment and organisms. However, the intrinsic characteristic of pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) limited their application for removing PFOA from aqueous medium. Therefore, three nano-metals (nano-crystalline iron, copper and zinc) grafted MWCNTs were synthesized and characterized by BET-N2 , TEM, FTIR, XPS and XRD as well as MWCNTs (as the control treatment) in this study...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Christopher G Roth, Dina Halegoua-De Marzio, Flavius F Guglielmo
MRI has transformed from the theoretical, investigative realm to mainstream clinical medicine over the past four decades and has become a core component of the diagnostic toolbox in the practice of gastroenterology (GI). Its success is attributable to exquisite contrast and the ability to isolate specific proton species through the use of different pulse sequences (i.e., T1-weighted, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted) and exploiting extracellular and hepatobiliary contrast agents. Consequently, MRI has gained preeminence in various GI clinical applications: liver and pancreatic lesion evaluation and detection, liver transplantation evaluation, pancreatitis evaluation, Crohn's disease evaluation (using MR enterography) rectal cancer staging and perianal fistula evaluation...
March 16, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Christine Prouty, Shima Mohebbi, Qiong Zhang
Given the increasing vulnerability of communities to the negative impacts of untreated wastewater, resource recovery (RR) systems provide a paradigm shift away from a traditional approach of waste separation and treatment towards a productive recovery of water, energy and nutrients. The aim of this research is to understand the relationships between factors that influence the adoption and sustainability of wastewater-based RR systems to inform technology implementation strategies. The study presents a theory-informed, community-influenced system dynamics (SD) model to provide decision-makers with an adaptable tool that simulates system-level responses to the strategies that are developed for the coastal town of Placencia, Belize...
March 7, 2018: Water Research
Rogério M Pinto, Susan S Witte, Prema L Filippone, C Jean Choi, Melanie Wall
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions project has disseminated HIV behavioral interventions (EBIs) across the United States since the 1990s. In 2011, the CDC launched the High-Impact HIV Prevention (HIP) project, providing EBIs plus high-impact services (HIV testing, primary care, and support services). Providers (nurses, social workers, educators) are unable to consistently make linkages; thus, numerous at-risk individuals are not benefitting from HIP...
March 1, 2018: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Michael J R Martin, Stephen A Matthews, Barrett A Lee
Although increasing racial and ethnic diversity is a demographic trend with society-wide implications, it has advanced farther in some parts of the United States than others. Our research seeks to understand this unevenness at the local level. Drawing on 1980-2010 census data, we use an innovative spatial analytic approach to examine the spread or diffusion of diversity across counties in the 48 contiguous states. Three perspectives-locational persistence, spatial assimilation, and institutional hub-offer different expectations about the nature of the diffusion process...
October 2017: Spatial Demography
Shiri Lev-Ari
We learn language from our social environment, but the more sources we have, the less informative each source is, and therefore, the less weight we ascribe its input. According to this principle, people with larger social networks should give less weight to new incoming information, and should therefore be less susceptible to the influence of new speakers. This paper tests this prediction, and shows that speakers with smaller social networks indeed have more malleable linguistic representations. In particular, they are more likely to adjust their lexical boundary following exposure to a new speaker...
March 12, 2018: Cognition
Elizabeth Wilmerding, Mari Knuth-Bouracee, Jeffrey L Edleson
This article offers reflections on the article "Bystander Training as Leadership Training: Notes on the Origins, Philosophy and Pedagogy of the Mentors in Violence Prevention Model" by Jackson Katz in this issue of Violence Against Women. The authors rely on their unique perspectives in varying roles at the University of California (UC) Berkeley, as well as on relevant social science and social justice research. The article explores five themes of violence prevention and anti-oppression work: leadership, social justice, gender identity, issues of identity and status, and diffusion of innovation...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Wanderlei Abadio de Oliveira, Jorge Luiz da Silva, Iara Falleiros Braga, Claudio Romualdo, Simona Carla Silvia Caravita, Marta Angélica Iossi Silva
This study unveils the meaning attributed by students to bullying and contributes to the approach of student health. The objective was to identify the dimensions of the conceptions of students regarding bullying. A total of 55 students from 11 public schools participated by answering semi-structured interviews. Dimensional analysis was used to treat data and a matrix was constructed with the dimensions identified. The Grounded Theory was adopted as the methodological and theoretical framework. The adolescents were aware of the main dimensions of bullying but explained it descriptively and from individual perspectives...
March 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Katharina Wulf, Michael Teske, Claudia Matschegewski, Daniela Arbeiter, Dalibor Bajer, Thomas Eickner, Klaus-Peter Schmitz, Niels Grabow
The successive incorporation of several drugs into the polymeric bulk of implants mostly results in loss of considerable quantity of one drug, and/or the loss in quality of the coating and also in changes of drug release time points. A dual drug delivery system (DDDS) based on poly-L-lactide (PLLA) copolymers combining the effective inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation while simultaneously promoting re-endothelialization was successfully developed. To overcome possible antagonistic drug interactions and the limitation of the polymeric bulk material as release system for dual drugs, a novel concept which combines the bulk and surface drug immobilization for a DDDS was investigated...
March 12, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
A Papadimitriou, I Ketikidis, M-E K Stathopoulou, C N Banti, C Papachristodoulou, L Zoumpoulakis, S Agathopoulos, G V Vagenas, S K Hadjikakou
Curcumin (Curc) reacts with zinc di‑iodine (ZnI2 ) in 2:1molar ratio in the presence of an excess of a base triethylamine ((CH3 CH2 )3 N) in methanol (CH3 OH) solution towards the amorphous solid material of formula [ZnI2 (Curc)2 ] (1). The complex was characterized by melting point (m.p.), Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FT-IR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of hydrogen nucleus (1 H NMR) spectroscopy. The formula of 1 was determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. The retention of the structure in solution was confirmed by1 H NMR spectroscopy...
March 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Raul A Borracci, Mariano A Giorgi
BACKGROUND: Diffusion of medical innovations among physicians rests on a set of theoretical assumptions, including learning and decision-making under uncertainty, social-normative pressures, medical expert knowledge, competitive concerns, network performance effects, professional autonomy or individualism and scientific evidence. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop and test four real data-based, agent-based computational models (ABM) to qualitatively and quantitatively explore the factors associated with diffusion and application of innovations among cardiologists...
April 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Christopher William Hayes, Don Goldmann
BACKGROUND: Failure to consider the impact of change on health care providers is a barrier to success. Initiatives that increase workload and have low perceived value are less likely to be adopted. A practical model and supporting tools were developed on the basis of existing theories to help quality improvement (QI) programs design more adoptable approaches. METHODS: Models and theories from the diffusion of innovation and work stress literature were reviewed, and key-informant interviews and site visits were conducted to develop a draft Highly Adoptable Improvement (HAI) Model...
March 2018: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
Jonathan R B Fisher, Jensen Montambault, Kyle P Burford, Trisha Gopalakrishna, Yuta J Masuda, Sheila M W Reddy, Kaitlin Torphy, Andrea I Salcedo
The spread and uptake of new ideas (diffusion of innovations) is critical for organizations to adapt over time, but there is little evidence of how this happens within organizations and to their broader community. To address this, we analyzed how individuals accessed information about a recent science innovation at a large, international, biodiversity conservation non-profit-The Nature Conservancy-and then traced the flow of how this information was shared within the organization and externally, drawing on an exceptionally data-rich environment...
2018: PloS One
Rebecca E Stewart, Steven C Marcus, Trevor R Hadley, Brian M Hepburn, David S Mandell
OBJECTIVE: Despite the critical role behavioral health care payers can play in creating an incentive to use evidence-based practices (EBPs), little research has examined which incentives are used in public mental health systems, the largest providers of mental health care in the United States. METHODS: The authors surveyed state mental health directors from 44 states about whether they used any of seven strategies to increase the use of EBPs. Participants also ranked attributes of each incentive on the basis of key characteristics of diffusion of innovation theory (perceived advantage, simplicity, compatibility, observability, and gradually implementable) and perceived effectiveness...
March 1, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
F Kashanian, M M Masoudi, A Shamloo, M Habibi-Rezaei, A A Moosavi-Movahedi
Miniaturized systems based on the principles of microfluidics are widely used in various fields, such as biochemical and biomedical applications. Systematic design processes are demanded the proper use of these microfluidic devices based on mathematical simulations. Aggregated proteins (e.g., inclusion bodies) in solution with chaotropic agents (such as urea) at high concentration in combination with reducing agents are denatured. Refolding methods to achieve the native proteins from inclusion bodies of recombinant protein relying on denaturant dilution or dialysis approaches for suppressing protein aggregation is very important in the industrial field...
February 22, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Eric Shappell, Teresa M Chan, Brent Thoma, N Seth Trueger, Bob Stuntz, Robert Cooney, James Ahn
In recent years online educational content, efforts at quality appraisal, and integration of online material into institutional teaching initiatives have increased. However, medical education has yet to develop large-scale online learning centers. Crowd-sourced curriculum development may expedite the realization of this potential while providing opportunities for innovation and scholarship. This article describes the current landscape, best practices, and future directions for crowdsourced curriculum development using Kern's framework for curriculum development and the example topic of core content in emergency medicine...
December 8, 2017: Curēus
Yanfeng Dong, Shuanghao Zheng, Jieqiong Qin, Xuejun Zhao, Haodong Shi, Xiaohui Wang, Jian Chen, Zhong-Shuai Wu
High-energy-density lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries hold promise for next-generation portable electronic devices, but are facing great challenges in rational construction of novel high-performance flexible electrode and innovative cell configuration for actual applications. Here we demonstrated an all-MXene-based flexible and integrated sulfur cathode, enabled by three dimensional alkalized Ti3C2 MXene nanoribbon (a-Ti3C2 MNR) frameworks as S/polysulfides host (a-Ti3C2-S) and two dimensional delaminated Ti3C2 MXene (d-Ti3C2) nanosheets as interlayer on polypropylene (PP) separator, for high-energy and long-cycle Li-S batteries...
February 17, 2018: ACS Nano
Rachel A Smith, Youllee Kim, Xun Zhu, Dimi Théodore Doudou, Eleanore D Sternberg, Matthew B Thomas
This study documents an investigation into the adoption and diffusion of eave tubes, a novel mosquito vector control, during a large-scale scientific field trial in West Africa. The diffusion of innovations (DOI) and the integrated model of behavior (IMB) were integrated (i.e., innovation attributes with attitudes and social pressures with norms) to predict participants' (N = 329) diffusion intentions. The findings showed that positive attitudes about the innovation's attributes were a consistent positive predictor of diffusion intentions: adopting it, maintaining it, and talking with others about it...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Health Communication
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