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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212586/effects-of-resistance-band-exercise-on-vascular-activity-and-fitness-in-older-adults
#1
Mark F Smith, Mistrelle Ellmore, Geoff Middleton, Paul M Murgatroyd, Thomas I Gee
This study investigated the effects of a low to moderately intense resistance-band exercise intervention on cutaneous microvascular function in an older population. 18 sedentary healthy participants (age: 58±5) were assessed for their upper and lower-limb endothelial cutaneous vascular conductance using laser Doppler fluximetry with endothelial-dependent (80 μl acetylcholine chloride), and -independent vasodilation (80 μl sodium nitroprusside). In addition, participants underwent a range of functional assessments (cardiopulmonary fitness, strength, flexibility), and completed a perceived quality of life questionnaire...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199000/overexpression-of-pregnane-x-and-glucocorticoid-receptors-and-the-regulation-of-cytochrome-p450-in-human-epileptic-brain-endothelial-cells
#2
Chaitali Ghosh, Mohammed Hossain, Jesal Solanki, Imad M Najm, Nicola Marchi, Damir Janigro
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests a metabolic contribution of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) to the drug-resistant phenotype in human epilepsy. However, the upstream molecular regulators of CYP in the epileptic brain remain understudied. We therefore investigated the expression and function of pregnane xenobiotic (PXR) and glucocorticoid (GR) nuclear receptors in endothelial cells established from post-epilepsy surgery brain samples. METHODS: PXR/GR localization was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in specimens from subjects who underwent temporal lobe resections to relieve drug-resistant seizures...
February 15, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196858/the-2016-walter-b-cannon-lecture-deconstructing-metabolic-inflammation-using-cellular-systems
#3
Kenny L Chan, Parastoo Boroumand, Marciane Milanski, Nicolas J Pillon, Philip J Bilan, Amira Klip
Over the past years we have embarked in a systematic analysis of the effect of obesity or fatty acids on circulating monocytes, microvascular endothelial cells, macrophages and skeletal muscle cells. Using cell culture strategies, we have deconstructed complex physiological systems, then reconstructed 'partial equations' to better understand cell-to-cell communication. Through these approaches we identified that in high saturated fat environments, cell-autonomous pro-inflammatory pathways are activated in monocytes and endothelial cells, promoting monocyte adhesion and transmigration...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191874/instantaneous-wave-free-ratio-to-guide-coronary-revascularization-physiological-framework-validation-and-differences-with-fractional-flow-reserve
#4
Guus A de Waard, Carlo Di Mario, Amir Lerman, Patrick W Serruys, Niels van Royen
Determining the optimal treatment strategy for revascularization of coronary artery stenosis involves the use of fractional flow reserve (FFR). To improve the low clinical uptake of physiological lesion assessment to guide revascularization, the instantaneous wave-free period (iFR) was proposed as a simpler alternative to FFR that does not require adenosine administration. iFR is calculated as the ratio of blood pressure distal and proximal to a coronary artery stenosis during the diastolic wave- free period...
February 14, 2017: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170119/lateral-arm-free-tissue-transfer-for-parotid-reconstruction-a-pictorial-essay
#5
Stephen Y Kang, Matthew O Old, Theodoros N Teknos
BACKGROUND: The goals of parotid reconstruction are to provide accurate volume reconstruction of the defect while minimizing ptosis, optimize color match to surrounding facial skin, maintain anatomic position of the auricle, and to perform facial nerve rehabilitation in cases in which the facial nerve is removed. METHODS AND RESULTS: For many complex parotid defects, the lateral arm free tissue transfer achieves these reconstructive goals and is the ideal donor site for microvascular reconstruction...
February 7, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169057/invasive-assessment-of-coronary-flow-reserve-impairment-in-severe-aortic-stenosis-and-ecochadiographic-correlations
#6
Alejandro Gutiérrez-Barrios, Sergio Gamaza-Chulián, Antonio Agarrado-Luna, Dolores Ruiz-Fernández, G Calle-Pérez, E Marante-Fuertes, R Zayas-Rueda, Miguel Alba-Sánchez, Jesús Oneto-Otero, R Vázquez-Garcia
OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND: Patients with aortic stenosis (AS) may have impaired coronary flow reserve (CFR) despite angiographically normal coronary arteries. This is the first report of invasive thermodilution-derived CFR and IMR in patients with AS and their associations with echocardiographic parameters for AS assessment. METHODS: Thirty-six consecutive severe AS patients and ten patients without AS underwent prospectively cardiac catheterization and coronary physiological parameters were determined in the left anterior descending (LAD)...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151424/vascular-adaptation-to-exercise-in-humans-role-of-hemodynamic-stimuli
#7
REVIEW
Daniel J Green, Maria T E Hopman, Jaume Padilla, M Harold Laughlin, Dick H J Thijssen
On the 400th anniversary of Harvey's Lumleian lectures, this review focuses on "hemodynamic" forces associated with the movement of blood through arteries in humans and the functional and structural adaptations that result from repeated episodic exposure to such stimuli. The late 20th century discovery that endothelial cells modify arterial tone via paracrine transduction provoked studies exploring the direct mechanical effects of blood flow and pressure on vascular function and adaptation in vivo. In this review, we address the impact of distinct hemodynamic signals that occur in response to exercise, the interrelationships between these signals, the nature of the adaptive responses that manifest under different physiological conditions, and the implications for human health...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139436/predictors-of-cardiovascular-risk-among-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-a-critical-analysis-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-and-its-components
#8
V Gingras, C Leroux, A Fortin, L Legault, R Rabasa-Lhoret
Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are at increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. The metabolic syndrome (MetS), a complex disorder defined by a cluster of interconnected factors including abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance, has been proposed to identify patients with T1D at high cardiovascular risk. The MetS has been identified in 8-45% of patients with T1D, depending on the definition and cohort studied. However, clinicians and researchers face several issues with the criteria for MetS in patients with T1D, therefore questioning its value in routine care...
January 27, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139320/extended-use-of-perioperative-antibiotics-in-head-and-neck-microvascular-reconstruction
#9
Stefanie Saunders, Stephen Reese, Jimmy Lam, Jacqueline Wulu, Scharkuh Jalisi, Waleed Ezzat
PURPOSE: Many head and neck surgical procedures are considered clean-contaminated wounds and antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended. Despite prophylaxis, the incidence of surgical site infections remains significant - especially in the setting of free tissue transfer. The antibiotic course is often of a longer duration after free tissue transfer than the recommended 24hour post-operatively. Currently, there is no consensus on appropriate antibiotic regimen or duration at this time. This study investigates the outcomes of a 7-day perioperative antibiotic regimen after microvascular reconstruction of the head and neck at our institution...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135021/a-conceptual-framework-for-predicting-and-addressing-the-consequences-of-disease-related-microvascular-dysfunction
#10
P Mason McClatchey, Jefferson C Frisbee, Jane E B Reusch
OBJECTIVE: A growing body of evidence indicates that impaired microvascular perfusion plays a pathological role in a number of diseases. This manuscript aims to better define which aspects of microvascular perfusion are important, what mass transport processes (e.g. insulin action, tissue oxygenation) may be impacted, and what therapies might reverse these pathologies. METHODS: We derive a theory of microvascular perfusion and solute flux drawing from established relationships in mass transport and anatomy...
January 30, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134124/the-impact-of-microvascular-resistance-on-the-discordance-between-anatomical-and-functional-evaluations-of-intermediate-coronary-disease
#11
Kyoung-Woo Seo, Hong-Seok Lim, Myeong-Ho Yoon, Seung-Jea Tahk, So-Yeon Choi, Byoung-Joo Choi, Hyoung-Mo Yang, Joon-Han Shin, Gyo-Seung Hwang, Jin-Sun Park, XiongJie Jin
AIMS: In intermediate coronary artery disease, discordance between anatomical and functional assessments persists and the diagnostic accuracy of an anatomical evaluation is not satisfactory for determining functional significance. We evaluated the impact of microvascular resistance on 'anatomical-functional discordance'. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 97 intermediate coronary lesions of 83 patients, minimum lumen area (MLA), fractional flow reserve (FFR), ∆(Pd/Pa-FFR), and hyperaemic microvascular resistance index (hMVRI) were measured using intravascular ultrasound and intracoronary dual pressure and Doppler sensor-tipped guidewire...
January 31, 2017: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132957/risk-of-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-in-older-women-after-contemporary-radiotherapy-for-breast-cancer
#12
Hirofumi Saiki, Ivy A Petersen, Christopher G Scott, Kent R Bailey, Shannon M Dunlay, Randi R Finley, Kathryn J Ruddy, Elizabeth Yan, Margaret M Redfield
BACKGROUND: -Cardiomyocytes are resistant to radiation. However, cardiac radiation exposure causes coronary microvascular endothelial inflammation, a perturbation implicated in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF) and particularly, HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Radiotherapy for breast cancer results in variable cardiac radiation exposure and may increase the risk of HF. METHODS: -We conducted a population-based case-control study of incident HF in 170 female residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota (59 cases and 111 controls) who underwent contemporary (1998-2013) radiotherapy for breast cancer utilizing computed tomography-assisted radiotherapy planning...
January 29, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130064/cardiovascular-consequences-of-metabolic-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
Johnathan D Tune, Adam G Goodwill, Daniel J Sassoon, Kieren J Mather
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as the concurrence of obesity-associated cardiovascular risk factors including abdominal obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, decreased HDL cholesterol, and/or hypertension. Earlier conceptualizations of the MetS focused on insulin resistance as a core feature, and it is clearly coincident with the above list of features. Each component of the MetS is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the combination of these risk factors elevates rates and severity of cardiovascular disease, related to a spectrum of cardiovascular conditions including microvascular dysfunction, coronary atherosclerosis and calcification, cardiac dysfunction, myocardial infarction, and heart failure...
January 9, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128438/a-key-role-for-tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent-endothelial-nos-regulation-in-vascular-resistance-arteries-studies-in-endothelial-cell-tetrahydrobiopterin-deficient-mice
#14
Surawee Chuaiphichai, Mark J Crabtree, Eileen McNeill, Ashley B Hale, Lucy Trelfa, Keith M Channon, Gillian Douglas
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a critical regulator of endothelial NOS (eNOS) function, eNOS-derived NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS) signalling in vascular physiology. To determine the physiological requirement for de-novo endothelial cell BH4 synthesis in vasomotor function in resistance arteries, we have generated a mouse model with endothelial cell-specific deletion of Gch1, encoding GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH), an essential enzyme for BH4 biosynthesis, and evaluated BH4-dependent eNOS regulation, eNOS-derived NO and ROS generation...
January 27, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127697/differential-mechanisms-of-inflammation-and-endothelial-dysfunction-by-hiv-1-subtype-b-and-recombinant-crf02_ag-tat-proteins-on-human-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-implications-for-viral-neuropathogenesis
#15
Biju Bhargavan, Georgette D Kanmogne
The recombinant HIV-1 CRF02_AG is prevalent in West-Central Africa but its effects on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are not known. We analyzed the effects of Tat from HIV-1 subtype-B (Tat.B) and CRF02_AG (Tat.AG) on primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), the major BBB component. Exposure of HBMEC to Tat.B increased IL-6 expression and transcription by 9- (P < 0.001) and 113-fold (P < 0.001), respectively, whereas Tat.AG increased IL-6 expression and transcription by 2...
January 27, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125953/the-effect-of-tobacco-smoke-exposure-on-generation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-and-cellular-membrane-damage-using-a-co-culture-model-system-of-blood-brain-barrier-with-astrocytes
#16
Seung-Beom Seo, Eun Sang Choe, Kwang-Sik Kim, Soon-Mi Shim
Brain tissue is known to be vulnerable to the exposure by tobacco smoke. Tobacco smoke can induce generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing inflammatory activity and blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of tobacco smoke on cell cytotoxicity, generation of ROS, and cellular membrane damage in astrocytes and BBB using a co-culture system. Cell viability of U373MG cells was reduced in a dose-dependent manner, ranging from 96.7% to 40.3% by tobacco smoke condensate (TSC)...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109094/-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-conditioned-medium-prevents-e-coli-meningitis-by-inhibiting-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#17
Qing Zeng, Xiao-Long He, Han-Sheng Xiao, Lei DU, Yu-Jing Li, Le-Cheng Chen, Hui-Wen Tian, Sheng-He Huang, Hong Cao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG conditioned medium(LGG-CM)has preventive effect against E. coli K1-induced neuropathogenicity in vitro by inhibiting nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. METHODS: An in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) model was constructed using human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs). The effect of LGG-CM on E. coli-actived NF-κB signaling pathway was assayed using Western blotting. Invasion assay and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) transmigration assay were performed to explore whether LGG-CM could inhibit E...
January 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099525/polyethylene-glycol-camouflaged-earthworm-hemoglobin
#18
Vivek P Jani, Alborz Jelvani, Selamawit Moges, Parimala Nacharaju, Camille Roche, David Dantsker, Andre Palmer, Joel M Friedman, Pedro Cabrales
Nearly 21 million components of blood and whole blood and transfused annually in the United States, while on average only 13.6 million units of blood are donated. As the demand for Red Blood Cells (RBCs) continues to increase due to the aging population, this deficit will be more significant. Despite decades of research to develop hemoglobin (Hb) based oxygen (O2) carriers (HBOCs) as RBC substitutes, there are no products approved for clinical use. Lumbricus terrestris erythrocruorin (LtEc) is the large acellular O2 carrying protein complex found in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095104/the-relative-efficacy-of-land-based-and-water-based-exercise-training-on-macro-and-micro-vascular-functions-in-older-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#19
Saowaluck Suntraluck, Hirofumi Tanaka, Daroonwan Suksom
Microvascular and macrovascular dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease. Twenty-nine older patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned into the land-based (LB; n=14) or water-based (WB; n=15) groups. Both groups completed supervised aerobic cycling exercises 3 times per week for 12 weeks. The WB group performed cycling exercise training in warm water (36°C) immersed to the hip level. After 12 weeks, blood glucose concentration and insulin resistance did not change but hemoglobin A1c levels decreased (P<0...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094605/multiple-protocadherins-are-expressed-in-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-and-might-play-a-role-in-tight-junction-protein-regulation
#20
Christina Dilling, Norbert Roewer, Carola Y Förster, Malgorzata Burek
Protocadherins (Pcdhs) are a large family of cadherin-related molecules. They play a role in cell adhesion, cellular interactions, and development of the central nervous system. However, their expression and role in endothelial cells has not yet been characterized. Here, we examined the expression of selected clustered Pcdhs in endothelial cells from several vascular beds. We analyzed human and mouse brain microvascular endothelial cell (BMEC) lines and primary cells, mouse myocardial microvascular endothelial cell line, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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