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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432057/imaging-and-modeling-of-acute-pressure-induced-changes-of-collagen-and-elastin-microarchitectures-in-pig-and-human-resistance-arteries
#1
Maria Bloksgaard, Thomas M Leurgans, Bart Spronck, Maarten Hg Heusinkveld, Bjarne Thorsted, Kristoffer Rosenstand, Inger Nissen, Ulla Melchior Hansen, Jonathan R Brewer, Luis A Bagatolli, Lars M Rasmussen, Akhmadjon Irmukhamedov, Koen D Reesink, Jo G R De Mey
The impact of disease related changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) on the mechanical properties of human resistance arteries largely remains to be established. Resistance arteries from both pig and human parietal pericardium (PRA) display a different ECM microarchitecture compared to frequently used rodent mesenteric arteries. We hypothesized that the biaxial mechanics of PRA mirror pressure induced changes in the ECM microarchitecture. This was tested using isolated pig PRA as model system, integrating vital imaging, pressure myography and mathematical modeling...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421813/hemin-causes-lung-microvascular-endothelial-barrier-dysfunction-by-necroptotic-cell-death
#2
Sunit Singla, Justin R Sysol, Benjamin Dille, Nicole Jones, Jiwang Chen, Roberto F Machado
Hemin, the oxidized prosthetic moiety of hemoglobin, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute chest syndrome (ACS) in sickle cell patients by virtue of its endothelial-activating properties. In this study, we examined whether hemin can cause lung microvascular endothelial barrier dysfunction. By assessing transendothelial resistance using electrical cell impedance sensing, and by directly measuring trans-monolayer FITC-dextran flux, we found that hemin does cause endothelial barrier dysfunction in a concentration-dependent manner...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412915/early-functional-and-structural-microvascular-changes-in-hypertension-related-to-aging
#3
Roger de Moraes, Eduardo Tibirica
It is becoming increasingly clear that both microvascular network alterations and subsequent tissue perfusion defects may precede and predict the development of arterial hypertension and other cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, including diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the subsequent functional and structural alterations in microvascular reactivity and density, as well as alterations in the macrocirculation characteristic of physiologic vascular aging, contribute to the development of target organ damage...
April 12, 2017: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410504/exercise-training-in-older-adults-what-effects-on-muscle-oxygenation-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Elie Fiogbé, Verena de Vassimon-Barroso, Anielle Cristhine de Medeiros Takahashi
AIM: To determine the effects of different modality of exercise training programs on muscle oxygenation in older adults. METHODS: Relevant articles were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct and Scopus, using the keywords: "Aged" AND "Muscle oxygenation" AND (Exercise OR "Exercise therapy" OR "Exercise Movement Techniques" OR Hydrotherapy), without limitation concerning the publication date. To be included in the full analysis, the study had to be a randomized controlled trial in which older adults participants (mean age: 65 years at least) were submitted to an exercise-training program and muscle oxygenation assessment...
March 20, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407791/accelerated-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-blood-brain-barrier-endothelial-cells
#5
Emma K Hollmann, Amanda K Bailey, Archit V Potharazu, M Diana Neely, Aaron B Bowman, Ethan S Lippmann
BACKGROUND: Due to their ability to limitlessly proliferate and specialize into almost any cell type, human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer an unprecedented opportunity to generate human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), which compose the blood-brain barrier (BBB), for research purposes. Unfortunately, the time, expense, and expertise required to differentiate iPSCs to purified BMECs precludes their widespread use. Here, we report the use of a defined medium that accelerates the differentiation of iPSCs to BMECs while achieving comparable performance to BMECs produced by established methods...
April 13, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405676/ulinastatin-protects-against-lipopolysaccharide-induced-cardiac-microvascular-endothelial-cell-dysfunction-via-downregulation-of-lncrna-malat1-and-ezh2-in-sepsis
#6
Zhaoxia Yu, Aisa Rayile, Xiangyang Zhang, Ying Li, Qiang Zhao
The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of ulinastatin on the permeability and apoptosis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMVECs), and investigate its molecular mechanisms in sepsis. The sepsis rat model was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and rat CMVECs were isolated and treated with LPS or/and ulinastatin. Then, cell permeability was evaluated by transendothelial electrical resistance, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were assessed by 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, cell apoptosis was detected using Annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection kit, and the expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) and EZH2 were detected by RT-qPCR and/or western blotting...
May 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399917/metformin-and-sulodexide-restore-cardiac-microvascular-perfusion-capacity-in-diet-induced-obese-rats
#7
Judith van Haare, M Eline Kooi, Jurgen W G E van Teeffelen, Hans Vink, Jos Slenter, Hanneke Cobelens, Gustav J Strijkers, Dennis Koehn, Mark J Post, Marc van Bilsen
BACKGROUND: Disturbances in coronary microcirculatory function, such as the endothelial glycocalyx, are early hallmarks in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Accordingly, in the present study myocardial microcirculatory perfusion during rest and stress was assessed following metformin or sulodexide therapy in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Additionally, the effect of degradation of the glycocalyx on myocardial perfusion was assessed in chow-fed rats. METHODS: Rats were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks and were divided into a group without therapy, and groups that received the anti-diabetic drug metformin or the glycocalyx-stabilizing drug sulodexide in their drinking water during the last 4 weeks of the feeding period...
April 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390289/lenvatinib-an-oral-multi-kinases-inhibitor-associated-hypertension-potential-role-of-vascular-endothelial-dysfunction
#8
Daisuke Sueta, Koichi Suyama, Aiko Sueta, Noriaki Tabata, Takayoshi Yamashita, Mai Tomiguchi, Takashi Takeshita, Mutsuko Yamamoto-Ibusuki, Eiichiro Yamamoto, Yasuhiro Izumiya, Koichi Kaikita, Yutaka Yamamoto, Seiji Hokimoto, Hirotaka Iwase, Kenichi Tsujita
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lenvatinib (Lenvima(®)), an oral multi-kinase inhibitor, is effective in the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs). A severe adverse effect of lenvatinib is hypertension, thus limiting its use as an anti-cancer treatment. Although the pathogenesis of hypertension is generally assumed to involve microvascular bed reduction and an increase in peripheral vascular resistance due to a decrease in nitrogen oxide (NOx) production after vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition, the effects of hypertension on vascular endothelial function in actual patients remain unclear...
March 30, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387500/effect-of-3d-printed-microvascular-network-design-on-the-self-healing-behaviour-of-crosslinked-polymers
#9
Giovanni Postiglione, Mirco Alberini, Simon James Leigh, Marinella Levi, Stefano Turri
This article describes the manufacturing procedure and the characterization of self-healing polymers based on embedded microvascular networks. The samples were realized by resin casting into water soluble PVA moulds, fabricated via 3D printing. This technology allowed to exploit the 3D printers' ability of producing complex structures with high resolution for the creation of independent microchannels networks. The two reacting components of a two-parts resin could be stored separately within the microstructure...
April 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378814/constitutive-smooth-muscle-tumour-necrosis-factor-regulates-microvascular-myogenic-responsiveness-and-systemic-blood-pressure
#10
Jeffrey T Kroetsch, Andrew S Levy, Hangjun Zhang, Roozbeh Aschar-Sobbi, Darcy Lidington, Stefan Offermanns, Sergei A Nedospasov, Peter H Backx, Scott P Heximer, Steffen-Sebastian Bolz
Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a ubiquitously expressed cytokine with functions beyond the immune system. In several diseases, the induction of TNF expression in resistance artery smooth muscle cells enhances microvascular myogenic vasoconstriction and perturbs blood flow. This pathological role prompted our hypothesis that constitutively expressed TNF regulates myogenic signalling and systemic haemodynamics under non-pathological settings. Here we show that acutely deleting the TNF gene in smooth muscle cells or pharmacologically scavenging TNF with etanercept (ETN) reduces blood pressure and resistance artery myogenic responsiveness; the latter effect is conserved across five species, including humans...
April 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362362/combined-intravital-microscopy-and-contrast-enhanced-ultrasonography-of-the-mouse-hindlimb-to-study-insulin-induced-vasodilation-and-muscle-perfusion
#11
Alexander H Turaihi, Erik M van Poelgeest, Victor W M van Hinsbergh, Erik H Serné, Yvo M Smulders, Etto C Eringa
It has been demonstrated that insulin's vascular actions contribute to regulation of insulin sensitivity. Insulin's effects on muscle perfusion regulate postprandial delivery of nutrients and hormones to insulin-sensitive tissues. We here describe a technique for combining intravital microscopy (IVM) and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) of the adductor compartment of the mouse hindlimb to simultaneously visualize muscle resistance arteries and perfusion of the microcirculation in vivo. Simultaneously assessing insulin's effect at multiple levels of the vascular tree is important to study relationships between insulin's multiple vasoactive effects and muscle perfusion...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361992/microvascular-vasodilator-properties-of-the-angiotensin-ii-type-2-receptor-in-a-mouse-model-of-type-1-diabetes
#12
Marc-Antoine Begorre, Abdallah Dib, Khalil Habchi, Anne-Laure Guihot, Jennifer Bourreau, Emilie Vessieres, Bertrand Blondeau, Laurent Loufrani, Marie Chabbert, Daniel Henrion, Céline Fassot
Diabetes Mellitus is associated with severe cardiovascular disorders involving the renin-angiotensin system, mainly through activation of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R). Although the type 2 receptor (AT2R) opposes the effects of AT1R, with vasodilator and anti-trophic properties, its role in diabetes is debatable. Thus we investigated AT2R-mediated dilatation in a model of type 1 diabetes induced by streptozotocin in 5-month-old male mice lacking AT2R (AT2R(-/y)). Glucose tolerance was reduced and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress (cyclooxygenase-2, gp91phox p22phox and p67phox) were increased in AT2R(-/y) mice compared to wild-type (WT) animals...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355167/microvascular-structure-as-a-prognostically-relevant-endpoint
#13
Enrico Agabiti-Rosei, Damiano Rizzoni
Remodelling of subcutaneous small resistance arteries, as indicated by an increased media-to-lumen ratio, is frequently present in hypertensive, obese, or diabetic patients. The increased media-to-lumen ratio may impair organ flow reserve. This may be important in the maintenance and, probably, also in the progressive worsening of hypertensive disease. The presence of structural alterations represents a prognostically relevant factor, in terms of development of target organ damage or cardiovascular events, thus allowing us a prediction of complications in hypertension...
May 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348461/am966-an-antagonist-of-lysophosphatidic-acid-receptor-1-increases-lung-microvascular-endothelial-permeability-through-activation-of-rho-signaling-pathway-and-phosphorylation-of-ve-cadherin
#14
Junting Cai, Jianxin Wei, Shuang Li, Tomeka Suber, Jing Zhao
Maintenance of pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity is important for reducing severity of lung injury. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) regulates cell motility, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and cell growth. Knockdown of LPA receptor 1 (LPA1) has been shown to mitigate lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis. AM966, an LPA1 antagonist exhibiting an antifibrotic property, has been considered to be a future antifibrotic medicine. Here, we report an unexpected effect of AM966, which increases lung endothelial barrier permeability...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338956/hemodynamic-consequences-of-changes-in-microvascular-structure
#15
Damiano Rizzoni, Claudia Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico Agabiti-Rosei
In hypertension, an increased media-to-lumen ratio of small resistance arteries might play an important role in the increase of vascular resistance, and may also be an adaptive response to the increased hemodynamic load. The presence of morphological alteration in the microvasculature may be associated to an impaired tissue perfusion and/or to the development of target organ damage. Structural alterations in the microcirculation might represent a predictor of the onset of cardio-cerebrovascular events and hypertension complications...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338200/glioma-cells-promote-angiogenesis-through-the-release-of-exosomes-containing-long-non-coding-rna-pou3f3
#16
H-L Lang, G-W Hu, Y Chen, Y Liu, W Tu, Y-M Lu, L Wu, G-H Xu
OBJECTIVE: Angiogenesis is a key event in the progression of gliomas, and emerging evidence suggests that exosomes are signaling extracellular organelles that modulate the tumor microenvironment and promote angiogenesis and tumor progression. This study aimed to explore the mechanism by which glioma-derived exosomes affect angiogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: qRT-PCR was used to determine the expression level of linc-POU3F3 in glioma tissue as well as glioma cell lines...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336559/microvascular-endothelial-dysfunction-in-obesity-is-driven-by-macrophage-dependent-hydrogen-sulfide-depletion
#17
Joseph Candela, Rui Wang, Carl White
OBJECTIVE: The function of perivascular adipose tissue as an anticontractile mediator in the microvasculature is lost during obesity. Obesity results in inflammation and recruitment of proinflammatory macrophages to the perivascular adipose tissue that is paralleled by depletion of the vasorelaxant signaling molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the vessel. The current objective was to assess the role of macrophages in determining vascular [H2S] and defining how this impinged on vasodilation...
March 23, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323921/emerging-roles-for-micrornas-in-diabetic-microvascular-disease-novel-targets-for-therapy
#18
Yu Zhang, Xinghui Sun, Basak Icli, Mark W Feinberg
Chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation and impaired microvascular function are critical hallmarks in the development of insulin resistance. Accordingly, insulin resistance is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating studies demonstrate that restoration of impaired function of the diabetic macro- and microvasculature may ameliorate a range of cardiovascular disease states and diabetes-associated complications. In this review, we focus on the emerging role of microRNAs (miRNAs), noncoding RNAs that fine-tune target gene expression and signaling pathways, in insulin-responsive tissues and cell types important for maintaining optimal vascular homeostasis and preventing the sequelae of diabetes-induced end organ injury...
April 1, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304381/tnf-%C3%AE-stimulates-endothelial-palmitic-acid-transcytosis-and-promotes-insulin-resistance
#19
Wenjing Li, Xiaoyan Yang, Tao Zheng, Shasha Xing, Yaogong Wu, Fang Bian, Guangjie Wu, Ye Li, Juyi Li, Xiangli Bai, Dan Wu, Xiong Jia, Ling Wang, Lin Zhu, Si Jin
Persistent elevation of plasma TNF-α is a marker of low grade systemic inflammation. Palmitic acid (PA) is the most abundant type of saturated fatty acid in human body. PA is bound with albumin in plasma and could not pass through endothelial barrier freely. Albumin-bound PA has to be transported across monolayer endothelial cells through intracellular transcytosis, but not intercellular diffusion. In the present study, we discovered that TNF-α might stimulate PA transcytosis across cardiac microvascular endothelial cells, which further impaired the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by cardiomyocytes and promoted insulin resistance...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303921/partitioning-of-red-blood-cell-aggregates-in-bifurcating-microscale-flows
#20
E Kaliviotis, J M Sherwood, S Balabani
Microvascular flows are often considered to be free of red blood cell aggregates, however, recent studies have demonstrated that aggregates are present throughout the microvasculature, affecting cell distribution and blood perfusion. This work reports on the spatial distribution of red blood cell aggregates in a T-shaped bifurcation on the scale of a large microvessel. Non-aggregating and aggregating human red blood cell suspensions were studied for a range of flow splits in the daughter branches of the bifurcation...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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