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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443819/chronic-osteomyelitis-with-staphylococcus-aureus-deformation-in-submicron-canaliculi-of-osteocytes-a-case-report
#1
Karen L de Mesy Bentley, Ashlee MacDonald, Edward M Schwarz, Irvin Oh
CASE: A patient presenting with an infected diabetic foot ulcer and Staphylococcus aureus chronic osteomyelitis was studied to validate the clinical importance of bacterial colonization of osteocytic-canalicular networks, as we recently reported in a mouse model. We utilized transmission electron microscopy to describe the deformation of S. aureus, from round cocci to rod-shaped bacteria, in the submicron osteocytic-canalicular networks of amputated bone tissue. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of S...
February 14, 2018: JBJS Case Connector
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442528/structure-and-function-of-the-open-canalicular-system-the-platelet-s-specialized-internal-membrane-network
#2
Maria V Selvadurai, Justin R Hamilton
The open canalicular system (OCS) is an internal membrane structure found in platelets. First identified 50 years ago, the OCS comprises a tunneling network of surface-connected channels that appear to play an important role in platelet function. Yet, our understanding of how the OCS forms, how it functions, and what might regulate its structure and behavior remains fairly rudimentary. Structural abnormalities of the OCS are observed in some human platelet disorders. Yet, because platelets from these patients display multiple defects, the specific contribution of any OCS dysregulation to the impaired platelet function is unclear...
February 14, 2018: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437284/formation-of-osteon-like-structures-in-unidirectional-porous-hydroxyapatite-substitute
#3
Takeshi Makihara, Masataka Sakane, Hiroshi Noguchi, Toshinori Tsukanishi, Yasushi Suetsugu, Masashi Yamazaki
Unidirectional porous hydroxyapatite (UDPHAp) bone substitute comprises a microstructure of cross-sectionally oval pores with diameters ranging from 30 to 300 µm. Bone remodeling within the UDPHAp is expected upon implantation into bone; however, the mechanism and factors influencing this bone growth remain unclear. The objectives of the present study were to assess the vasculature and microstructure of newly formed bone and to determine how bone formation is affected by load transfer and UDPHAp pore size...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430325/-minimally-invasive-extraforaminal-lumbar-interbody-fusion
#4
Federico Landriel, Santiago Hem, Jorge Rasmussen, Eduardo Vecchi, Claudio Yampolsky
Objectives: The objective of the present study was to determine the indications, surgical technique, results, and complications of minimally invasive extraforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (ELIF). Introduction: ELIF is characterized as removal of the superior articular process (SAP) to access the intra-canalicular root and disc through Kambin's triangle. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of 40 patients operated upon between 2013 and 2015...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426966/multi-viral-canaliculitis-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#5
Mohammad Javed Ali, Joveeta Joseph, Shweta Gupta, Sai Jeevana Madhuri Guda
AIM: To report an atypical case of multiple viruses causing canaliculitis. METHODS: Case report of a young female presenting with atypical course of refractory unilateral canaliculitis with complete mid-bicanalicular obstructions. Canalicular scrapings were subjected to immunofluorescence techniques and polymerase chain reactions to identify the viruses. RESULTS: Investigations revealed a canaliculitis of multi-viral etiology; herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus...
February 9, 2018: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424622/alveolar-bone-remodeling-after-tooth-extraction-in-irradiated-mandible-an-experimental-study-with-canine-model
#6
Venni Heinonen, Timo J Ruotsalainen, Lauri Paavola, Jopi J Mikkonen, Pekka Asikainen, Arto P Koistinen, Arja M Kullaa
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to investigate the morphological and cellular changes in dental extraction socket that has been irradiated after the tooth extraction and to describe morphological characteristics of the osteocytes and osteocyte-lacunar-canalicular network (LCN) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five beagle dogs aged 1-2 years were used in this study. One side of each mandible was irradiated in two sessions and the other side of mandible (non-irradiated) served as a control...
February 9, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420298/the-importance-of-membrane-microdomains-for-bile-salt-dependent-biliary-lipid-secretion
#7
Johannes Eckstein, Hermann-Georg Holzhütter, Nikolaus Berndt
Alternative models exist explaining the biliary lipid secretion at the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes: Successive lipid extraction by preformed bile salt micelles or budding of membrane fragments with formation of mixed micelles. To test the feasibility of the latter mechanism, we developed a mathematical model that describes the formation of lipid microdomains in the canalicular membrane. Bile salt monomers intercalate into the external hemileaflet of the canalicular membrane, to rim liquid disordered domain patches which then pinch off to form nanometer-scale mixed micelles...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417865/advanced-diffusion-weighted-imaging-in-patients-with-optic-neuritis-deficit-value-of-reduced-field-of-view-dwi-and-readout-segmented-dwi
#8
Achim Seeger, Maximilian Schulze, Frank Schuettauf, Ulrike Ernemann, Till-Karsten Hauser
Objective The objective of this article is to evaluate advanced techniques of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements of the optic nerve in patients with optic neuritis. Methods In this prospective and institutional review board-approved trial, we examined 15 patients with acute visual loss and clinical signs of optic neuritis including thin-slice multi-shot segmented readout of long variable echo trains (rs-EPI, RESOLVE) DWI and reduced field-of view DWI using a parallel transmit system (rFOV-EPI)...
January 1, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408702/comparison-of-3d-cellular-imaging-techniques-based-on-scanned-electron-probes-serial-block-face-sem-vs-axial-bright-field-stem-tomography
#9
E L McBride, A Rao, G Zhang, J D Hoyne, G N Calco, B C Kuo, Q He, A A Prince, I D Pokrovskaya, B Storrie, A A Sousa, M A Aronova, R D Leapman
Microscopies based on focused electron probes allow the cell biologist to image the 3D ultrastructure of eukaryotic cells and tissues extending over large volumes, thus providing new insight into the relationship between cellular architecture and function of organelles. Here we compare two such techniques: electron tomography in conjunction with axial bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (BF-STEM), and serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM). The advantages and limitations of each technique are illustrated by their application to determining the 3D ultrastructure of human blood platelets, by considering specimen geometry, specimen preparation, beam damage and image processing methods...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392419/hepatic-glutamate-transport-and-glutamine-synthesis-capacities-are-decreased-in-finished-vs-growing-beef-steers-concomitant-with-increased-gtrap3-18-content
#10
J Huang, Y Jia, Q Li, W R Burris, P J Bridges, J C Matthews
Hepatic glutamate uptake and conversion to glutamine is critical for whole-body N metabolism, but how this process is regulated during growth is poorly described. The hepatic glutamate uptake activities, protein content of system [Formula: see text] transporters (EAAC1, GLT-1) and regulatory proteins (GTRAP3-18, ARL6IP1), glutamine synthetase (GS) activity and content, and glutathione (GSH) content, were compared in liver tissue of weaned Angus steers randomly assigned (n = 8) to predominantly lean (growing) or predominantly lipid (finished) growth regimens...
February 1, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373404/idiopathic-canalicular-inflammatory-disease-new-disease-description-of-clinical-patterns-investigations-management-and-outcomes
#11
Mohammad Javed Ali
PURPOSE: The objective of this perspective is to present a separate disease description of "idiopathic canalicular inflammatory disease" and outline the diagnostic criteria and early experiences with its investigations and management. METHODS: Retrospective case series of 44 canaliculi of 22 eyes of 11 patients presenting at a tertiary care Dacryology service over a period of 2 years with typical clinical patterns of inflammatory canaliculitis and its outcomes were studied...
January 25, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371488/-intravital-bone-imaging-osteocyte
#12
Hiroshige Sano, Naoki Kondo, Naoto Endo
Osteocytes are the most abundant cellular component of bone and have been considered dormant until recent evidence has demonstrated their critical roles in bone homeostasis and endocrine regulation. Until now the location of osteocytes within mineralized bone has restricted experimental access, especially in vivo. Here, intravital bone imaging by two-photon excitation microscopy allowed us to directly visualize the osteocytic lacuno-canalicular system. We demonstrated that sciatic neurectomy causes significant acidification around osteocytic lacunae and enlargement of lacuno-canalicular areas...
2018: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365521/fgf15-19-upregulates-and-localizes-abcg5-and-abcg8-to-the-canalicular-surface-of-hepatocytes
#13
Sonja Pijut, Yuhuan Wang, Ailing Ji, Deneys Van Der Westhuyzen, Gregory Graf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355600/mechanisms-of-canalicular-transporter-endocytosis-in-the-cholestatic-rat-liver
#14
Gisel S Miszczuk, Ismael R Barosso, María Cecilia Larocca, Julieta Marrone, Raúl A Marinelli, Andrea C Boaglio, Enrique J Sánchez Pozzi, Marcelo G Roma, Fernando A Crocenzi
Impaired canalicular secretion due to increased endocytosis and intracellular retention of canalicular transporters such as BSEP and MRP2 is a main, common pathomechanism of cholestasis. Nevertheless, the mechanisms governing this process are unknown. We characterized this process in estradiol 17 β-d-glucuronide (E17G)-induced cholestasis, an experimental model which partially mimics pregnancy-induced cholestasis. Inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) with monodansylcadaverine (MDC) or K+ depletion, but not the caveolin-mediated endocytosis inhibitors filipin and genistein, prevented E17G-induced endocytosis of BSEP and MRP2, and the associated impairment of activity of these transporters in isolated rat hepatocyte couplets (IRHC)...
January 17, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352067/sandwich-cultured-hepatocytes-for-mechanistic-understanding-of-hepatic-disposition-of-parent-drugs-and-metabolites-by-transporter-enzyme-interplay
#15
Norikazu Matsunaga, Yukina Fukuchi, Haruo Imawaka, Ikumi Tamai
Functional interplay between transporters and drug-metabolizing enzymes is currently one of the hottest topics in the field of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics. Uptake transporter-enzyme interplay is important to determine intrinsic hepatic clearance based on the extended clearance concept. Enzyme-efflux transporter interplay, which includes both sinusoidal (basolateral) and canalicular efflux transporters, determines the fate of metabolites formed in the liver. As sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCHs) maintain metabolic activities and form a canalicular network, the whole interplay between uptake/efflux transporters and drug-metabolizing enzymes can be investigated simultaneously...
January 19, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349685/solute-transport-in-the-bone-lacunar-canalicular-system-lcs
#16
REVIEW
Liyun Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Solute transport in the lacunar-canalicular system (LCS) plays important roles in osteocyte metabolism and cell-cell signaling. This review will summarize recent studies that establish pericellular matrix (PCM), discovered inside the LCS, as a crucial regulator of solute transport in bone. RECENT FINDINGS: Utilizing confocal imaging and mathematical modeling, recent studies successfully quantified molecular diffusion and convection in the LCS as well as the size-dependent sieving effects of the PCM, leading to the quantification of the effective PCM fiber spacing (10 to 17 nm) in murine adult bones...
January 18, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291481/magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-at-the-first-episode-of-acute-optic-neuritis
#17
K Soelberg, H P B Skejoe, J Grauslund, T J Smith, S T Lillevang, S Jarius, B Wildemann, F Paul, N Asgari
BACKGROUND: Optic neuritis (ON) is a focal demyelinating event, which may evolve into multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To study MRI characteristics in the acute phase of the first ON episode. METHODS: A prospective population-based study was performed on 31 patients with a first episode of acute ON with a one year follow-up. MRI, clinical evaluation, and detection of aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-IgG and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-IgG was undertaken...
December 25, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229136/the-gut-liver-axis-impact-of-a-mouse-model-of-small-bowel-bacterial-overgrowth
#18
Qingqing Wang, Bin Wang, Vijay Saxena, Lili Miles, Josh Tiao, Joel E Mortensen, Jaimie D Nathan
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which intestinal bacteria impact liver diseases remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to develop a mouse model of small-bowel bacterial overgrowth and to determine its impact on hepatobiliary injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A jejunal self-filling blind loop (SFBL) was created in C57BL/6 mice. Three weeks after surgery, the mice were euthanized, and bacterial cultures of luminal content of the loop and extraintestinal tissues were performed...
January 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218485/apical-membrane-alterations-in-non-intestinal-organs-in-microvillus-inclusion-disease
#19
Cameron Schlegel, Victoria G Weis, Byron C Knowles, Lynne A Lapierre, Martin G Martin, Paul Dickman, James R Goldenring, Mitchell D Shub
OBJECTIVES: Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a severe form of neonatal diarrhea, caused mainly by mutations in MYO5B. Inactivating mutations in MYO5B causes depolarization of enterocytes in the small intestine, which gives rise to chronic, unremitting secretory diarrhea. While the pathology of the small intestine in MVID patients is well described, little is known about extraintestinal effects of MYO5B mutation. METHODS: We examined stomach, liver, pancreas, colon, and kidney in Navajo MVID patients, who share a single homozygous MYO5B-P660L (1979C>T p...
December 7, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217091/microstructural-changes-associated-with-osteoporosis-negatively-affect-loading-induced-fluid-flow-around-osteocytes-in-cortical-bone
#20
Vittorio Gatti, Evan M Azoulay, Susannah P Fritton
Loading-induced interstitial fluid flow in the microporosities of bone is critical for osteocyte mechanotransduction and for the maintenance of tissue health, enhancing convective transport in the lacunar-canalicular system. In recent studies, our group has reported alterations of bone's vascular porosity and lacunar-canalicular system microarchitecture in a rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In this work, poroelastic finite element analysis was used to investigate whether these microstructural changes can affect interstitial fluid flow around osteocytes...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
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