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Argonaute

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529626/cancer-derived-circulating-micrornas-promote-tumor-angiogenesis-by-entering-dendritic-cells-to-degrade-highly-complementary-micrornas
#1
Jiaqi Wang, Huamao Ye, Dandan Zhang, Kai Cheng, Yijun Hu, Xiya Yu, Lei Lu, Jingjing Hu, Changjing Zuo, Baohua Qian, Yongwei Yu, Shupeng Liu, Geng Liu, Chuanbin Mao, Shanrong Liu
Understanding the interaction between cancer cells and immunocytes will inspire new cancer therapy strategies. However, how cancer-derived circulating miRNAs modulate such interaction remains unclear. Here we discovered that circulating miR-410-5p, secreted by prostate cancer cells, entered dendritic cells (DCs), with the aid of argonaute-2 protein. The cancer cell antigens stimulated the DCs to produce miR-410-3p, a highly complementary counterpart of miR-410-5p derived from pre-miR-410. The DC-internalized miR-410-5p degraded the miR-410-3p by base pairing and thus inhibited its function in suppressing tumor angiogenesis, promoting tumor growth...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520746/dna-recognition-by-an-rna-guided-bacterial-argonaute
#2
Kevin W Doxzen, Jennifer A Doudna
Argonaute (Ago) proteins are widespread in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and share a four-domain architecture capable of RNA- or DNA-guided nucleic acid recognition. Previous studies identified a prokaryotic Argonaute protein from the eubacterium Marinitoga piezophila (MpAgo), which binds preferentially to 5'-hydroxylated guide RNAs and cleaves single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) and DNA (ssDNA) targets. Here we present a 3.2 Å resolution crystal structure of MpAgo bound to a 21-nucleotide RNA guide and a complementary 21-nucleotide ssDNA substrate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518140/a-mirna-101-3p-bim-axis-as-a-determinant-of-serum-deprivation-induced-endothelial-cell-apoptosis
#3
Ji-Hee Kim, Dong-Keon Lee, Joohwan Kim, Seunghwan Choi, Wonjin Park, Kwon-Soo Ha, Tae-Hoon Kim, Jongseon Choe, Moo-Ho Won, Young-Guen Kwon, Young-Myeong Kim
Serum deprivation or withdrawal induces apoptosis in endothelial cells, resulting in endothelial cell dysfunction that is associated with cardiovascular disease. However, there is still limited information on the role of miRNA in serum deprivation-induced apoptosis. Here we found that serum deprivation increased caspase-dependent apoptosis through miRNA-101-3p downregulation, without altering expression of its host gene RNA 3'-terminal phosphate cyclase-like 1, which was highly correlated with suppressed expression levels of Dicer and Argonaute 2 (Ago2), indicating that miR-101-3p is post-transcriptionally elevated in serum-deprived conditions...
May 18, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515146/transcriptome-of-wheat-inflorescence-development-from-spikelet-initiation-to-floral-patterning
#4
Nan Feng, Gaoyuan Song, Jiantao Guan, Kai Chen, Meiling Jia, Dehua Huang, Jiajie Wu, Lichao Zhang, Xiuying Kong, Shuaifeng Geng, Jun Liu, Aili Li, Long Mao
Early reproductive development in cereals is crucial for final grain number per spike, and hence the yield potential of the crop. To date, however, no systematic analyses of gene expression profiles during this important process have been conducted for common wheat (Triticum aestivum). Here, we studied the transcriptome profiles at four stages of early wheat reproductive development, from spikelet initiation to floral organ differentiation. K-means clustering and stage-specific transcript identification detected dynamically expressed homoeologs of important transcription regulators in spikelet and floral meristems that may be involved in spikelet initiation, floret meristem specification, and floral organ patterning, as inferred from their homologs in model plants...
May 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507100/the-microrna-machinery-regulates-fasting-induced-changes-in-gene-expression-and-longevity-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#5
Akiko Kogure, Masaharu Uno, Takako Ikeda, Eisuke Nishida
Intermittent fasting (IF) is a dietary restriction regimen that extends the lifespans of Caenorhabditis elegans and mammals by inducing changes in gene expression. However, how IF induces these changes and promotes longevity remains unclear. One proposed mechanism involves gene regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs (approximately 22 nucleotides) that repress gene expression and whose expression can be altered by fasting. To test this proposition, we examined the role of the miRNA machinery in fasting-induced transcriptional changes and longevity in C...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504560/small-rna-functions-are-required-for-growth-and-development-of-magnaporthe-oryzae
#6
Vidhyavathi Raman, Stacey A Simon, Feray Demirci, Mayumi Nakano, Blake C Meyers, Nicole M Donofrio
RNA interference (RNAi) is conserved in eukaryotic organisms, and it has been well studied in many animal and plant species and some fungal species, yet it is not well studied in fungal plant pathogens. In the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, we examined small RNA (sRNA) and their biogenesis in the context of growth and pathogenicity. Through genetic and genomic analyses, we demonstrate that loss of a single gene encoding Dicer, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, or Argonaute reduces sRNA levels. These three proteins are required for the biogenesis of sRNA-matching genome-wide regions (coding regions, repeats, and intergenic regions)...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499009/a-viral-suppressor-of-rna-silencing-inhibits-argonaute-1-function-by-precluding-target-rna-binding-to-pre-assembled-risc
#7
Erzsébet Kenesi, Alberto Carbonell, Rita Lózsa, Beáta Vértessy, Lóránt Lakatos
In most eukaryotes, RNA silencing is an adaptive immune system regulating key biological processes including antiviral defense. To evade this response, viruses of plants, worms and insects have evolved viral suppressors of RNA silencing proteins (VSRs). Various VSRs, such as P1 from Sweet potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV), inhibit the activity of RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) including an ARGONAUTE (AGO) protein loaded with a small RNA. However, the specific mechanisms explaining this class of inhibition are unknown...
May 12, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494027/no-evidence-of-genome-editing-activity-from-natronobacterium-gregoryi-argonaute-ngago-in-human-cells
#8
Parisa Javidi-Parsijani, Guoguang Niu, Meghan Davis, Pin Lu, Anthony Atala, Baisong Lu
The argonaute protein from the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus shows DNA-guided DNA interfering activity at high temperatures, complicating its application in mammalian cells. A recent work reported that the argonaute protein from Natronobacterium gregoryi (NgAgo) had DNA-guided genome editing activity in mammalian cells. We compared the genome editing activities of NgAgo and Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9) in human HEK293T cells side by side. EGFP reporter assays and DNA sequencing consistently revealed high genome editing activity from SaCas9...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487701/genome-wide-identification-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-small-rna-biogenesis-purveyors-reveal-their-role-in-regulation-of-biotic-stress-responses-in-three-legume-crops
#9
Vanika Garg, Gaurav Agarwal, Lekha T Pazhamala, Spurthi N Nayak, Himabindu Kudapa, Aamir W Khan, Dadakhalandar Doddamani, Mamta Sharma, P B Kavi Kishor, Rajeev K Varshney
Biotic stress in legume crops is one of the major threats to crop yield and productivity. Being sessile organisms, plants have evolved a myriad of mechanisms to combat different stresses imposed on them. One such mechanism, deciphered in the last decade, is small RNA (sRNA) mediated defense in plants. Small RNAs (sRNAs) have emerged as one of the major players in gene expression regulation in plants during developmental stages and under stress conditions. They are known to act both at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486453/addendum-editorial-expression-of-concern-dna-guided-genome-editing-using-the-natronobacterium-gregoryi-argonaute
#10
Feng Gao, Xiao Z Shen, Feng Jiang, Yongqiang Wu, Chunyu Han
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482037/a-non-canonical-site-reveals-the-cooperative-mechanisms-of-microrna-mediated-silencing
#11
Mathieu N Flamand, Hin Hark Gan, Vinay K Mayya, Kristin C Gunsalus, Thomas F Duchaine
Although strong evidence supports the importance of their cooperative interactions, microRNA (miRNA)-binding sites are still largely investigated as functionally independent regulatory units. Here, a survey of alternative 3΄UTR isoforms implicates a non-canonical seedless site in cooperative miRNA-mediated silencing. While required for target mRNA deadenylation and silencing, this site is not sufficient on its own to physically recruit miRISC. Instead, it relies on facilitating interactions with a nearby canonical seed-pairing site to recruit the Argonaute complexes...
May 8, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472401/wig1-is-crucial-for-ago2-mediated-acot7-mrna-silencing-via-mirna-dependent-and-independent-mechanisms
#12
Hyung Chul Lee, Seung Hee Jung, Hyun Jung Hwang, Donghee Kang, Supriyo De, Dawood B Dudekula, Jennifer L Martindale, Byungkyu Park, Seung Kuk Park, Eun Kyung Lee, Jeong-Hwa Lee, Sunjoo Jeong, Kyungsook Han, Heon Joo Park, Young-Gyu Ko, Myriam Gorospe, Jae-Seon Lee
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are involved in mRNA splicing, maturation, transport, translation, storage and turnover. Here, we identified ACOT7 mRNA as a novel target of human WIG1. ACOT7 mRNA decay was triggered by the microRNA miR-9 in a WIG1-dependent manner via classic recruitment of Argonaute 2 (AGO2). Interestingly, AGO2 was also recruited to ACOT7 mRNA in a WIG1-dependent manner in the absence of miR-9, which indicates an alternative model whereby WIG1 controls AGO2-mediated gene silencing. The WIG1-AGO2 complex attenuated translation initiation via an interaction with translation initiation factor 5B (eIF5B)...
May 3, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461238/functional-analysis-of-microrna-pathway-genes-in-the-somatic-gonad-and-germ-cells-during-ovulation-in-c-elegans
#13
Carmela Rios, David Warren, Benjamin Olson, Allison L Abbott
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that play critical roles in animal development and physiology, though functions for most miRNAs remain unknown. Worms with reduced miRNA biogenesis due to loss of Drosha or Pasha/DGCR8 activity are sterile and fail to ovulate, indicating that miRNAs are required for the process of oocyte maturation and ovulation. Starting with this penetrant sterile phenotype and using new strains created to perform tissue specific RNAi, we characterized the roles of the C...
April 28, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456307/rna-interference-of-dicer-1-and-argonaute-1-increasing-the-sensitivity-of-aphis-gossypii-glover-hemiptera-aphididae-to-plant-allelochemical
#14
Kangsheng Ma, Fen Li, Pingzhuo Liang, Xuewei Chen, Ying Liu, Qiuling Tang, Xiwu Gao
Plant allelochemicals are a group of important defensive agents of plants, which have been documented to be deleterious to insect herbivores. In the present study, we found that the expression level of Dicer-1 was significantly increased when Aphis gossypii adults fed on plant allelochemicals (tannic acid and gossypol) incorporated artificial diets. Consider that miRNAs play great regulatory roles in various biological processes, this suggested that miRNAs may be related to the regulation of enzymes involved in metabolism of plant allelochemicals in A...
May 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448529/a-genome-wide-analysis-of-the-rna-guided-silencing-pathway-in-coffee-reveals-insights-into-its-regulatory-mechanisms
#15
Christiane Noronha Fernandes-Brum, Pâmela Marinho Rezende, Thales Henrique Cherubino Ribeiro, Raphael Ricon de Oliveira, Thaís Cunha de Sousa Cardoso, Laurence Rodrigues do Amaral, Matheus de Souza Gomes, Antonio Chalfun-Junior
microRNAs (miRNAs) are derived from self-complementary hairpin structures, while small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are derived from double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or hairpin precursors. The core mechanism of sRNA production involves DICER-like (DCL) in processing the smallRNAs (sRNAs) and ARGONAUTE (AGO) as effectors of silencing, and siRNA biogenesis also involves action of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase (RDR), Pol IV and Pol V in biogenesis. Several other proteins interact with the core proteins to guide sRNA biogenesis, action, and turnover...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448516/natural-variation-of-pirna-expression-affects-immunity-to-transposable-elements
#16
Sergei Ryazansky, Elizaveta Radion, Anastasia Mironova, Natalia Akulenko, Yuri Abramov, Valeriya Morgunova, Maria Y Kordyukova, Ivan Olovnikov, Alla Kalmykova
In the Drosophila germline, transposable elements (TEs) are silenced by PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) that originate from distinct genomic regions termed piRNA clusters and are processed by PIWI-subfamily Argonaute proteins. Here, we explore the variation in the ability to restrain an alien TE in different Drosophila strains. The I-element is a retrotransposon involved in the phenomenon of I-R hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Genomes of R strains do not contain active I-elements, but harbour remnants of ancestral I-related elements...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442597/the-emergence-evolution-and-diversification-of-the-mir390-tas3-arf-pathway-in-land-plants
#17
Rui Xia, Jing Xu, Blake C Meyers
In plants, miR390 directs the production of tasiRNAs from TRANS-ACTING SIRNA 3 (TAS3) transcripts to regulate AUXIN RESPONSIVE FACTOR (ARF) genes, critical for auxin signaling; these tasiRNAs are known as tasiARFs. To understand the evolution of this miR390-TAS3-ARF pathway, we characterized homologs of these three genes from thousands of plant species, from bryophytes to angiosperms. We found the lower-stem region of MIR390 genes, critical for accurate DCL1 (DICER-LIKE 1) processing, is conserved in sequence in seed plants...
April 24, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440450/comprehensive-analysis-of-a-microrna-expression-profile-in-pediatric-medulloblastoma
#18
Junqiang Dai, Qiao Li, Zhitong Bing, Yinian Zhang, Liang Niu, Hang Yin, Guoqiang Yuan, Yawen Pan
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of the central nervous system among children. Medulloblastoma is an embryonal tumor, of which little is known about the pathogenesis. Several efforts have been made to understand the molecular aspects of its tumorigenic pathways; however, these are poorly understood. microRNA (miRNA), a type of non‑coding short RNA, has been proven to be associated with a number of physiological processes and pathological processes of serious diseases, including brain tumors...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439830/peptide-based-isolation-of-argonaute-protein-complexes-using-ago-app
#19
Judith Hauptmann, Gunter Meister
Argonaute (Ago) proteins bind small RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs) or short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which guide them to distinct mRNAs for post-transcriptional gene silencing. Mammalian miRNA-guided gene silencing pathways mainly lead to translational repression and mRNA destabilization. To facilitate these processes, Ago proteins bind members of the GW protein family, which form central interaction platforms for the recruitment of downstream effector proteins. GW proteins use tryptophane residues (W) to bind to the surface of Ago proteins...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439275/arabidopsis-ala1-and-ala2-mediate-rnai-based-antiviral-immunity
#20
Biyun Zhu, Hua Gao, Gang Xu, Dewei Wu, Susheng Song, Hongshan Jiang, Shuifang Zhu, Tiancong Qi, Daoxin Xie
RNA intereferencing (RNAi) pathway regulates antiviral immunity and mediates plant growth and development. Despite considerable research efforts, a few components in RNAi pathway have been revealed, including ARGONAUTEs (AGOs), DICER-LIKEs (DCLs), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 and 6 (RDR1/6), and ALTERED MERISTEM PROGRAM 1 (AMP1). In this study, we performed a forward genetic screening for enhancers of rdr6 via inoculation of CMV2aTΔ2b, a 2b-deficient Cucumber Mosaic Virus that is unable to suppress RNAi-mediated antiviral immunity...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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