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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644070/particulate-matter-disrupts-human-lung-endothelial-cell-barrier-integrity-via-rho-dependent-pathways
#1
Ting Wang, Yuka Shimizu, Xiaomin Wu, Gabriel T Kelly, Xiaoyan Xu, Lichun Wang, Zhongqing Qian, Yin Chen, Joe G N Garcia
Increased exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with elevated morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiopulmonary diseases and cancer. We and others have shown that PM induces lung microvascular barrier dysfunction which potentially enhances the systemic toxicity of PM. However, the mechanisms by which PM disrupts vascular endothelial integrity remain incompletely explored. We hypothesize that PM induces endothelial cell (EC) cytoskeleton rearrangement via Rho GTPase-dependent pathways to facilitate vascular hyperpermeability...
June 23, 2017: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640982/mechanisms-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-mediated-vasoconstriction-of-rat-afferent-arterioles
#2
Zhengrong Guan, Fuchenchu Wang, Xiangqin Cui, Edward W Inscho
AIM: Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) influences resistance vessel function and is implicated in renal pathological processes. Previous studies revealed that S1P evoked potent vasoconstriction of the preglomerular microvasculature, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely defined. We postulated that S1P-mediated preglomerular microvascular vasoconstriction involves activation of voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels (L-VDCC) and the rho/rho kinase pathway. METHODS: Afferent arteriolar reactivity was assessed in vitro using the blood-perfused rat juxtamedullary nephron preparation and diameter was measured during exposure to physiological and pharmacological agents...
June 22, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630614/a-plant-based-diet-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#3
REVIEW
Michelle McMacken, Sapana Shah
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising worldwide, especially in older adults. Diet and lifestyle, particularly plant-based diets, are effective tools for type 2 diabetes prevention and management. Plant-based diets are eating patterns that emphasize legumes, whole grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, and seeds and discourage most or all animal products. Cohort studies strongly support the role of plant-based diets, and food and nutrient components of plant-based diets, in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes...
May 2017: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614785/drag-reducing-polymers-decrease-hepatic-injury-and-metastases-after-liver-ischemia-reperfusion
#4
Samer Tohme, Marina V Kameneva, Hamza O Yazdani, Vikas Sud, Julie Goswami, Patricia Loughran, Hai Huang, Richard L Simmons, Allan Tsung
INTRODUCTION: Surgery, a crucial therapeutic modality in the treatment of solid tumors, can induce sterile inflammatory processes which can result in metastatic progression. Liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury, an inevitable consequence of hepatic resection of metastases, has been shown to foster hepatic capture of circulating cancer cells and accelerate metastatic growth. Efforts to reduce these negative consequences have not been thoroughly investigated. Drag reducing polymers (DRPs) are blood-soluble macromolecules that can, in nanomolar concentrations, increase tissue perfusion, decrease vascular resistance and decrease near-wall microvascular concentration of neutrophils and platelets thereby possibly reducing the inflammatory microenvironment...
May 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611026/map4k4-impairs-energy-metabolism-in-endothelial-cells-and-promotes-insulin-resistance-in-obesity
#5
Rachel J Roth Flach, Marina T DiStefano, Laura V Danai, Ozlem Senol-Cosar, Joseph C Yawe, Mark Kelly, Lorena Garcia Menendez, Michael P Czech
The blood vasculature responds to insulin, influencing hemodynamic changes in the periphery, which promotes tissue nutrient and oxygen delivery and thus metabolic function. The lymphatic vasculature regulates fluid and lipid homeostasis, and impaired lymphatic function can contribute to atherosclerosis and obesity. Recent studies have suggested a role for endothelial cell (EC) Mitogen activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) in developmental angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis as well as atherosclerosis...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607430/liraglutide-improves-liver-microvascular-dysfunction-in-cirrhosis-evidence-from-translational-studies
#6
Fernanda Cristina de Mesquita, Sergi Guixé-Muntet, Anabel Fernández-Iglesias, Raquel Maeso-Díaz, Sergi Vila, Diana Hide, Martí Ortega-Ribera, José Luís Rosa, Juan Carlos García-Pagán, Jaime Bosch, Jarbas Rodrigues de Oliveira, Jordi Gracia-Sancho
Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) play a key role in the development of chronic liver disease (CLD). Liraglutide, well-established in type 2 diabetes, showed anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. We evaluated the effects of liraglutide on HSC phenotype and hepatic microvascular function using diverse pre-clinical models of CLD. Human and rat HSC were in vitro treated with liraglutide, or vehicle, and their phenotype, viability and proliferation were evaluated. In addition, liraglutide or vehicle was administered to rats with CLD...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605158/the-effect-of-liraglutide-on-dietary-lipid-induced-insulin-resistance-in-humans
#7
Juraj Koska, Lizette Lopez, Karen D'Souza, Tracy Osredkar, James Deer, Julie Kurtz, Arline D Salbe, S Mitchell Harman, Peter D Reaven
AIMS: High saturated fatty acid (SFA) diets blunt peripheral insulin action. GLP-1 receptor agonists suppress postprandial lipids and endothelial dysfunction, which may counter SFA-induced insulin resistance. This study tested whether liraglutide suppresses postprandial elevations in lipids and thus protects against high SFA-diet induced insulin resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study, 32 subjects with normal or mildly impaired glucose tolerance received liraglutide and placebo for 3 weeks each...
June 12, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602918/angiogenic-and-angiostatic-factors-in-renal-scleroderma-associated-vasculopathy
#8
Antonietta Gigante, Navarini Luca, Margiotta Domenico, Amoroso Antonio, Barbano Biagio, Cianci Rosario, Afeltra Antonella, Rosato Edoardo
BACKGROUND: The angiogenesis in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is impaired. An imbalance of pro-angiogenic factors and angiogenesis inhibitors has been implicated in the progression of peripheral microvascular damage, defective vascular repair and fibrosis. Intrarenal resistance index are considered markers of renal vasculopathy. The aim of the study is to evaluate angiogenic and angiostatic factors (VEGF and endostatin) in SSc patients and to correlate with intrarenal hemodynamic parameters...
June 8, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600985/nox2-contributes-to-hyperinsulinemia-induced-redox-imbalance-and-impaired-vascular-function
#9
Abeer M Mahmoud, Mohamed M Ali, Edwin R Miranda, Jacob T Mey, Brian K Blackburn, Jacob M Haus, Shane A Phillips
Insulin resistance promotes vascular endothelial dysfunction and subsequent development of cardiovascular disease. Previously we found that skeletal muscle arteriolar flow-induced dilation (FID) was reduced following a hyperinsulinemic clamp in healthy adults. Therefore, we hypothesized that hyperinsulinemia, a hallmark of insulin resistance, contributes to microvascular endothelial cell dysfunction via inducing oxidative stress that is mediated by NADPH oxidase (Nox) system. We examined the effect of insulin, at levels that are comparable with human hyperinsulinemia on 1) FID of isolated arterioles from human skeletal muscle tissue in the presence and absence of Nox inhibitors and 2) human adipose microvascular endothelial cell (HAMECs) expression of nitric oxide (NO), endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), and Nox-mediated oxidative stress...
June 3, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600102/physiologic-mechanism-of-discordance-between-instantaneous-wave-free-ratio-and-fractional-flow-reserve-insight-from-13-n-ammonium-positron-emission-tomography
#10
Joo Myung Lee, Doyeon Hwang, Jonghanne Park, Yaliang Tong, Bon-Kwon Koo
BACKGROUND: Invasive physiologic indices, such as fractional flow reserve (FFR) or instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR), are used in clinical practice. We sought to evaluate the physiological mechanism of discordance between iFR and FFR using (13)N-ammonia positron emission tomography (PET)-derived quantitative parameters. METHODS: Data from 113 patients, who underwent both (13)N-ammonia PET and invasive FFR and iFR measurement, were analyzed. Coronary circulatory indices, such as myocardial blood flow (MBF), coronary flow reserve (CFR), microvascular resistance, and trans-stenosis resistance were compared between patients with discordant results (low FFR despite high iFR) and those with concordant abnormal results (low FFR and low iFR), using cut-off values of FFR≤0...
June 2, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597974/a-simple-cell-transport-device-keeps-culture-alive-and-functional-during-shipping
#11
Paula G Miller, Ying I Wang, Glen Swan, Michael L Shuler
Transporting living complex cellular constructs through the mail while retaining their full viability and functionality is challenging. During this process, cells often suffer from exposure to suboptimal life-sustaining conditions (e.g. temperature, pH), as well as damage due to shear stress. We have developed a transport device for shipping intact cell/tissue constructs from one facility to another that overcomes these obstacles. Our transport device maintained three different cell lines (Caco2, A549, and HepG2 C3A) individually on transwell membranes with high viability (above 97%) for 48 h under simulated shipping conditions without an incubator...
June 9, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595700/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibition-early-after-heart-transplantation
#12
William F Fearon, Kozo Okada, Jon A Kobashigawa, Yuhei Kobayashi, Helen Luikart, Sean Sana, Tiffany Daun, Steven A Chmura, Seema Sinha, Garett Cohen, Yasuhiro Honda, Michael Pham, David B Lewis, Daniel Bernstein, Alan C Yeung, Hannah A Valantine, Kiran Khush
BACKGROUND: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains a leading cause of mortality after heart transplantation (HT). Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) may retard the development of CAV but have not been well studied after HT. OBJECTIVES: This study tested the safety and efficacy of the ACEI ramipril on the development of CAV early after HT. METHODS: In this prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 96 HT recipients were randomized to undergo ramipril or placebo therapy...
June 13, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586073/effects-of-the-tangningtongluo-formula-as-an-alternative-strategy-for-diabetics-via-upregulation-of-insulin-receptor-substrate-1
#13
Long Cheng, Junmei Song, Geng Li, Yue Liu, Yuming Wang, Xiangbao Meng, Guibo Sun, Xiaobo Sun
Tangningtongluo (TNTL), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in clinics for decades in southwest China. Its pharmacological properties and underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The main goal of ethnopharmacology is to identify novel bioactive compounds derived from plants for use in indigenous medical practice. This knowledge can be used to develop novel pharmaceuticals. In the present study, hyperglycemic C57BL/KsJ‑db/db (db/db) mice were used to test the effect of TNTL on microvasculature of the retina and hypoglycemia...
July 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578669/vegf-isoforms-have-differential-effects-on-permeability-of-human-pulmonary-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#14
Khadija Ourradi, Thomas Blythe, Caroline Jarrett, Shaney L Barratt, Gavin I Welsh, Ann B Millar
BACKGROUND: Alternative splicing of Vascular endothelial growth factor-A mRNA transcripts (commonly referred as VEGF) leads to the generation of functionally differing isoforms, the relative amounts of which have potentially significant physiological outcomes in conditions such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The effect of such isoforms on pulmonary vascular permeability is unknown. We hypothesised that VEGF165a and VEGF165b isoforms would have differing effects on pulmonary vascular permeability caused by differential activation of intercellular signal transduction pathways...
June 2, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577226/pet-measurements-of-myocardial-blood-flow-post-myocardial-infarction-relationship-to-invasive-and-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-studies-and-potential-clinical-applications
#15
Henry Gewirtz
This review focuses on clinical studies concerning assessment of coronary microvascular and conduit vessel function primarily in the context of acute and sub acute myocardial infarction (MI). The ability of quantitative PET measurements of myocardial blood flow (MBF) to delineate underlying pathophysiology and assist in clinical decision making in this setting is discussed. Likewise, considered are physiological metrics fractional flow reserve, coronary flow reserve, index of microvascular resistance (FFR, CFR, IMR) obtained from invasive studies performed in the cardiac catheterization laboratory, typically at the time of PCI for MI...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576663/impact-of-ranolazine-on-coronary-microvascular-dysfunction-micro-study
#16
Bina Ahmed, Judith Mondragon, Mark Sheldon, Stacey Clegg
BACKGROUND: Patients with angina and coronary microvascular dysfunction, without evidence of structural or epicardial coronary disease (Type I CMVD) remain without evidence based treatment options. Previous work has demonstrated that ranolazine can improve angina frequency and stability among patients with Type 1 CMVD; however, the mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, the objective of this pilot project was to assess the impact of ranolazine on Type I CMVD as measured using an invasive tool to measure global resistance (index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR))...
April 22, 2017: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572856/unacylated-ghrelin-modulates-circulating-angiogenic-cell-number-in-insulin-resistant-states
#17
Behiye Özcan, Pieter J M Leenen, Patric J D Delhanty, Lucy Y Baldéon-Rojas, Sebastian J Neggers, Aart Jan van der Lely
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with reduced numbers and impaired function of circulating angiogenic cells (CAC) which contributes to the progression of atherosclerosis and microvascular disease. Previous studies suggest that short-term infusion of unacylated ghrelin (UAG) normalizes CAC number in patients with T2D. To determine dose-dependent effects of short-term infusion of UAG in T2D patients using a cross-over model, and of long-term infusion of UAG in obese mice, on differentiation of monocyte progenitors into CAC...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570028/transthyretin-stability-is-critical-in-assisting-beta-amyloid-clearance-relevance-of-transthyretin-stabilization-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Mobina Alemi, Sara C Silva, Isabel Santana, Isabel Cardoso
BACKGROUND: The absence of transthyretin (TTR) in AD mice decreases brain Aβ clearance and reduces the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). It is possible that neuroprotection by TTR is dependent on its tetramer structural stability, as studies using TTR mutants showed that unstable L55P TTR has low affinity for Aβ, and TTR tetrameric stabilizers such as iododiflunisal ameliorate AD features in vivo. METHODS: We firstly investigated TTR folding status in human plasma measuring the resistance to urea denaturation...
July 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566295/significance-of-microvascular-function-in-visual-functional-mismatch-between-invasive-coronary-angiography-and-fractional-flow-reserve
#19
Taishi Yonetsu, Tadashi Murai, Yoshihisa Kanaji, Tetsumin Lee, Junji Matsuda, Eisuke Usui, Masahiro Hoshino, Makoto Araki, Takayuki Niida, Masahiro Hada, Sadamitsu Ichijo, Rikuta Hamaya, Yoshinori Kanno, Tsunekazu Kakuta
BACKGROUND: Despite a moderate correlation between angiographical stenosis and physiological significance, the mechanism of discordance has not been fully elucidated, particularly regarding the significance of microvascular function. This study sought to clarify whether microvascular function affects visual-functional mismatch between quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and fractional flow reserve (FFR). METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed QCA, FFR, coronary flow reserve, and the index of microcirculatory resistance in 849 non-left-main coronary lesions with visually estimated intermediate stenoses from 532 patients...
May 31, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562559/differences-between-healthy-adults-and-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-reactivity-of-toe-microcirculation-by-ultrasound-combined-with-a-warm-bath-test
#20
Chunpeng Zou, Yan Jiao, Xiuyun Li, Ping Wang, Jinjue Zheng, Yaping Zhao, Dhanesh Boodhun, Zhen Hu, Chao Zheng
The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility and clinical value of ultrasound combined with a warm bath test in assessing the differences in reactivity of toe microcirculation between healthy adults and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).A total of 56 T2DM patients were recruited as case group, whereas 50 healthy volunteers were enrolled as control group.Fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in T2DM group were significantly higher than in control group...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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