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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935037/an-isogenic-blood-brain-barrier-model-comprising-brain-endothelial-cells-astrocytes-and-neurons-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#1
Scott G Canfield, Matthew J Stebbins, Bethsymarie Soto Morales, Shusaku W Asai, Gad D Vatine, Clive N Svendsen, Sean P Palecek, Eric V Shusta
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is critical in maintaining a physical and metabolic barrier between the blood and the brain. The BBB consists of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) that line the brain vasculature and combine with astrocytes, neurons and pericytes to form the neurovascular unit (NVU). We hypothesized that astrocytes and neurons generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) could induce BBB phenotypes in iPSC-derived BMECs, creating a robust multicellular human BBB model...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930353/bimodal-pattern-of-coronary-microvascular-involvement-in-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Murat Sezer, Mehmet Kocaaga, Emre Aslanger, Adem Atici, Ahmet Demirkiran, Zehra Bugra, Sabahattin Umman, Berrin Umman
BACKGROUND: The contribution of functionally disturbed coronary autoregulation and structurally impaired microvascular vasodilatory function to reduced coronary flow velocity reserve, reflecting impaired coronary microcirculation in diabetes mellitus (DM), has not been clearly elucidated. The objective of this study was to identify the mechanism of coronary microvascular impairment in DM in relation to duration of disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Coronary flow velocities in the anterior descending coronary artery were assessed by transthoracic echocardiography following angiography revealing normal epicardial coronary arteries in 55 diabetic and 47 nondiabetic patients...
November 14, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926579/the-influence-of-coronary-plaque-morphology-assessed-by-optical-coherence-tomography-on-final-microvascular-function-after-stenting-in-patients-with-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#3
Giovanni L De Maria, Niket Patel, Mathias Wolfrum, Gregor Fahrni, George Kassimis, Italo Porto, Sam Dawkins, Robin P Choudhury, John C Forfar, Bernard D Prendergast, Keith M Channon, Rajesh K Kharbanda, Hector M Garcia-Garcia, Adrian P Banning
OBJECTIVES: The index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) provides a reproducible assessment of the status of coronary microvasculature in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) enables detailed assessment of the morphology of coronary plaque.We sought to determine the influence of the initial culprit coronary plaque anatomy within the infarct-related artery on IMR after stenting in STEMI. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 25 STEMI patients IMR was measured immediately before and after stent implantation...
December 6, 2016: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905868/short-term-effects-of-low-let-radiation-on-the-endothelial-barrier-uncoupling-of-pecam-1-and-the-production-of-endothelial-microparticles
#4
Thomas Templin, Preety Sharma, Peter Guida, Peter Grabham
A significant target for radiation-induced effects is the microvascular system, which is critical to healthy tissue function and its pathology is linked to disrupted endothelial barrier function. Low-linear energy transfer (LET) ionizing radiation is a source of noncancer pathologies in humans and little is known about the early events that could initiate subsequent diseases. However, it is well known that gamma radiation causes a very early disruption of the endothelial barrier at doses below those required for cytotoxic effects...
December 1, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899365/prevalence-and-clinical-significance-of-discordant-changes-in-fractional-and-coronary-flow-reserve-after-elective-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#5
Junji Matsuda, Tadashi Murai, Yoshihisa Kanaji, Eisuke Usui, Makoto Araki, Takayuki Niida, Sadamitsu Ichijyo, Rikuta Hamaya, Tetsumin Lee, Taishi Yonetsu, Mitsuaki Isobe, Tsunekazu Kakuta
BACKGROUND: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) are well-validated physiological indices; however, changes in FFR and CFR after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remain elusive. We sought to evaluate these changes and to investigate whether physiological indices predict cardiac event-free survival after PCI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Physiological assessment of 220 stenoses from 220 patients was performed before and after PCI. The changes in FFR and CFR were studied, and factors associated with CFR change were investigated...
November 29, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899343/long-term-high-fat-diet-induces-hippocampal-microvascular-insulin-resistance-and-cognitive-dysfunction
#6
Zhuo Fu, Jing Wu, Tanseli Nesil, Ming D Li, Kevin W Aylor, Zhenqi Liu
Insulin action on hippocampus improves cognitive function and obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with decreased cognitive function. Cerebral microvasculature plays a critical role in maintaining cerebral vitality and function by supplying nutrients, oxygen and hormones such as insulin to cerebral parenchyma including hippocampus. In skeletal muscle insulin actively regulates microvascular opening and closure and this action is impaired in the insulin resistant states. To examine insulin's action on hippocampal microvasculature and parenchyma and the impact of diet-induced obesity we determined cognitive function, and microvascular insulin responses, parenchyma insulin responses and capillary density in the hippocampus in 2-month and 8-month rats on chow diet and 8-month rats on long-term high-fat diet (6 months)...
November 29, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898505/clinical-role-of-post-angioplasty-hyperemic-microvascular-resistances-in-chronic-ischemic-left-ventricular-dysfunction
#7
Riccardo Gorla, Edoardo Verna, Simone Scotti, Sergio Ghiringhelli, Laura Zoli, Stefano Provasoli, Silvana Garancini, Roberto De Ponti, Jorge A Salerno-Uriarte
AIMS: To investigate the impact of hyperemic microvascular resistances (HMRs) on myocardial perfusion and contractility after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in chronic ischemic left ventricular dysfunction (CILVD). METHODS: The current retrospective study included 48 patients with CILVD of the left anterior descending territory undergoing HMRs assessment before and after PCI with a dual-sensor intracoronary pressure-flow wire. The severity of resting myocardial underperfusion and contractile dysfunction of the left anterior descending territory was scored as summed rest score (SRS-T) by single photon emission tomography, wall motion score index (WMSI-T) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by transthoracic echocardiography before PCI and after 3 months...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893186/the-relative-influence-of-hematocrit-and-red-blood-cell-velocity-on-oxygen-transport-from-capillaries-to-tissue
#8
Adrien Lücker, Timothy W Secomb, Bruno Weber, Patrick Jenny
OBJECTIVE: Oxygen transport to parenchymal cells occurs mainly at the microvascular level, and depends on convective red blood cell (RBC) flux, which is proportional in an individual capillary to the product of capillary hematocrit and red blood cell velocity. This study investigates the relative influence of these two factors on tissue oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ). METHODS: A simple analytical model is used to quantify the respective influences of hematocrit, RBC velocity and flow on tissue oxygenation around capillaries...
November 28, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881395/diet-induced-weight-loss-improves-not-only-cardiometabolic-risk-markers-but-also-markers-of-vascular-function-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-abdominally-obese-men
#9
Peter J Joris, Jogchum Plat, Yvo Ham Kusters, Alfons Jhm Houben, Coen DA Stehouwer, Casper G Schalkwijk, Ronald P Mensink
BACKGROUND: Many trials assessing effects of dietary weight loss on vascular function have been performed without no-weight loss control groups and in individuals with obesity-related morbidities. Usually a limited set of vascular function markers has been investigated. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine effects of diet-induced weight loss on various vascular function markers and differences between normal-weight and abdominally obese men at baseline and after weight reduction...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872089/transcriptional-induction-of-periostin-by-a-sulfatase-2-tgf%C3%AE-1-smad-signaling-axis-mediates-tumor-angiogenesis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#10
Gang Chen, Ikuo Nakamura, Renumathy Dhanasekaran, Eriko Iguchi, Ezequiel Tolosa, Paola Romecin-Duran, Renzo Vera, Luciana L Almada, Alexander Miamen, Roongruedee Chaiteerakij, Mengtao Zhou, Michael Asiedu, Catherine D Moser, Shaoshan Han, Chunling Hu, Bubu Banini, Abdul Oseini, Yichun Chen, Yong Fang, Dongye Yang, Hassan Shaleh, Shaoqing Wang, Dehai Wu, Tao Song, Ju-Seog Lee, Snorri S Thorgeirsson, Eric Chevet, Vijay H Shah, Martin E Fernandez-Zapico, Lewis Roberts
Existing anti-angiogenic approaches to treat metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are weakly effectual, prompting further study of tumor angiogenesis in this disease setting. Here we report a novel role for the sulfatase 2 (SULF2) in driving HCC angiogenesis. Sulf2-deficient mice (Sulf2 KO) exhibited resistance to diethylnitrosamine-induced HCC and did not develop metastases like wild-type mice (Sulf2 WT). The smaller and less numerous tumors formed in Sulf2 KO mice exhibited a markedly lower microvascular density...
November 21, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866132/a-tool-for-predicting-the-outcome-of-reperfusion-in-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-using-age-thrombotic-burden-and-index-of-microcirculatory-resistance-ati-score
#11
Giovanni Luigi De Maria, Gregor Fahrni, Mohammad Alkhalil, Florim Cuculi, Sam Dawkins, Mathias Wolfrum, Robin P Choudhury, John C Forfar, Bernard D Prendergast, Tuncay Yetgin, Robert Jan van Geuns, Matteo Tebaldi, Keith M Channon, Rajesh K Kharbanda, Peter M Rothwell, Marco Valgimigli, Adrian P Banning
AIMS: Restoration of effective myocardial reperfusion by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction is difficult to predict. A method to assess the likelihood of a suboptimal response to conventional pharmacomechanical therapies could be beneficial. We aimed to derive and validate a scoring system that can be used acutely at the time of coronary reopening to predict the likelihood of downstream microvascular impairment in patients with STEMI...
November 20, 2016: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859264/inwardly-rectifying-k-channels-are-major-contributors-to-flow-induced-vasodilation-in-resistance-arteries
#12
Sang Joon Ahn, Ibra S Fancher, Jing-Tan Bian, Chong Xu Zhang, Sarah Schwab, Robert Gaffin, Shane A Phillips, Irena Levitan
AIMS: Inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) channels are known to be sensitive to flow, but their role in flow-induced endothelial responses is not known. The goal of this study is to establish the role of Kir channels in flow-induced vasodilation and to provide first insights into the mechanisms responsible for Kir signaling in this process. METHODS AND RESULTS: First, we establish that primary endothelial cells isolated from murine mesenteric arteries express functional Kir2...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848160/coronary-flow-reserve-and-relative-flow-reserve-measured-by-n-13-ammonia-pet-for-characterization-of-coronary-artery-disease
#13
Sang-Geon Cho, Ki Seong Park, Jahae Kim, Sae-Ryung Kang, Ho-Chun Song, Ju Han Kim, Jae Yeong Cho, Young Joon Hong, Zeenat Jabin, Hee Jeong Park, Geum-Cheol Jeong, Seong Young Kwon, Jin Chul Paeng, Hyeon Sik Kim, Jung-Joon Min, Ernest V Garcia, Henry Hee-Seung Bom
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the relationships between coronary flow reserve (CFR) and relative flow reserve (RFR) measured by N-13 ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) for characterization of epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Sixty-nine consecutive stable angina patients underwent N-13 ammonia PET, coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), and if necessary, invasive coronary angiography (CAG) within 2 weeks. Myocardial blood flow (MBF), CFR, RFR, and coronary vascular resistance of the reference arterial territory (CVRref) were measured by N-13 ammonia PET...
November 15, 2016: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846787/cryopreservation-of-brain-endothelial-cells-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-is-enhanced-by-rock-inhibition
#14
Hannah Kathryn Wilson, Madeline G Faubion, Michael K Hjortness, Sean P Palecek, Eric V Shusta
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) maintains brain homeostasis but also presents a major obstacle to brain drug delivery. Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) form the principal barrier and therefore represent the major cellular component of in vitro BBB models. Such models are often used for mechanistic studies of the BBB in health and disease and for drug screening. Recently, human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have emerged as a new source for generating BMEC-like cells for use in in vitro human BBB studies...
November 15, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815416/s-ketamine-rapidly-reverses-synaptic-and-vascular-deficits-of-hippocampus-in-genetic-animal-model-of-depression
#15
Maryam Ardalan, Gregers Wegener, Ali H Rafati, Jens R Nyengaard
BACKGROUND: The neurovascular plasticity of hippocampus is an important theory underlying major depression. Ketamine as a novel glutamatergic antidepressant drug can induce a rapid antidepressant effect within hours. In a mechanistic proof of this concept, we examined whether ketamine leads to an increase in synaptogenesis and vascularization within 24 hours after a single injection in a genetic rat model of depression. METHODS: Flinders Sensitive Line and Flinders Resistant Line rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (15 mg/kg) or saline...
December 8, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813591/preliminary-in-vitro-analysis-of-mechanism-of-cardiac-microvascular-endothelial-barrier-function
#16
W Dong, G N Zhang, S H Gao
To preliminarily clarify the mechanism of cardiac microvascular endothelial barrier function leading to heart failure, primary HMVEC-D cells were selected and cultured for amplification. The cells were infected with adenovirus vector containing the ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) Q67L gene. Full-length and functional fragments of myeloid differentiation primary response 88 and ARF nucleotide-binding site opener genes were established and transfected into HEK293T cells. GTP-Arf6 pull-down experiment, fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR, immuno-coprecipitation, and transendothelial electrical resistance analysis were conducted...
October 17, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809453/long-term-study-of-the-association-of-adipokines-and-glucose-variability-with-diabetic-complications
#17
Jin Joo Cha, Hye Sook Min, Kitae Kim, Mi Jin Lee, Mi Hwa Lee, Jung Eun Kim, Hye Kyoung Song, Dae Ryong Cha, Young Sun Kang
Background/Aims: Recent studies have suggested an important role of adipokines in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. The clinical relevance of adipokines on long-term outcomes in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to identify a predictable factor in patients with long-term diabetic complications. Methods: A total of 161 diabetic individuals were followed-up from 2002 to 2013. Circulating plasma levels of adiponectin, glypican-4, irisin, visfatin, and visit-to-visit glucose variability were measured in diabetic patients...
November 4, 2016: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809397/flow-motion-dynamics-of-microvascular-blood-flow-and-oxygenation-evidence-of-adaptive-changes-in-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-insulin-resistance
#18
Geraldine F Clough, Katarzyna Z Kuliga, Andrew J Chipperfield
An altered spatial heterogeneity and temporal stability of network perfusion can give rise to a limited adaptive ability to meet metabolic demands. Derangement of local flow motion activity is associated with reduced microvascular blood flow and tissue oxygenation and it has been suggested that changes in flow motion activity may provide an early indicator of declining, endothelial, neurogenic and myogenic regulatory mechanisms and signal the onset and progression of microvascular pathophysiology. This short conference review article explores some of the evidence for altered flow motion dynamics of blood flux signals acquired using laser Doppler fluximetry in the skin in individuals at risk of developing or with cardio-metabolic disease...
November 3, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803036/comparative-prognostic-utility-of-indexes-of-microvascular-function-alone-or-in-combination-in-patients-with-an-acute-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#19
David Carrick, Caroline Haig, Nadeem Ahmed, Jaclyn Carberry, Vannesa Teng Yue May, Margaret McEntegart, Mark C Petrie, Hany Eteiba, Mitchell Lindsay, Stuart Hood, Stuart Watkins, Andrew Davie, Ahmed Mahrous, Ify Mordi, Ian Ford, Aleksandra Radjenovic, Keith G Oldroyd, Colin Berry
BACKGROUND: Primary percutaneous coronary intervention is frequently successful at restoring coronary artery blood flow in patients with acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction; however, failed myocardial reperfusion commonly passes undetected in up to half of these patients. The index of microvascular resistance (IMR) is a novel invasive measure of coronary microvascular function. We aimed to investigate the pathological and prognostic significance of an IMR>40, alone or in combination with a coronary flow reserve (CFR≤2...
December 6, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799072/fluid-and-ion-transfer-across-the-blood-brain-and-blood-cerebrospinal-fluid-barriers-a-comparative-account-of-mechanisms-and-roles
#20
REVIEW
Stephen B Hladky, Margery A Barrand
The two major interfaces separating brain and blood have different primary roles. The choroid plexuses secrete cerebrospinal fluid into the ventricles, accounting for most net fluid entry to the brain. Aquaporin, AQP1, allows water transfer across the apical surface of the choroid epithelium; another protein, perhaps GLUT1, is important on the basolateral surface. Fluid secretion is driven by apical Na(+)-pumps. K(+) secretion occurs via net paracellular influx through relatively leaky tight junctions partially offset by transcellular efflux...
October 31, 2016: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
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