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Pediatric anaesthesia

Chandni Sinha, Bindey Kumar, Umesh Kumar Bhadani, Ajeet Kumar, Amarjeet Kumar, Alok Ranjan
BACKGROUND: Caudal block is a reliable regional analgesic technique for pediatric urogenital surgeries. Various adjuvants have been tried to enhance the duration of action of bupivicaine. Though clonidine is extensively used as an adjuvant in caudal anaesthesia, it can have troublesome adverse effects like bradycardia, hypotension and sedation. Lately dexamethasone has become popular as an adjuvant in paediatric caudals due to its safety profile. AIM: The aim of this study was to compare dexamethasone and clonidine coadministered with bupivicaine caudally in paediatric patients undergoing urogenital surgeries in terms of analgesia and adverse effects...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Rakesh Aggarwal, Nithya Gogtay, Rajeev Kumar, Peush Sahni
Note: This editorial is being published simultaneously in the Indian Heart Journal, Indian Journal of Anaesthesia, Indian Journal of Gastroenterology, Indian Journal of Medical Ethics, Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology, Indian Journal of Pharmacology, Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, Indian Journal of Urology, Indian Pediatrics, International Journal of Health Research & Medicolegal Practice, Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology, Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine, Journal of Clinical and Scientific Research, Journal of Conservative Dentistry, Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine, Journal of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, National Journal of Integrated Research in Medicine, and The National Medical Journal of India...
October 2015: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Aleksandra Biedrzycka, Romuald Lango
Conventional monitoring during surgery and intensive care is not sufficiently sensitive to detect acute changes in vital organs perfusion, while its good quality is critical for maintaining their function. Disturbed vital organ perfusion may lead to the development of postoperative complications, including neurological sequel and renal failure. Near-infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS) represents one of up-to-date techniques of patient monitoring which is commonly used for the assessment of brain oximetry in thoracic aorta surgery, and - increasingly more often -in open-heart surgery...
2016: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
Kevin K Noguchi, Stephen A Johnson, Lauren E Kristich, Lauren D Martin, Gregory A Dissen, Emily A Olsen, John W Olney, Ansgar M Brambrink
Exposure of infant animals, including non-human primates (NHPs), to anaesthetic drugs causes apoptotic death of neurons and oligodendrocytes (oligos) and results in long-term neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI). Moreover, retrospective clinical studies document an association between anaesthesia exposure of human infants and significant increase in NDI. These findings pose a potentially serious dilemma because millions of human infants are exposed to anaesthetic drugs every year as part of routine medical care...
2016: Scientific Reports
Priyanka Gupta, Geeta Kamal, Mayank Gupta
Malignant hyperpyrexia syndrome (MHS) is a rare entity and may not be encountered by the anaesthesiologists throughout their professional career. Whenever it manifests can be a challenging task to manage and prove to be fatal when a timely diagnosis and required therapeutic measures are not taken. Althoughthe dantrolene should be available wherever anaesthesia is practiced, considering the rarity of the syndrome this may not be the scenario always. We are reporting a case of MHS in a pediatric patient to highlight the facts that prompt clinical diagnosis, ongoing supportive treatment, discontinuation of all the anaesthetic agents and and stringent perioperative monitoring along with postoperative oral dantrolene may provide an answer to the MHS crisis in the face of an unavailability of the IV dantrolene; as may be the case in many rural and developing set-ups...
October 2015: Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics
Marija Stevic, Zlatko Bokun, Irina Milojevic, Ivana Budic, Branislav Jovanovic, Zoran Krstic, Dusica Simic
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to report the management of anesthesia of a child with a large neck rhabdoid tumor. CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND INTERVENTION: A 9-month- old female patient underwent urgent neck tumor excision due to intratumoral bleeding from a large tumor that compressed and dislocated the trachea; therefore, intubation was expected to be difficult. Sevoflurane inhalation induction was utilized to maintain spontaneous respiration. Oral laryngoscopy revealed Cormack-Lehane grade 3 laryngeal view...
2016: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
Yang Liu, Dao-Lin Kang, He-Yi Na, Bi-Lian Li, Ying-Yi Xu, Jin Ni, Jun-Zheng Wu
Children with cerebral palsy can demonstrate irritability following emergence from general anaesthesia. As well, an elevated rate of emergence delirium (ED) in children has been associated with the application of sevoflurane. The current study's intent is to administer dexmedetomidine, in a single dosage administration, at the initial phase of sevoflurane based anesthesia with regard to the occurrence and severity of ED in children afflicted with cerebral palsy. Participating in the study (American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II) are eighty children ranging in ages two through twelve years...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
J K Makkar, N Bhatia, I Bala, D Dwivedi, P M Singh
Emergence delirium is a common problem in children recovering from general anaesthesia. We performed a study comparing emergence characteristics in 100 patients who were randomly allocated to receive either 0.3 μ dexmedetomidine, 1 propofol or saline 0.9% and undergoing infra-umbilical surgery. The Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale was used to grade emergence delirium. Emergence delirium occurred in 9.4% of children in the dexmedetomidine group compared with 13.9% in the propofol group and 40...
January 2016: Anaesthesia
Nicolai Adolphs, Nicole Ernst, Bodo Hoffmeister, Jan-Dirk Raguse
CONTEXT: The management of severe maxillary constriction can be challenging. For that purpose surgically assisted maxillary expansion by transpalatal distraction (TPD) can typically be recommended after skeletal maturity. However in selected cases bone borne transpalatal distraction devices can contribute to improve maxillary constriction considerably earlier already during mixed dentition. AIMS: To assess the possibility of bone borne transpalatal distraction in pediatric patients...
January 2015: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery
Dan Han, Jianhua Jin, Hao Fang, Guoxiong Xu
Propofol is a short-acting anesthetic and generally is utilized for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia in pediatrics and adults. However, whether repeated use of propofol affects long-term cognitive function remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of propofol on cognitive function and hippocampal neuroapoptosis in neonatal rat. A total of 112 male newborn 7-day old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 8 groups (n=14 rats per group) and intraperitoneally injected either with saline or propofol at 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Michael R J Sury, Renuka Arumainathan, Alla M Belhaj, James H MacG Palmer, Tim M Cook, Jaideep J Pandit
This secondary analysis of the 2013 United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS) Anaesthesia Activity Survey of the Fifth National Audit Project (of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland) shows pediatric anesthesia activity in detail. A local coordinator (LC) in every NHS hospital collected data on patients undergoing any procedure managed by an anesthetist. Questionnaires had 30 question categories. Each LC was randomized to a 2-day period. The pediatric age groups were infants, (<1 year), preschool age (1-5 year), and school age children (6-15 year)...
November 2015: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Ryan Grant, Shaun E Gruenbaum, Jason Gerrard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a well tolerated and efficacious surgical treatment for movement disorders, chronic pain, psychiatric disorder, and a growing number of neurological disorders. Given that the brain targets are deep and small, accurate electrode placement is commonly accomplished by utilizing frame-based systems. DBS electrode placement is confirmed by microlectrode recordings and macrostimulation to optimize and verify target placement. With a reliance on electrophysiology, proper anaesthetic management is paramount to balance patient comfort without interfering with neurophysiology...
October 2015: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Giorgio Ivani, Santhanam Suresh, Claude Ecoffey, Adrian Bosenberg, Per-Anne Lonnqvist, Elliot Krane, Francis Veyckemans, David M Polaner, Marc Van de Velde, Joseph M Neal
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Some topics in the clinical management of regional anesthesia in children remain controversial. To evaluate and come to a consensus regarding some of these topics, The European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy (ESRA) and the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA) developed a joint committee practice advisory on pediatric regional anesthesia (PRA). METHODS: Representatives from both ASRA and ESRA comprised the joint committee practice advisory on PRA...
September 2015: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Scott C Watkins, Shilo Anders, Anna Clebone, Elisabeth Hughes, Laura Zeigler, Vikram Patel, Yaping Shi, Matthew S Shotwell, Matthew McEvoy, Matthew B Weinger
Cognitive aids (CA), including emergency manuals and checklists, are tools designed to assist users in prioritizing and performing complex tasks during time sensitive, high stress situations (Marshall in Anesth Analgesia 117(5):1162-1171, 2013; Marshall and Mehra in Anaesthesia 69(7):669-677, 2014). The society for pediatric anesthesia (SPA) has developed a series of emergency checklists tailored for use by pediatric perioperative teams that cover a wide range of intraoperative critical events (Shaffner et al...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Lisa J Jones, Paul D Craven, Anil Lakkundi, Jann P Foster, Nadia Badawi
BACKGROUND: With improvements in neonatal intensive care, more preterm infants are surviving the neonatal period and presenting for surgery in early infancy. Inguinal hernia is the most common condition requiring early surgery, appearing in 38% of infants whose birth weight is between 751 grams and 1000 grams. Approximately 20% to 30% of otherwise healthy preterm infants having general anaesthesia for inguinal hernia surgery at a postmature age have at least one apnoeic episode within the postoperative period...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Valeria Calcaterra, Pierangelo Veggiotti, Clara Palestrini, Valentina De Giorgis, Roberto Raschetti, Massimiliano Tumminelli, Simonetta Mencherini, Francesca Papotti, Catherine Klersy, Riccardo Albertini, Selene Ostuni, Gloria Pelizzo
BACKGROUND: Interest in animal-assisted therapy has been fuelled by studies supporting the many health benefits. The purpose of this study was to better understand the impact of an animal-assisted therapy program on children response to stress and pain in the immediate post-surgical period. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty children (3-17 years) were enrolled in the randomised open-label, controlled, pilot study. Patients were randomly assigned to the animal-assisted therapy-group (n = 20, who underwent a 20 min session with an animal-assisted therapy dog, after surgery) or the standard-group (n = 20, standard postoperative care)...
2015: PloS One
Michael R King, Paul G Firth, Myron Yaster, Zulfiqar Ahmed, Christine L Mai
Dr. John F. Ryan (1935 - ), Associate Professor of Anaesthesia at the Harvard Medical School, influenced the careers of hundreds of residents and fellows-in-training while instilling in them his core values of resilience, hard work, and integrity. His authoritative textbook, A Practice of Anesthesia for Infants and Children, remains as influential today as it did when first published decades ago. Although he had had many accomplishments, he identified his experiences caring for patients with malignant hyperthermia and characterizing the early discovery of this condition as his defining contribution to medicine...
September 2015: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Veena Arali, Mytri P
BACKGROUND: Lidocaine is the gold standard anaesthetic solution that has been used since its inception into dentistry till date. Around 80% of failures have been reported when lignocaine has been used for inferior alveolar nerve block in children and adults with irreversible pulpitis. There is a need to use newer drugs which are available which have been reported to be effective like lignocaine, such as articaine. Although articaine has been used in adults, literature supporting its use in children is sparse...
April 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
E A Shavlokhova, I F Ostreĭkov, M V Korolenkova
OBJECTIVE: To improve the quality of dental treatment in children by using combined anaesthesia technique including local anaesthesia and conscious sedation, and to assess the effectiveness of conscious sedation for younger children undergoing dental treatment. METHODS: The study included 208 children aged 14-88 months who received dental treatment for tooth decay and its complication under combined anaesthesia. Midazolam was used as sedative medication. Sedation level was assessed by visual scale and BIS-monitoring...
September 2014: Anesteziologiia i Reanimatologiia
Marta Somaini, Emre Sahillioğlu, Chiara Marzorati, Federica Lovisari, Thomas Engelhardt, Pablo M Ingelmo
BACKGROUND: Children commonly display early postoperative negative behavior (e-PONB) after general anesthesia, which includes emergence delirium (ED), discomfort, temperament, and pain. However, it is often difficult for the caregiver to discriminate between various aspects of e-PONB. OBJECTIVE: This prospective observational study evaluates the possibility to distinguish between ED and pain in young children using validated pediatric observational scales in the early postoperative phase...
May 2015: Paediatric Anaesthesia
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