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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338956/hemodynamic-consequences-of-changes-in-microvascular-structure
#1
Damiano Rizzoni, Claudia Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico Agabiti-Rosei
In hypertension, an increased media-to-lumen ratio of small resistance arteries might play an important role in the increase of vascular resistance, and may also be an adaptive response to the increased hemodynamic load. The presence of morphological alteration in the microvasculature may be associated to an impaired tissue perfusion and/or to the development of target organ damage. Structural alterations in the microcirculation might represent a predictor of the onset of cardio-cerebrovascular events and hypertension complications...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338200/glioma-cells-promote-angiogenesis-through-the-release-of-exosomes-containing-long-non-coding-rna-pou3f3
#2
H-L Lang, G-W Hu, Y Chen, Y Liu, W Tu, Y-M Lu, L Wu, G-H Xu
OBJECTIVE: Angiogenesis is a key event in the progression of gliomas, and emerging evidence suggests that exosomes are signaling extracellular organelles that modulate the tumor microenvironment and promote angiogenesis and tumor progression. This study aimed to explore the mechanism by which glioma-derived exosomes affect angiogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: qRT-PCR was used to determine the expression level of linc-POU3F3 in glioma tissue as well as glioma cell lines...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336559/microvascular-endothelial-dysfunction-in-obesity-is-driven-by-macrophage-dependent-hydrogen-sulfide-depletion
#3
Joseph Candela, Rui Wang, Carl White
OBJECTIVE: The function of perivascular adipose tissue as an anticontractile mediator in the microvasculature is lost during obesity. Obesity results in inflammation and recruitment of proinflammatory macrophages to the perivascular adipose tissue that is paralleled by depletion of the vasorelaxant signaling molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the vessel. The current objective was to assess the role of macrophages in determining vascular [H2S] and defining how this impinged on vasodilation...
March 23, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323921/emerging-roles-for-micrornas-in-diabetic-microvascular-disease-novel-targets-for-therapy
#4
Yu Zhang, Xinghui Sun, Basak Icli, Mark W Feinberg
Chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation and impaired microvascular function are critical hallmarks in the development of insulin resistance. Accordingly, insulin resistance is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating studies demonstrate that restoration of impaired function of the diabetic macro- and microvasculature may ameliorate a range of cardiovascular disease states and diabetes-associated complications. In this review, we focus on the emerging role of microRNAs, non-coding RNAs that fine-tune target gene expression and signaling pathways, in insulin-responsive tissues and cell types important for maintaining optimal vascular homeostasis and preventing the sequelae of diabetes-induced end organ injury...
February 17, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304381/tnf-%C3%AE-stimulates-endothelial-palmitic-acid-transcytosis-and-promotes-insulin-resistance
#5
Wenjing Li, Xiaoyan Yang, Tao Zheng, Shasha Xing, Yaogong Wu, Fang Bian, Guangjie Wu, Ye Li, Juyi Li, Xiangli Bai, Dan Wu, Xiong Jia, Ling Wang, Lin Zhu, Si Jin
Persistent elevation of plasma TNF-α is a marker of low grade systemic inflammation. Palmitic acid (PA) is the most abundant type of saturated fatty acid in human body. PA is bound with albumin in plasma and could not pass through endothelial barrier freely. Albumin-bound PA has to be transported across monolayer endothelial cells through intracellular transcytosis, but not intercellular diffusion. In the present study, we discovered that TNF-α might stimulate PA transcytosis across cardiac microvascular endothelial cells, which further impaired the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by cardiomyocytes and promoted insulin resistance...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303921/partitioning-of-red-blood-cell-aggregates-in-bifurcating-microscale-flows
#6
E Kaliviotis, J M Sherwood, S Balabani
Microvascular flows are often considered to be free of red blood cell aggregates, however, recent studies have demonstrated that aggregates are present throughout the microvasculature, affecting cell distribution and blood perfusion. This work reports on the spatial distribution of red blood cell aggregates in a T-shaped bifurcation on the scale of a large microvessel. Non-aggregating and aggregating human red blood cell suspensions were studied for a range of flow splits in the daughter branches of the bifurcation...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302706/acclimatization-of-the-systemic-microcirculation-to-alveolar-hypoxia-is-mediated-by-inos-dependent-increased-nitric-oxide-availability
#7
Alfred J Casillan, Jie Chao, John G Wood, Norberto C Gonzalez
Rats breathing 10% O2 show a rapid and widespread systemic microvascular inflammation that results from nitric oxide (NO) depletion secondary to increased reactive O2 species (ROS) generation. The inflammation eventually resolves and the microcirculation becomes resistant to more severe hypoxia. These experiments were directed to determine the mechanisms underlying this microvascular acclimatization process. Intravital microscopy of the mesentery showed that after three weeks of hypoxia (PB ~380 Torr, inspired PO2 ~ 68-70 Torr) rats showed no evidence of inflammation; however, treatment with the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) inhibitor L-N(6)-(1-Iminoethyl) lysine dihydrochloride (L-NIL) led to ROS generation, leukocyte-endothelial adherence and emigration, and increased vascular permeability...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298215/nrf2-signaling-increases-expression-of-atp-binding-cassette-subfamily-c-mrna-transcripts-at-the-blood-brain-barrier-following-hypoxia-reoxygenation-stress
#8
Kathryn Ibbotson, Joshua Yell, Patrick T Ronaldson
BACKGROUND: Strategies to maintain BBB integrity in diseases with a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) component involve preventing glutathione (GSH) loss from endothelial cells. GSH efflux transporters include multidrug resistance proteins (Mrps). Therefore, characterization of Mrp regulation at the BBB during H/R is required to advance these transporters as therapeutic targets. Our goal was to investigate, in vivo, regulation of Abcc1, Abcc2, and Abcc4 mRNA expression (i.e., genes encoding Mrp isoforms that transport GSH) by nuclear factor E2-related factor (Nrf2) using a well-established H/R model...
March 16, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292969/exercise-increases-human-skeletal-muscle-insulin-sensitivity-via-coordinated-increases-in-microvascular-perfusion-and-molecular-signaling
#9
Kim A Sjøberg, Christian Frøsig, Rasmus Kjøbsted, Lykke Sylow, Maximilian Kleinert, Andrew C Betik, Christopher S Shaw, Bente Kiens, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Stephen Rattigan, Erik A Richter, Glenn K McConell
Insulin resistance is a major health risk and although exercise clearly improves skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity, the mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that initiation of a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp four hours after single-legged exercise in humans increased microvascular perfusion (determined by contrast enhanced ultrasound) by 65% in the exercised leg and 25% in the rested leg (p<0.05) and leg glucose uptake increased 50% more (p<0.05) in the exercised leg than the rested leg. Importantly, infusion of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NMMA into both femoral arteries reversed the insulin stimulated increase in microvascular perfusion in both legs and abrogated the greater glucose uptake in the exercised compared with the rested leg...
March 14, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287633/increased-vasohibin-1-expression-is-associated-with-metastasis-and-poor-prognosis-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-patients
#10
Shuji Mikami, Mototsugu Oya, Takeo Kosaka, Ryuichi Mizuno, Yasumasa Miyazaki, Yasufumi Sato, Yasunori Okada
The microvascular density detected by markers of endothelial cells (ECs), such as CD31 and CD34, is considered to be a biomarker for angiogenesis, and it is generally associated with the malignant potential of solid tumors. However, there is a conflicting relationship between the microvascular density and prognosis in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients. It may be explained by the suggestion that the microvascular density cannot fully reflect the angiogenic activity in ccRCC, as the markers of ECs are expressed by both quiescent and activated ECs...
March 13, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279803/japanese-encephalitis-virus-disrupts-blood-brain-barrier-and-modulates-apoptosis-proteins-in-thbmec-cells
#11
Mazen M Jamil Al-Obaidi, Azadeh Bahadoran, Lee Sau Har, Wang Seok Mui, Jayakumar Rajarajeswaran, Keivan Zandi, Rishya Manikam, Shamala Devi Sekaran
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a neurotropic flavivirus that causes inflammation in central nervous system (CNS), neuronal death and also compromises the structural and functional integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to evaluate the BBB disruption and apoptotic process in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)-infected transfected human brain microvascular endothelial cells (THBMECs). THBMECs were overlaid by JEV with different MOIs (0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0) and monitored by electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) in a real-time manner in order to observe the barrier function of THBMECs...
March 6, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274817/microvascular-nadph-oxidase-in-health-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Yao Li, Patrick J Pagano
The systemic and cerebral microcirculation contribute critically to regulation of local and global blood flow and perfusion pressure. Microvascular dysfunction, commonly seen in numerous cardiovascular pathologies, is associated with alterations in the oxidative environment including potentiated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent activation of redox signaling pathways. NADPH oxidases (Nox) are a primary source of ROS in the vascular system and play a central role in cardiovascular health and disease...
March 5, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273720/recurrence-of-glioblastoma-is-associated-with-elevated-microvascular-transit-time-heterogeneity-and-increased-hypoxia
#13
Andreas Stadlbauer, Kim Mouridsen, Arnd Doerfler, Mikkel Bo Hansen, Stefan Oberndorfer, Max Zimmermann, Michael Buchfelder, Gertraud Heinz, Karl Roessler
Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion MRI provide information about differences in macro- and microvasculature when executed with gradient-echo (GE; sensitive to macrovasculature) and spin-echo (SE; sensitive to microvasculature) contrast. This study investigated whether there are differences between macro- and microvascular transit time heterogeneity (MVTH and µVTH) and tissue oxygen tension (PO2mit) in newly-diagnosed and recurrent glioblastoma. Fifty-seven patients with glioblastoma (25 newly-diagnosed/32 recurrent) were examined with GE- and SE-DSC perfusion sequences, and a quantitative blood-oxygen-level-dependent (qBOLD) approach...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266345/arterial-stiffness-and-cognitive-function
#14
Laure Joly
Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of morbidity (infarction, fatal stroke) and cardiovascular mortality, especially in elderly, hypertensive patients with pre-terminal renal insufficiency and in coronary disease patients. The gold standard of its measurement is the pulse wave velocity assessment. The important increase in arterial stiffness that occurs during midlife is associated with the occurrence of severe cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and also cognitive decline. The causal relationship between stiffening of the arterial tree and cognitive disorders has not yet been clearly established, however, many studies show a relationship between higher levels of aortic stiffness and poorer performance on cognitive memory tests...
March 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263803/prostaglandin-e2-regulates-renal-function-in-c57-bl6-mouse-with-5-6-nephrectomy
#15
J Jin, Q Tang, Z Li, Z Zhao, Z Zhang, L Lu, T Zhu, P M Vanhoutte, S W Leung, R Tu, Y Shi
AIMS: To investigate the roles of cyclooxygenases (COX) and their metabolites in C57/BL6 mice with 5/6 nephrectomy, an animal model of chronic renal failure. MAIN METHODS: C57/BL6 mice were grouped into sham-operated (2K), one kidney removal (1K) and 5/6 nephrectomy groups (5/6Nx). Renal resistive index was measured by ultrasonography. Blood, aortae, renal arteries and renal cortex were collected for measurement of kidney function, assessment of vascular responsiveness, Western blotting, immuohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...
March 2, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245546/luteolin-inhibits-fibrillary-%C3%AE-amyloid1-40-induced-inflammation-in-a-human-blood-brain-barrier-model-by-suppressing-the-p38-mapk-mediated-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways
#16
Jun-Xia Zhang, Jian-Guo Xing, Lin-Lin Wang, Hai-Lun Jiang, Shui-Long Guo, Rui Liu
Amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) exist in several forms and are known as key modulators of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Fibrillary Aβ (fAβ) has been found to disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by triggering and promoting inflammation. In this study, luteolin, a naturally occurring flavonoid that has shown beneficial properties in the central nervous system, was evaluated as a potential agent to preserve barrier function and inhibit inflammatory responses at the BBB that was injured by fAβ1-40. We established an in vitro BBB model by co-culturing human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMECs) and human astrocytes (hAs) under fAβ1-40-damaged conditions and investigated the effect of luteolin by analyzing cellular toxicity, barrier function, cytokine production and inflammation-related intracellular signaling pathways...
February 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236374/adaptive-outcomes-of-microvascular-networks-to-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-insulin-resistance
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236373/insidious-incrementalism-the-silent-failure-of-the-microcirculation-with-increasing-peripheral-vascular-disease-risk
#18
REVIEW
Kent Lemaster, Dwayne Jackson, Daniel Goldman, Jefferson C Frisbee
This review summarizes material presented in "Adaptive Outcomes of Microvascular Networks to Obesity and Type II Diabetes/Insulin Resistance" on July 30, 2016, at the Joint Meeting of the American Physiological Society and the Physiological Society, in Dublin, Ireland. We discuss the poor predictive power of traditional markers of vascular dysfunction for functional outcomes of muscle fatigue-resistance and active hyperemia within the setting of elevated peripheral vascular disease risk. Using the obese Zucker rat model of the metabolic syndrome, we describe how blood flow distribution at arteriolar bifurcations (γ) is altered with PVD risk reflecting increased spatial heterogeneity of distribution within networks...
February 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235790/short-term-regular-aerobic-exercise-reduces-oxidative-stress-produced-by-acute-high-intraluminal-pressure-in-the-adipose-microvasculature
#19
Austin T Robinson, Ibra S Fancher, Varadarajan Sudhahar, Jing Tan Bian, Marc Cook, Abeer M Mahmoud, Mohamed Ali, Masuko Ushio-Fukai, Michael D Brown, Tohru Fukai, Shane A Phillips
High blood pressure has been shown to elicit impaired dilation in the vasculature. The purpose of this investigation was to elucidate the mechanisms through which high pressure may elicit vascular dysfunction, and determine the mechanisms through which regular aerobic exercise protects arteries against high pressure. METHODS: Male C57Bl6 mice were subjected to two weeks of voluntary running (~ 6km/day) for comparison to sedentary controls. Hind limb adipose resistance arteries were dissected from mice for measurement of flow-induced dilation (FID; with or without high intraluminal pressure exposure); or protein expression of NADPH oxidase II (NOX II) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)...
February 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235604/mir-466b-1-3p-regulates-p-glycoprotein-expression-in-rat-cerebral-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#20
Xiaobo Yang, Weimin Ren, Yiye Shao, Yinghui Chen
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders, and approximately one-third of epilepsy cases are resistant to treatment with anti-epileptic drug (AED). P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a multi-drug transporter that is thought to play a pivotal role in multiple drug resistance (MDR) in epilepsy. The regulatory mechanism of P-gp remains largely unknown; however, recent studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) may regulate the chemo-resistance mediated by P-gp. This study investigated the effect of specific miRNAs that regulate P-gp expression in rat cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (RCMECs)...
February 22, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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