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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791863/role-of-gw182-proteins-in-the-cell
#1
REVIEW
Saife Niaz, Mahboob Ul Hussain
GW182 proteins interact directly with the argonaute proteins and constitute key components of miRNA repressor complexes (miRISC) in metazoans. As argonautes are insufficient for silencing they recruit the GW182 s that act as scaffold proteins inducing downstream translational repression, target mRNA deadenylation and exonucleolytic mRNA degradation. Besides their role as part of repressor complexes inside the cell, they function in wide variety of cellular processes as highlighted in this review. The present review summarises and discusses in detail our current knowledge of the GW182 s and their role inside the cell...
May 20, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791857/a-cytoplasmic-argonaute-protein-promotes-the-inheritance-of-rnai
#2
Fei Xu, Xuezhu Feng, Xiangyang Chen, Chenchun Weng, Qi Yan, Ting Xu, Minjie Hong, Shouhong Guang
RNAi-elicited gene silencing is heritable and can persist for multiple generations after its initial induction in C. elegans. However, the mechanism by which parental-acquired trait-specific information from RNAi is inherited by the progenies is not fully understood. Here, we identified a cytoplasmic Argonaute protein, WAGO-4, necessary for the inheritance of RNAi. WAGO-4 exhibits asymmetrical translocation to the germline during early embryogenesis, accumulates at the perinuclear foci in the germline, and is required for the inheritance of exogenous RNAi targeting both germline- and soma-expressed genes...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778390/next-generation-sequencing-reveals-differentially-expressed-small-noncoding-rnas-in-uterine-leiomyoma
#3
Tsai-Der Chuang, Yeming Xie, Wei Yan, Omid Khorram
OBJECTIVE: To determine the expression profile of small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) in leiomyoma, which has not been investigated to date. DESIGN: Laboratory-based investigation. SETTING: Academic center. PATIENT(S): Women undergoing hysterectomy for benign indications. INTERVENTION(S): Next-generation sequencing and screening of an sncRNA database with confirmatory analysis by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
May 2018: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777111/knockdown-of-rna-interference-pathway-genes-impacts-the-fitness-of-western-corn-rootworm
#4
Courtney Davis-Vogel, Angel Ortiz, Lisa Procyk, Jonathan Robeson, Adane Kassa, Yiwei Wang, Emily Huang, Carl Walker, Amit Sethi, Mark E Nelson, Dipali G Sashital
Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) is a serious agricultural pest known for its high adaptability to various management strategies, giving rise to a continual need for new control options. Transgenic maize expressing insecticidal RNAs represents a novel mode of action for rootworm management that is dependent on the RNA interference (RNAi) pathways of the insect for efficacy. Preliminary evidence suggests that western corn rootworm could develop broad resistance to all insecticidal RNAs through changes in RNAi pathway genes; however, the likelihood of field-evolved resistance occurring through this mechanism remains unclear...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775584/conformational-activation-of-argonaute-by-distinct-yet-coordinated-actions-of-the-hsp70-and-hsp90-chaperone-systems
#5
Kotaro Tsuboyama, Hisashi Tadakuma, Yukihide Tomari
Loading of small RNAs into Argonaute, the core protein in RNA silencing, requires the Hsp70/Hsp90 chaperone machinery. This machinery also activates many other clients, including steroid hormone receptors and kinases, but how their structures change during chaperone-dependent activation remains unclear. Here, we utilized single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) to probe the conformational changes of Drosophila Ago2 mediated by the chaperone machinery. We found that empty Ago2 exists in various closed conformations...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775580/znfx-1-functions-within-perinuclear-nuage-to-balance-epigenetic-signals
#6
Takao Ishidate, Ahmet R Ozturk, Daniel J Durning, Rita Sharma, En-Zhi Shen, Hao Chen, Meetu Seth, Masaki Shirayama, Craig C Mello
Animal cells have a remarkable capacity to adopt durable and heritable gene expression programs or epigenetic states that define the physical properties and diversity of somatic cell types. The maintenance of epigenetic programs depends on poorly understood pathways that prevent gain or loss of inherited signals. In the germline, epigenetic factors are enriched in liquid-like perinuclear condensates called nuage. Here, we identify the deeply conserved helicase-domain protein, ZNFX-1, as an epigenetic regulator and component of nuage that interacts with Argonaute systems to balance epigenetic inheritance...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769402/gtsf-1-is-required-for-formation-of-a-functional-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-complex-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Miguel Vasconcelos Almeida, Sabrina Dietz, Stefan Redl, Emil Karaulanov, Andrea Hildebrandt, Christian Renz, Helle D Ulrich, Julian König, Falk Butter, René F Ketting
Argonaute proteins and their associated small RNAs (sRNAs) are evolutionarily conserved regulators of gene expression. Gametocyte-specific factor 1 (Gtsf1) proteins, characterized by two tandem CHHC zinc fingers and an unstructured C-terminal tail, are conserved in animals and have been shown to interact with Piwi clade Argonautes, thereby assisting their activity. We identified the Caenorhabditis elegans Gtsf1 homolog, named it gtsf-1 and characterized it in the context of the sRNA pathways of C. elegans We report that GTSF-1 is not required for Piwi-mediated gene silencing...
May 16, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739806/the-surveillance-of-pre-mrna-splicing-is-an-early-step-in-c-elegans-rnai-of-endogenous-genes
#8
Martin A Newman, Fei Ji, Sylvia E J Fischer, Anthony Anselmo, Ruslan I Sadreyev, Gary Ruvkun
RNAi pathways detect and silence foreign nucleic acids such as viruses as well as endogenous genes in many species. The phylogenetic profile across eukaryotes of proteins that mediate key steps in RNAi is correlated with the profiles of multiple mRNA splicing proteins and with intron number, suggesting that RNAi may surveil mRNA splicing to detect the divergent or absent introns of viruses. Here we examine the role of mRNA splicing in Caenorhabditis elegans RNAi . We found that viable null mutations in U1 and U2 small nuclear ribonucleic protein (snRNP)-specific splicing factor genes cause defects in RNAi...
May 8, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738683/argonaute-proteins-and-mechanisms-of-rna-interference-in-eukaryotes-and-prokaryotes
#9
REVIEW
A V Olina, A V Kulbachinskiy, A A Aravin, D M Esyunina
Noncoding RNAs play essential roles in genetic regulation in all organisms. In eukaryotic cells, many small noncoding RNAs act in complex with Argonaute proteins and regulate gene expression by recognizing complementary RNA targets. The complexes of Argonaute proteins with small RNAs also play a key role in silencing of mobile genetic elements and, in some cases, viruses. These processes are collectively called RNA interference. RNA interference is a powerful tool for specific gene silencing in both basic research and therapeutic applications...
May 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735530/nmda-receptor-dependent-dephosphorylation-of-serine-387-in-argonaute-2-increases-its-degradation-and-affects-dendritic-spine-density-and-maturation
#10
Nicolas Paradis-Isler, Jannic Boehm
Argonaute (AGO) proteins are essential components of the microRNA (miRNA) pathway. AGO proteins are loaded with miRNAs to target mRNAs and thereby regulate mRNA stability and protein translation. As such, AGO proteins are important actors in controlling local protein synthesis, for instance, at dendritic spines and synapses. Although miRNA-mediated regulation of dendritic mRNAs has become a focus of intense interest over the past years, the mechanisms regulating neuronal AGO proteins remain largely unknown...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735528/a-critical-role-for-nucleoporin-358-nup358-in-transposon-silencing-and-pirna-biogenesis-in-drosophila
#11
Rasesh Y Parikh, Haifan Lin, Vamsi K Gangaraju
Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that bind Piwi proteins to silence transposons and to regulate gene expression. In Drosophila germ cells, the Aubergine (Aub)-Argonaute 3 (Ago3)-dependent ping-pong cycle generates most germline piRNAs. Loading of anti-sense piRNAs amplified by this cycle enables Piwi to enter the nucleus and silence transposons. Nuclear localization is crucial for Piwi function in transposon silencing, but how this process is regulated remains unknown. It is also not known whether any of the components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) directly function in the piRNA pathway...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728425/microrna-146a-controls-functional-plasticity-in-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-by-targeting-nod1
#12
Nina Schmolka, Pedro H Papotto, Paula Vargas Romero, Tiago Amado, Francisco J Enguita, Ana Amorim, Ana F Rodrigues, Katrina E Gordon, Ana S Coroadinha, Mark Boldin, Karine Serre, Amy H Buck, Anita Q Gomes, Bruno Silva-Santos
γδ T cells are major providers of proinflammatory cytokines. They are preprogrammed in the mouse thymus into distinct subsets producing either interleukin-17 (IL-17) or interferon-γ (IFN-γ), which segregate with CD27 expression. In the periphery, CD27- γδ (γδ27- ) T cells can be induced under inflammatory conditions to coexpress IL-17 and IFN-γ; the molecular basis of this functional plasticity remains to be determined. On the basis of differential microRNA (miRNA) expression analysis and modulation in γδ T cell subsets, we identified miR-146a as a thymically imprinted post-transcriptional brake to limit IFN-γ expression in γδ27- T cells in vitro and in vivo...
May 4, 2018: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728133/mirnas-in-platelet-poor-blood-plasma-and-purified-rna-are-highly-stable-a-confirmatory-study
#13
Dillon C Muth, Bonita H Powell, Zezhou Zhao, Kenneth W Witwer
OBJECTIVE: We wished to re-assess the relative stability of microRNAs (miRNAs) as compared with other RNA molecules, which has been confirmed in many contexts. When bound to Argonaute proteins, miRNAs are protected from degradation, even when released into the extracellular space in ribonucleoprotein complexes, and with or without the protection of membranes in extracellular vesicles. Purified miRNAs also appear to present less of a target for degradation than other RNAs. Although miRNAs are by no means immune to degradation, biological samples subjected to prolonged incubation at room temperature, multiple freeze/thaws, or collection in the presence of inhibitors like heparin, can typically be remediated or used directly for miRNA measurements...
May 4, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718312/differences-in-silencing-of-mismatched-targets-by-sliced-versus-diced-sirnas
#14
Guihua Sun, Jinghan Wang, Yasheng Huang, Christine Wan-Yin Yuan, Keqiang Zhang, Shuya Hu, Linling Chen, Ren-Jang Lin, Yun Yen, Arthur D Riggs
It has been reported that the two major types of RNA interference triggers, the classical Dicer-generated small RNAs (siRNAs), which function with all members of the Argonaute (Ago) protein family in mammals, and the Ago2-sliced small RNAs (sli-siRNAs), which function solely through Ago2, have similar potency in target cleavage and repression. Here, we show that sli-siRNAs are generally more potent than siRNAs in silencing mismatched targets. This phenomenon is usually more apparent in targets that have mismatched nucleotides in the 3' supplementary region than in targets with mismatches in the seed region...
April 30, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712715/nmdar-dependent-argonaute-2-phosphorylation-regulates-mirna-activity-and-dendritic-spine-plasticity
#15
Dipen Rajgor, Thomas M Sanderson, Mascia Amici, Graham L Collingridge, Jonathan G Hanley
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) repress translation of target mRNAs by associating with Argonaute (Ago) proteins to form the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), underpinning a powerful mechanism for fine-tuning protein expression. Specific miRNAs are required for NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent synaptic plasticity by modulating the translation of proteins involved in dendritic spine morphogenesis or synaptic transmission. However, it is unknown how NMDAR stimulation stimulates RISC activity to rapidly repress translation of synaptic proteins...
April 30, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708601/cis-directed-cleavage-and-nonstoichiometric-abundances-of-21-nucleotide-reproductive-phased-small-interfering-rnas-in-grasses
#16
Saleh Tamim, Zhaoxia Cai, Sandra M Mathioni, Jixian Zhai, Chong Teng, Qifa Zhang, Blake C Meyers
Post-transcriptional gene silencing in plants results from independent activities of diverse small RNA types. In anthers of grasses, hundreds of loci yield noncoding RNAs that are processed into 21- and 24-nucleotide (nt) phased small interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs); these are triggered by miR2118 and miR2275. We characterized these 'reproductive phasiRNAs' from rice (Oryza sativa) panicles and anthers across seven developmental stages. Our computational analysis identified characteristics of the 21-nt reproductive phasiRNAs that impact their biogenesis, stability, and potential functions...
April 30, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704372/-systematic-discovery-of-novel-prokaryotic-defense-systems-progress-and-prospects
#17
Ming Li, Fei Yue Cheng, Lu Yao Gong, Hua Xiang
Microbial defense systems provide fundamental elements for biotechnology development. For example, molecular cloning techniques greatly depend on the discovery of the bacterial restriction-modification system, and similarly, deciphering the CRISPR adaptive immunity gives rise to the revolutionary genome editing technique CRISPR-Cas9. Therefore, exploring novel microbial defense systems has attracted world-wide attention, and new systems like prokaryotic Argonautes (pAgos) and the defense island system associated with restriction-modification (DISARM) were successively discovered and investigated...
April 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692358/corrigendum-argonaute-quenching-and-global-changes-in-dicer-homeostasis-caused-by-a-pathogen-encoded-gw-repeat-protein
#18
Jacinthe Azevedo, Damien Garcia, Dominique Pontier, Stephanie Ohnesorge, Agnes Yu, Shahinez Garcia, Laurence Braun, Marc Bergdoll, Mohamed Ali Hakimi, Thierry Lagrange, Olivier Voinnet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691336/a-viral-suppressor-modulates-the-plant-immune-response-early-in-infection-by-regulating-microrna-activity
#19
Robert Pertermann, Selvaraj Tamilarasan, Torsten Gursinsky, Giorgio Gambino, Jana Schuck, Claus Weinholdt, Hauke Lilie, Ivo Grosse, Ralph Peter Golbik, Vitantonio Pantaleo, Sven-Erik Behrens
Many viral suppressors (VSRs) counteract antiviral RNA silencing, a central component of the plant's immune response by sequestration of virus-derived antiviral small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Here, we addressed how VSRs affect the activities of cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) during a viral infection by characterizing the interactions of two unrelated VSRs, the Tombusvirus p19 and the Cucumovirus 2b, with miRNA 162 (miR162), miR168, and miR403. These miRNAs regulate the expression of the important silencing factors Dicer-like protein 1 (DCL1) and Argonaute proteins 1 and 2 (AGO1 and AGO2), respectively...
April 24, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677157/molecular-characterization-and-the-function-of-argonaute3-in-rnai-pathway-of-plutella-xylostella
#20
Muhammad Salman Hameed, Zhengbing Wang, Liette Vasseur, Guang Yang
Argonaute (Ago) protein family plays a key role in the RNA interference (RNAi) process in different insects including Lepidopteran. However, the role of Ago proteins in the RNAi pathway of Plutella xylostella is still unknown. We cloned an Argonaute3 gene in P. xylostella ( PxAgo3 ) with the complete coding sequence of 2832 bp. The encoded protein had 935 amino acids with an expected molecular weight of 108.9 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.29. It contained a PAZ (PIWI/Argonaute/Zwile) domain and PIWI (P-element-induced whimpy testes) domain...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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