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Oncology, hematology

Peter Valent, Emir Hadzijusufovic, Thomas Grunt, Heidrun Karlic, Barbara Peter, Harald Herrmann, Gregor Eisenwort, Gregor Hoermann, Axel Schulenburg, Michael Willmann, Rainer Hubmann, Medhat Shehata, Edgar Selzer, Karoline V Gleixner, Thomas Rülicke, Wolfgang R Sperr, Brigitte Marian, Michael Pfeilstöcker, Hubert Pehamberger, Felix Keil, Ulrich Jäger, Christoph Zielinski
In 2008 the Ludwig Boltzmann Cluster Oncology (LBC ONC) was established on the basis of two previous Ludwig Boltzmann Institutes working in the field of hematology and cancer research. The general aim of the LBC ONC is to improve treatment of hematopoietic neoplasms by eradicating cancer-initiating and disease-propagating cells, also known as leukemic stem cells (LSC) in the context of leukemia. In a first phase, the LBC ONC characterized the phenotype and molecular aberration profiles of LSC in various malignancies...
July 13, 2018: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Hui Chen, Rajyalakshmi Luthra, Keyur P Patel, Mark Routbort, Asif Rashid, Sinchita Roy-Chowdhuri, Alexander Lazar, Russell Broaddus, Jawad Manekia, Rajesh R Singh, Anna Yemelyanova
Analysis of somatic mutations in solid tumors and hematologic malignancies using targeted next generation sequencing (NGS)-based assays has become part of routine oncology practice as well as clinical trials. The use of paired tumor-normal DNA samples increases confidence of somatic calls. NGS assays that utilize unique patient identifiers (SNP IDs) allow further comparison of samples within a run or paired tumor/normal samples. The sources of germline DNA include peripheral blood (PB) and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE)...
October 2018: Cancer Genetics
Shohei Yamamoto, Daisuke Toyama, Yumiko Sugishita, Ryota Kaneko, Naoko Okamoto, Masaya Koganesawa, Sachio Fujita, Kosuke Akiyama, Ryosuke Matsuno, Keiichi Isoyama
Hepatic SOS is a potentially life-threatening complication of conditioning for allogeneic HSCT. rTM is a new drug for treating DIC. We report our experience of the use of rTM as a prophylaxis against SOS in high-risk pediatric patients that underwent HSCT. We evaluated the cases of 19 pediatric hematology and oncology patients who underwent HSCT at our institution between 2007 and 2016. The patients who received HSCT after 2012 (n = 8) were treated with rTM as a prophylaxis against SOS together with UDCA and LMWH, whereas the others (n = 11) were only treated with UDCA and LMWH...
July 12, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
Tove E Godskesen, Suzanne Petri, Stefan Eriksson, Arja Halkoaho, Margrete Mangset, Merja Pirinen, Zandra Engelbak Nielsen
This study investigated the kinds of ethical challenges experienced by nurses in oncology and hematology when nursing care and research overlap in clinical trials, and how the nurses handle such challenges. Individual interviews with 39 nurses from Sweden, Denmark, and Finland indicated that all nurses were positive about research, considering it essential for developing the best care. Ethical challenges exist, however; the most difficult were associated with the end-of-life patients, no longer responsive to standard therapy, who eagerly volunteer for cutting-edge drug trials in the hope of gaining therapeutic benefit...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
Joey Mercier, Ioannis A Voutsadakis
Background: The cancer micro-environment is recognized as having an increasing importance in cancer progression. Immune cells originating from the peripheral blood are important elements of this environment. Thrombocytosis, neutrophilia and lymphocytopenia have been found to be negative prognostic indicators in many cancers. This study aims to evaluate the potential of the use of a novel hematological marker, the platelet-neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (PNLR) as a practical, reliable, and inexpensive prognostic tool in metastatic colorectal adenocarcinomas...
June 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Muhamed Baljevic, Sarah A Holstein
Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic malignancy with an increasing incidence and prevalence. The wide array of effective antimyeloma agents have transformed MM into a chronic condition for some patients, requiring long-term management planning. Immunomodulatory drugs and proteasome inhibitors have played a pivotal role in defining the most effective regimens for both transplantation-eligible and transplantation-ineligible subgroups. Nevertheless, recent approvals of immunotherapies in MM such as daratumumab have added another important component to combination treatments for both relapsed or refractory and newly diagnosed disease...
July 2018: Journal of Oncology Practice
Kavitha Gowrishankar, Lucy Birtwistle, Kenneth Micklethwaite
T-cells expressing synthetic chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have revolutionized immuno-oncology and highlighted the use of adoptive cell transfer, for the treatment of cancer. The phenomenal clinical success obtained in the treatment of hematological malignancies with CAR T-cells has not been reproduced in the treatment of solid tumors, mainly due to the suppressive and hostile tumor microenvironment (TME). This review will address the immunosuppressive features of the TME, which include the stroma, cytokine and chemokine milieu, suppressive regulatory cells and hypoxic conditions, which can all pose formidable barriers for the effective anti-tumor function of CAR T-cells...
July 9, 2018: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
Jakob Daniel Rudzki
IO treatments (immuno-oncology treatments) have become reality and are now daily practice or, in some cases, a daily challenge. New recommendations are being made with the prime purpose of increasing alertness and awareness as well as emphasizing standard operating strategies to deal with immune-related adverse events (ir-AEs) in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). This brief review refers to systemic reviews, guidelines and meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials and case series published from 2000 to the present...
2018: Memo
Amaranto Suarez Mattos, Jairo Aguilera, Edgar Augusto Salguero, Carolina Wiesner
In low-income countries, a child diagnosed with cancer has an 80% chance of dying, while in high-income countries more than 80% survive the disease. In Colombia, a middle-income country, the government issued new legislation that promotes the generation of comprehensive care units; nevertheless, seven years after its expedition, no institution has been recognized as such by the Ministry of Health. The objective of this study was to characterize the current offer of oncological services for cancer care in children and to identify the institutions that can be constituted in Units of Comprehensive Care of Childhood Cancer in Colombia...
March 30, 2018: Colombia Médica: CM
Małgorzata Salamonowicz, T Ociepa, J Frączkiewicz, A Szmydki-Baran, M Matysiak, K Czyżewski, M Wysocki, P Gałązka, P Zalas-Więcek, N Irga-Jaworska, E Drożyńska, O Zając-Spychała, J Wachowiak, O Gryniewicz-Kwiatkowska, A Czajńska-Deptuła, B Dembowska-Bagińska, L Chełmecka-Wiktorczyk, W Balwierz, M Bartnik, K Zielezińska, T Urasiński, R Tomaszewska, T Szczepański, M Płonowski, M Krawczuk-Rybak, F Pierlejewski, W Młynarski, Z Gamrot-Pyka, M Woszczyk, Z Małas, W Badowska, A Urbanek-Dądela, G Karolczyk, W Stolpa, G Sobol-Milejska, A Zaucha-Prażmo, J Kowalczyk, J Goździk, E Gorczyńska, K Jermakow, A Król, A Chybicka, M Ussowicz, K Kałwak, J Styczyński
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common causes of nosocomial infectious diarrhea in children during anticancer therapy or undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in Europe. Immunosuppression in these patients is a risk factor for CDI. Malignant diseases, age, acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), HLA mismatch, or use of total body irradiation may play an important role in CDI course. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, course, and outcome of CDI in children treated for malignancy or undergoing HSCT...
July 5, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Valérie Bernier-Chastagner, Liza Hettal, Véronique Gillon, Laurinda Fernandes, Cécile Huin-Schohn, Marion Vazel, Priscillia Tosti, Julia Salleron, Aurélie François, Elise Cérimèle, Sandrine Perreira, Didier Peiffert, Pascal Chastagner, Guillaume Vogin
BACKGROUND: Approximately 900 children/adolescents are treated with radiotherapy (RT) every year in France. However, among the 80% of survivors, the cumulative incidence of long-term morbidity - including second malignancies - reach 73.4% thirty years after the cancer diagnosis. Identifying a priori the subjects at risk for RT sequelae is a major challenge of paediatric oncology. Individual radiosensitivity (IRS) of children/adolescents is unknown at this time, probably with large variability depending on the age when considering the changes in metabolic functions throughout growth...
July 6, 2018: BMC Cancer
Jorrit W van As, Henk van den Berg, Elvira C van Dalen
BACKGROUND: Platinum-based therapy, including cisplatin, carboplatin or oxaliplatin, or a combination of these, is used to treat a variety of paediatric malignancies. Unfortunately, one of the most important adverse effects is the occurrence of hearing loss or ototoxicity. In an effort to prevent this ototoxicity, different platinum infusion durations have been studied. This review is the second update of a previously published Cochrane review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different durations of platinum infusion to prevent hearing loss or tinnitus, or both, in children with cancer...
July 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Eduardo S Cantú, Henry Dong, David R Forsyth, Froilan P Espinoza, Peter R Papenhausen
Conventional cytogenetic and routine I-FISH (interphase fluorescence in-situ hybridization) studies periodically present discrepant results on the same sample calling into question their validity. Generally it is expected that these tests confirm each other, otherwise there is concern that they may represent laboratory error. We present data showing that these discrepant results are rarely due to laboratory error, and that M-FISH (metaphase fluorescence in-situ hybridization) can usually reconcile them by identifying the nature of these differences...
May 2018: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
Beata Rybojad, Anna Aftyka, Marzena Samardakiewicz
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and validate the Peritraumatic Distress Inventory (PDI) in mothers of severely ill children hospitalized currently or in the past within a pediatric hospital setting. BACKGROUND: Serious illness in a child causes a sense of fear in her parents, which may occur in variously manifested stress. METHODS/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: The participants were 135 mothers of children treated in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Hematology & Oncology Department, and with perinatal history, who filled out Authors' Questionnaire and the Polish version of the Peritraumatic Distress Inventory...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
M Fevzi Ozkaynak, Andrew L Gilman, Wendy B London, Arlene Naranjo, Mitchell B Diccianni, Sheena C Tenney, Malcolm Smith, Karen S Messer, Robert Seeger, C Patrick Reynolds, L Mary Smith, Barry L Shulkin, Marguerite Parisi, John M Maris, Julie R Park, Paul M Sondel, Alice L Yu
Purpose: A phase 3 randomized study (COG ANBL0032) demonstrated significantly improved outcome by adding immunotherapy with ch14.18 antibody to isotretinoin as post-consolidation therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma (NB). This study, ANBL0931, was designed to collect FDA-required safety/toxicity data to support FDA registration of ch14.18. Experimental design: Newly diagnosed high-risk NB patients who achieved at least a partial response to induction therapy and received myeloablative consolidation with stem cell rescue were enrolled to receive six courses of isotretinoin with five concomitant cycles of ch14...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Giovanni Lo Re, Francesco Lo Re, Paolo Doretto, Alessandro Del Conte, Maria Amadio, Cinzia Cozzi, Maria Maddalena Casarotto, Daniele Maruzzi, Wally Marus, Paolo Ubiali, Paolo Sandri
BACKGROUND: Immune tolerance seems to correlate with disease progression and T regulatory cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells play a relevant role in immunosuppression. Cyclophosphamide (Cyt) and Fluorouracil (FU) seem to reduce these cell populations. METHODS AND OBJECTIVE: Establishing safety, feasibility, activity and impact on the immune system (neutrophil/lymphocyte [N/L], platelet/L [Plt/L], monocyte [M] and lymphocyte subpopulation (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, HLADR/CD3, Tregs, cells count), CD8/Treg and C-reactive protein (CRP)...
June 26, 2018: Cytokine
Michinori Ogura, Kazuhito Yamamoto, Yasuo Morishima, Masashi Wakabayashi, Kensei Tobinai, Kiyoshi Ando, Naokuni Uike, Mitsutoshi Kurosawa, Hiroshi Gomyo, Masafumi Taniwaki, Kisato Nosaka, Norifumi Tsukamoto, Tatsu Shimoyama, Noriko Fukuhara, Yoshihiro Yakushijin, Kazunori Ohnishi, Kana Miyazaki, Kenichi Sawada, Nobuyuki Takayama, Ichiro Hanamura, Hirokazu Nagai, Hirofumi Kobayashi, Kensuke Usuki, Naoki Kobayashi, Kazuma Ohyashiki, Takahiko Utsumi, Kyoya Kumagai, Dai Maruyama, Ken Ohmachi, Yoshihiro Matsuno, Shigeo Nakamura, Tomomitsu Hotta, Kunihiro Tsukasaki
Although induction immunochemotherapy including high-dose cytarabine and rituximab followed by high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is recommended for younger patients (≤65 years old) with untreated mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), no standard induction and HDC regimen has been established. We conducted a phase II study of induction immunochemotherapy of R-High-CHOP/CHASER followed by HDC of LEED with ASCT in younger patients with untreated advanced MCL. Eligibility criteria included untreated MCL, stage II bulky to IV, and age 20-65 years...
June 29, 2018: Cancer Science
Fatemeh Javanmardi, Amal Saki-Malehi, Ahmad Ahmadzadeh, Fakher Rahim
Background: Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is a unique cancer of lymphocytes that has unknown reason. As lymphocytes are found throughout the lymphatic system, HL can start almost anywhere in the body. It usually starts in a group of lymph nodes in one part of the body; it usually spreads in a predictable form, from one group of lymph nodes to the next. Eventually, it can spread to almost any tissue or organ in the body through the lymphatic system or the bloodstream. So it's important to evaluate the prognostic factors of mortality and recurrence...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Research
Xiao-Ying Wu, Ju-Mei Shi, Yi Tao, Zhong Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diagnostic value of insulin like growth factor I(IGF-I), β2-microglobulin (β2MG) and serum ferritin (SF) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and their ralationship with clinical staging. METHODS: Seventy-seven patients with MM treated in Depertment of Hematology of Shanghai 10th hospital and Oncology of Shanghai Armed Police Hospital from August 2016 to June 2017 were enrolled in MM group, at same period 77 healthy volunteers were enrolled in normal control group...
June 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Omar Yaxmehen Bello-Chavolla, Jessica Paola Bahena-Lopez, Pamela Garciadiego-Fosass, Patricia Volkow, Alejandro Garcia-Horton, Consuelo Velazquez-Acosta, Diana Vilar-Compte
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections (SABIs) represent a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. In this study, we compared infection characteristics and evaluated epidemiology and risk factors associated to SABIs and 30-day attributable mortality in cancer patients. METHODS: Clinical and microbiological data from patients with cancer and positive blood cultures for S. aureus were retrieved during a 10-year period at an oncology reference center...
June 8, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
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