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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229136/the-gut-liver-axis-impact-of-a-mouse-model-of-small-bowel-bacterial-overgrowth
#1
Qingqing Wang, Bin Wang, Vijay Saxena, Lili Miles, Josh Tiao, Joel E Mortensen, Jaimie D Nathan
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which intestinal bacteria impact liver diseases remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to develop a mouse model of small-bowel bacterial overgrowth and to determine its impact on hepatobiliary injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A jejunal self-filling blind loop (SFBL) was created in C57BL/6 mice. Three weeks after surgery, the mice were euthanized, and bacterial cultures of luminal content of the loop and extraintestinal tissues were performed...
January 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218485/apical-membrane-alterations-in-non-intestinal-organs-in-microvillus-inclusion-disease
#2
Cameron Schlegel, Victoria G Weis, Byron C Knowles, Lynne A Lapierre, Martin G Martin, Paul Dickman, James R Goldenring, Mitchell D Shub
OBJECTIVES: Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a severe form of neonatal diarrhea, caused mainly by mutations in MYO5B. Inactivating mutations in MYO5B causes depolarization of enterocytes in the small intestine, which gives rise to chronic, unremitting secretory diarrhea. While the pathology of the small intestine in MVID patients is well described, little is known about extraintestinal effects of MYO5B mutation. METHODS: We examined stomach, liver, pancreas, colon, and kidney in Navajo MVID patients, who share a single homozygous MYO5B-P660L (1979C>T p...
December 7, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217091/microstructural-changes-associated-with-osteoporosis-negatively-affect-loading-induced-fluid-flow-around-osteocytes-in-cortical-bone
#3
Vittorio Gatti, Evan M Azoulay, Susannah P Fritton
Loading-induced interstitial fluid flow in the microporosities of bone is critical for osteocyte mechanotransduction and for the maintenance of tissue health, enhancing convective transport in the lacunar-canalicular system. In recent studies, our group has reported alterations of bone's vascular porosity and lacunar-canalicular system microarchitecture in a rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In this work, poroelastic finite element analysis was used to investigate whether these microstructural changes can affect interstitial fluid flow around osteocytes...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217030/perforated-punctal-plugs-with-adjuvant-use-of-mitomycin-c-in-management-of-acquired-external-punctal-stenosis-grades-0-and-1
#4
Ayman S Abd El Ghafar, Amr M El-Kannishy, Mohamed M Elwan, Dalia Sabry, Hanem M Kishk, Eman M Elhefney
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of perforated punctal plugs with adjuvant application of mitomycin-C in the management of acquired external punctal stenosis grades 0 and 1. METHODS: This is a prospective interventional case series including 30 eyes of 30 patients with acquired external punctal stenosis of the lower punctum of grades 0 and 1 presenting with epiphora. They were examined to exclude other causes of lacrimation and epiphora: Slit-lamp assessment of the stenosed punctum and grading was done, probing was done to exclude associated canalicular stenosis, and syringing was done to exclude nasolacrimal duct obstruction...
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212823/quantitative-expression-of-hepatobiliary-transporters-and-functional-uptake-of-substrates-in-hepatic-2d-sandwich-cultures-a-comparative-evaluation-of-upcyte-and-primary-human-hepatocytes
#5
Michelle Schaefer, Gaku Morinaga, Akiko Matsui, Gerhard Schanzle, Daniel Bischoff, Roderich D Sussmuth
Deficient functional expression of drug transporters incapacitates most hepatic cell lines as reliable tool for evaluating transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions. Recently, genetically-modified cells, referred to as upcyte hepatocytes, have emerged as an expandable, non‑cancerous source of human hepatic cells. Herein, we quantified mRNA and protein levels of key hepatobiliary transporters and assessed associated uptake activity in short- and long-term cultures of upcyte human hepatocytes (UHH), in comparison to cryopreserved primary human hepatocytes (cPHH)...
December 6, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210641/dynamic-localization-of-hepatocellular-transporters-role-in-biliary-excretion-and-impairment-in-cholestasis
#6
Marcelo Gabriel Roma, Ismael R Barosso, Gisel S Miszczuk, Fernando A Crocenzi, Enrique J Sanchez Pozzi
Bile flow generation is driven by the vectorial transfer of osmotically active compounds from sinusoidal blood into a confined space, the bile canaliculus. Hence, localization of hepatocellular transporters relevant to bile formation is crucial for bile secretion. Hepatocellular transporters are localized either in the plasma membrane or in recycling endosomes, from where they can be relocated to the plasma membrane on demand, or endocytosed when the demand decreases. The balance between endocytic internalization/exocytic targeting to/from this recycling compartment is therefore the main determinant of the hepatic capability to generate bile, and to dispose endo- and xenobiotics...
December 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194104/comparison-of-outcomes-of-3-snip-punctoplasty-versus-simple-punctal-dilatation-with-monocanalicular-intubation-for-acquired-punctal-stenosis
#7
Swati Singh, Mohammad Javed Ali, Ashik Mohamed
PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the outcomes of invasive (rectangular 3-snip punctoplasty) versus minimally invasive (punctal dilatation with monocanalicular intubation) treatment modalities for the management of acquired punctal stenosis. METHODS: A retrospective, comparative, interventional case series was performed on 60 eyes of 36 patients with acquired punctal stenosis. Patients were categorized in 2 groups based on the intervention as 3-snip punctoplasty (group A) and punctal dilatation with monocanalicular intubation (group B)...
November 15, 2017: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192847/acid-etching-technique-of-non-decalcified-bone-samples-for-visualizing-osteocyte-lacuno-canalicular-network-using-scanning-electron-microscope
#8
Tiina Lampi, Hannah Dekker, Chris M Ten Bruggenkate, Engelbert A J M Schulten, Jopi J W Mikkonen, Arto Koistinen, Arja M Kullaa
The aim of this study was to define the acid-etching technique for bone samples embedded in polymethyl metacrylate (PMMA) in order to visualize the osteocyte lacuno-canalicular network (LCN) for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Human jaw bone tissue samples (N = 18) were collected from the study population consisting of patients having received dental implant surgery. After collection, the bone samples were fixed in 70% ethanol and non-decalcified samples embedded routinely into polymethyl metacrylate (PMMA)...
December 1, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186693/osteocyte-intrinsic-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-regulates-bone-quality-through-perilacunar-canalicular-remodeling
#9
Neha S Dole, Courtney M Mazur, Claire Acevedo, Justin P Lopez, David A Monteiro, Tristan W Fowler, Bernd Gludovatz, Flynn Walsh, Jenna N Regan, Sara Messina, Daniel S Evans, Thomas F Lang, Bin Zhang, Robert O Ritchie, Khalid S Mohammad, Tamara Alliston
Poor bone quality contributes to bone fragility in diabetes, aging, and osteogenesis imperfecta. However, the mechanisms controlling bone quality are not well understood, contributing to the current lack of strategies to diagnose or treat bone quality deficits. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling is a crucial mechanism known to regulate the material quality of bone, but its cellular target in this regulation is unknown. Studies showing that osteocytes directly remodel their perilacunar/canalicular matrix led us to hypothesize that TGF-β controls bone quality through perilacunar/canalicular remodeling (PLR)...
November 28, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184387/lacrimal-drainage-anomalies-in-congenital-rubella-syndrome
#10
Shweta Gupta, Mohammad Javed Ali, Milind N Naik
Purpose: The objective of this study was to ascertain the lacrimal drainage anomalies in a cohort of patients suffering from congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Methods: This was a retrospective case series performed in patients with CRS presenting with associated lacrimal drainage anomalies (LDA) over 6 years from 2011 to 2016. All the patients were confirmed as having CRS after clinical and laboratory testing. Data collected include demographics; associated lacrimal, ocular, and systemic anomalies; interventions performed for lacrimal anomalies; and their anatomical and functional outcomes...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180684/systemic-clearance-and-brain-distribution-of-carbazole-based-cyanine-compounds-as-alzheimer-s-disease-drug-candidates
#11
Wei Zhou, Xiaohui Hu, Kin Yip Tam
SLM and SLOH, two analogues of carbazole-based cyanine compounds, have been shown to inhibit β-amyloid peptide aggregation in vitro and in Alzheimer's disease model mice, which could be potentially developed into drugs for disease treatment. To pave the way for further pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics study, we set to investigate these compounds' systemic clearance pathways and their brain exposure. We found that they generally exhibited relatively low plasma clearance which comprised of hepatic clearance and biliary clearance...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178101/-clinicopathologic-characteristics-and-prognosis-analysis-of-90-young-patients-with-gastric-cancer
#12
Rongjian Zhou, Junjie Zhao, Ping Shu, Hongshan Wang, Jing Qin, Yihong Sun
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the features of clinicopathology and prognosis in young gastric cancer patients. METHODS: Clinicopathological data of 90 young gastric cancer patients (≤40 years old) who received radical gastrectomy in the Department of General Surgery of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University from January 2013 to December 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Survival data were obtained by follow-up and the last follow-up time was October 2016. Log-rank test and Cox regression model were used to analyze the risk factors of prognosis and these factors included gender, age, tumor size, degree of differentiation, histological type, Lauren pattern, T stage, N stage, vessel carcinoma embolus, clinical symptom, anemic condition, CA19-9 level, et al...
November 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152604/crosstalk-of-lkb1-and-pten-regulated-signals-in-liver-morphogenesis-and-tumor-development
#13
Chengyou Jia, Vivian Medina, Chenchang Liu, Lina He, Daohai Qian, Tu Taojian, Curtis T Okamoto, Bangyan L Stiles
Liver kinase B 1 (LKB1 or STK11) and PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) are two tumor suppressors that regulate the mTOR signaling pathway. Deletion studies show that loss of either Lkb1 (Lkb(+/-) ) or Pten (Pten(loxP/loxP); Alb-Cre(+) ) leads to liver injury and development of hepatocarcinoma. In this study, we investigated the crosstalk of LKB1 and PTEN loss during tumorigenesis and liver development. We show here that haplo-insufficiency of Lkb1 in the liver leads to advanced tumor development in the Pten null mice (Pten(loxP/loxP); Lkb(loxP/+); Alb-Cre(+) )...
April 2017: Hepatology communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140706/a-galactosylated-pro-drug-of-ursodeoxycholic-acid-design-synthesis-characterization-and-pharmacological-effects-in-a-rat-model-of-estrogen-induced-cholestasis
#14
Francesca Di Guida, Claudio Pirozzi, Salvatore Magliocca, Anna Santoro, Adriano Lama, Roberto Russo, Maria Nieddu, Lucia Burrai, Gianpiero Boatto, Maria Pina Mollica, Federica Sodano, Loretta Lazzarato, Konstantin Chegaev, Rosaria Meli, Giuseppina Mattace Raso, Maria Grazia Rimoli
Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is considered the first-choice therapy for cholestatic disorders. To enhance solubility and exploit specific transporters in liver, we synthesized a new galactosyl pro-drug of UDCA (UDCAgal). Ethinylestradiol (EE)-induced cholestasis was used to study and compare the effects of UDCAgal with UDCA on bile flow, hepatic canalicular efflux transporter expression, and inflammation. UDCAgal resulted quite stable both at pH 7.4 and 1.2 and regenerated the parent drug after incubation in human plasma...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139147/the-development-of-lingual-glands-in-the-domestic-duck-anas-platyrhynchos-f-domestica-3d-reconstruction-lm-and-sem-study
#15
Kinga Skieresz-Szewczyk, Pieter Cornillie, Hanna Jackowiak
The major salivary glands of birds develop by branching or elongation of the epithelial cords. The development of the minor salivary glands in form of the lingual glands has never been described. Among birds, only Anatidae have three types of the lingual glands: rostral, caudo-lateral, and caudo-medial lingual glands. The study aims to characterize the manner and rate of the lingual glands development in the domestic duck and their topographical arrangement relative to the hyoid apparatus. The study reveals that all three types of the lingual glands develop by branching...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133635/is-the-distance-from-punctum-a-factor-in-the-anatomical-and-functional-success-of-canalicular-laceration-repairs
#16
Manpreet Singh, Natasha Gautam, Nitasha Ahir, Manpreet Kaur
PURPOSE: The aim is to analyze the influence of the location of lacrimal canalicular laceration over the eventual anatomical and functional success after surgery. METHODS: Retrospective, observational study of proximal canalicular laceration (PCL) and distal canalicular laceration (DCL) repairs by a single surgeon (MS). The distance between lacrimal punctum and the lateral canalicular lacerated end was defined as proximal (<6 mm) and distal (≥6 mm). The operation theater setup, microscopic magnified view, local adrenaline, and pigtail probe were used to locate the medial canalicular lacerated end...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093526/spermine-oxidase-promotes-bile-canalicular-lumen-formation-through-acrolein-production
#17
Takeshi Uemura, Tomokazu Takasaka, Kazuei Igarashi, Hiroshi Ikegaya
Spermine oxidase (SMOX) catalyzes oxidation of spermine to generate spermidine, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 3-aminopropanal, which is spontaneously converted to acrolein. SMOX is induced by a variety of stimuli including bacterial infection, polyamine analogues and acetaldehyde exposure. However, the physiological functions of SMOX are not yet fully understood. We investigated the physiological role of SMOX in liver cells using human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. SMOX localized to the bile canalicular lumen, as determined by F-actin staining...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091957/hepatitis-e-virus-hev-egress-role-of-bst2-tetherin-and-interferon-induced-long-non-coding-rna-lncrna-bispr
#18
Daizy Paliwal, Prashant Joshi, Subrat Kumar Panda
BACKGROUND: The biology of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV), a common cause of epidemic and sporadic hepatitis, is still being explored. HEV exits liver through bile, a process which is essential for its natural transmission by feco-oral route. Though the process of this polarised HEV egress is not known in detail, HEV pORF3 and hepatocyte actin cytoskeleton have been shown to play a role. METHODS: Our transcriptome analysis in Hepatitis E virus (HEV) replicon transfected Huh7 cells at 24 and 72 hrs indicated that at 24hrs, both LncBISPR and BST2, expressed by a bidirectional promoter were highly upregulated whereas at 72 hrs, BST2 expression was comparatively reduced accompanied by normal levels of BISPR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091294/zebrafish-abcb11b-mutant-reveals-novel-strategies-to-restore-bile-excretion-impaired-by-bile-salt-export-pump-deficiency
#19
Jillian L Ellis, Kevin E Bove, Erin G Schuetz, Daniel Leino, C Alexander Valencia, John D Schuetz, Alexander Miethke, Chunyue Yin
Bile salt export pump BSEP (ABCB11) is a liver-specific adenosine triphosphate-cassette binding transporter that mediates canalicular bile salt excretion from hepatocytes. Human mutations in ABCB11 cause progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type II (PFIC2). Although over 150 ABCB11 variants have been reported, our understanding of their biological consequences is limited by the lack of experimental model that recapitulates the patient phenotypes. We applied CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing technology to knockout abcb11b, the ortholog of human ABCB11, in zebrafish and found that these mutants died prematurely...
November 1, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090346/activation-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-receptor-participates-downstream-of-gpr30-in-estradiol-17%C3%AE-d-glucuronide-induced-cholestasis-in-rats
#20
Ismael R Barosso, Gisel S Miszczuk, Nadia Ciriaci, Romina B Andermatten, Paula M Maidagan, Valeria Razori, Diego R Taborda, Marcelo G Roma, Fernando A Crocenzi, Enrique J Sánchez Pozzi
Estradiol-17β-D-glucuronide (E17G), through the activation of different signaling proteins, induces acute endocytic internalization of canalicular transporters in rat, including multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Abcc2) and bile salt export pump (Abcb11), generating cholestasis. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a membrane-bound tyrosine kinase receptor that can potentially interact with proteins activated by E17G. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential role of IGF-1R in the effects of E17G in isolated perfused rat liver (IPRL) and isolated rat hepatocyte couplets...
October 31, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
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