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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356459/costs-of-immune-responses-are-related-to-host-body-size-and-lifespan
#1
Amber J Brace, Marc J Lajeunesse, Daniel R Ardia, Dana M Hawley, James S Adelman, Katherine L Buchanan, Jeanne M Fair, Jennifer L Grindstaff, Kevin D Matson, Lynn B Martin
A central assumption in ecological immunology is that immune responses are costly, with costs manifesting directly (e.g., increases in metabolic rate and increased amino acid usage) or as tradeoffs with other life processes (e.g., reduced growth and reproductive success). Across taxa, host longevity, timing of maturity, and reproductive effort affect the organization of immune systems. It is reasonable, therefore, to expect that these and related factors should also affect immune activation costs. Specifically, species that spread their breeding efforts over a long lifetime should experience lower immune costs than those that mature and breed quickly and die comparatively early...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356443/immune-profiles-vary-seasonally-but-are-not-significantly-related-to-migration-distance-or-natal-dispersal-in-a-migratory-songbird
#2
Tosha R Kelly, Heather L MacGillivray, Keith A Hobson, Scott A MacDougall-Shackleton, Elizabeth A MacDougall-Shackleton
A central tenet of ecoimmunology is that an organism's environment shapes its optimal investment in immunity. For example, the benefits of acquired (relatively pathogen specific) versus innate (nonspecific) immune defenses are thought to vary with the risk of encountering familiar versus unfamiliar pathogens. Because pathogen communities vary geographically, individuals that travel farther during seasonal migration or natal dispersal are predicted to have higher exposure to novel pathogens, and lower exposure to familiar pathogens, potentially favoring investment in innate immunity...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356441/parent-and-clinician-agreement-regarding-early-behavioral-signs-in-12-and-18-month-old-infants-at-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Lori-Ann R Sacrey, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Susan Bryson, Jessica Brian, Isabel M Smith, Wendy Roberts, Peter Szatmari, Tracy Vaillancourt, Caroline Roncadin, Nancy Garon
Parent and clinician agreement regarding early behavioral signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in children from a high-risk cohort (siblings of children diagnosed with ASD, n = 188) was examined. Infants were assessed prospectively at 12 and 18 months of age using the clinician administered Autism Observational Scale for Infants (AOSI) and the Autism Parent Screen for Infants (APSI) and underwent a blind independent diagnostic assessment for ASD at 36 months of age. Direct comparison of parent and clinician ratings showed poor agreement on all early behavioral signs, with parent-reported symptoms being better able to differentiate between children with and without ASD at both 12 and 18 months of age compared to clinician observations during a brief office visit...
January 22, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356430/morph-specific-metabolic-rate-and-the-timing-of-reproductive-senescence-in-a-color-polymorphic-dragon
#4
Christopher R Friesen, Rasmus Johansson, Mats Olsson
Polymorphism has fascinated biologists for over a century because morphs persist within populations through evolutionary time in spite of showing disparate behavioral and physiological phenotypes; any one morph should go to fixation with the slightest fitness advantage over the others. Surely there must be trade-offs that balance selection on them. The polychromatic morphs of the Australian painted dragon lizard, Ctenophorus pictus, are one such system. The male color morphs of painted dragons have different physiological and behavioral traits including reproductive tactics, hormone levels, and the rate of body condition loss through the reproductive season...
August 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356427/a-computational-investigation-of-sources-of-variability-in-sentence-comprehension-difficulty-in-aphasia
#5
Paul Mätzig, Shravan Vasishth, Felix Engelmann, David Caplan, Frank Burchert
We present a computational evaluation of three hypotheses about sources of deficit in sentence comprehension in aphasia: slowed processing, intermittent deficiency, and resource reduction. The ACT-R based Lewis and Vasishth (2005) model is used to implement these three proposals. Slowed processing is implemented as slowed execution time of parse steps; intermittent deficiency as increased random noise in activation of elements in memory; and resource reduction as reduced spreading activation. As data, we considered subject vs...
January 22, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356420/copy-number-variation-of-a-protease-gene-of-daphnia-its-role-in-population-tolerance
#6
Anke Schwarzenberger, Nathan R Keith, Craig E Jackson, Eric Von Elert
Copy number variation (CNV) of genes coding for certain enzymes has been shown to be responsible for adaptation of arthropods to anthropogenic toxins. Natural toxins produced by cyanobacteria in freshwater ecosystems, that is, protease inhibitors (PIs), have been demonstrated to increase in frequency over the last decades due to eutrophication and global warming. These PIs inhibit digestive proteases of Daphnia, the major herbivore of phytoplankton and cyanobacteria. The adjustment of isoforms, differences in gene expression, and activity of gut proteases determine tolerance to dietary PIs in single Daphnia genotypes...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356406/origin-of-sex-chromosomes-in-six-groups-of-rana-rugosa-frogs-inferred-from-a-sex-linked-dna-marker
#7
Akira Oike, Koichiro Watanabe, Mi-Sook Min, Koji Tojo, Masahide Kumagai, Yuya Kimoto, Tadashi Yamashiro, Takanori Matsuo, Maho Kodama, Yoriko Nakamura, Masaru Notsu, Takeyoshi Tochimoto, Hiroyuki Fujita, Maki Ota, Etsuro Ito, Shigeki Yasumasu, Masahisa Nakamura
Each vertebrate species, as a general rule, has either the XX/XY or ZZ/ZW chromosomes by which sex is determined. However, the Japanese Rana (R.) rugosa frog is an exception, possessing both sex-determining combinations within one species, varying with region of origin. We collected R. rugosa frogs from 104 sites around Japan and South Korea and determined the nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene. Based on the sequences, R. rugosa frogs were divided into four groups from Japan and one from South Korea...
August 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356388/analysis-of-the-moment-arms-and-kinematics-of-ostrich-struthio-camelus-double-patellar-sesamoids
#8
Sophie Regnault, Vivian R Allen, Kyle P Chadwick, John R Hutchinson
The patella ("kneecap") is a biomechanically important feature of the tendinous insertion of the knee extensor muscles, able to alter the moment arm lengths between its input and output tendons, and so modify the mechanical advantage of the knee extensor muscle. However, patellar gearing function is little-explored outside of humans, and the patella is often simplified or ignored in biomechanical models. Here, we investigate patellar gearing and kinematics in the ostrich-frequently used as an animal analogue to human bipedal locomotion and unusual in its possession of two patellae at the knee joint...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356372/rapid-generation-of-3-d-microchannels-for-vascularization-using-a-subtractive-printing-technique
#9
Stephanie R Burtch, Mahyar Sameti, Richard Ty Olmstead, Chris A Bashur
The development of tissue engineered products has been limited by lack of a perfused microvasculature that delivers nutrients and maintains cell viability. Current strategies to promote vascularization such as additive 3-D printing techniques have limitations. This study validates the use of an ultra-fast laser subtractive printing technique to generate capillary-sized channels in hydrogels pre-populated with cells by demonstrating cell viability relative to the photodisrupted channels in the gel. The system can move the focal spot laterally in the gel at a rate of 2,500 mm/s by using a galvanometric scanner to raster the in plane focal spot...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356365/risk-network-approaches-to-locating-undiagnosed-hiv-cases-in-odessa-ukraine
#10
Pavlo Smyrnov, Leslie D Williams, Ania Korobchuk, Yana Sazonova, Georgios K Nikolopoulos, Britt Skaathun, Ethan Morgan, John Schneider, Tetyana I Vasylyeva, Samuel R Friedman
INTRODUCTION: Providing HIV healthcare and Treatment as Prevention both depend on diagnosing HIV cases, preferably soon after initial infection. We hypothesized that tracing risk networks recruits higher proportions of undiagnosed positives than outreach-based testing or respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in Odessa, Ukraine. METHODS: The Transmission Reduction Intervention Project (TRIP) used risk network tracing to recruit sexual and injection networks of recently-infected and longer-term infected (LTs) seeds (2013 to 2016)...
January 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356354/functional-differentiation-of-three-pores-for-effective-sulfur-confinement-in-li-s-battery
#11
Qian Wang, Minghui Yang, Zhen-Bo Wang, Chao Li, Da-Ming Gu
Shuttle effect of the dissolved intermediates is regarded as the primary cause that leads to fast capacity degradation of Li-S battery. Herein, a microporous carbon-coated sulfur composite with novel rambutan shape (R-S@MPC) is synthesized from microporous carbon-coated rambutan-like zinc sulfide (R-ZnS@MPC), via an in situ oxidation process. The R-ZnS is employed as both template and sulfur precursor. The carbon frame of R-S@MPC composite possesses three kinds of pores that are distinctly separated from each other in space and are endowed with the exclusive functions...
January 22, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356353/effect-of-the-prevent-alcohol-and-risk-related-trauma-in-youth-p-a-r-t-y-program-among-senior-school-students
#12
Anna Gunn, Janet McLeod, Rebecca Chapman, Hayley Ball, Mark Fitzgerald, Teresa Howard, Peter Cameron, Biswadev Mitra
OBJECTIVE: The Prevent Alcohol and Risk-Related Trauma in Youth (P.A.R.T.Y.) Program at The Alfred uses vivid clinical reality to build resilience and prevent injury by following a trauma patient's journey through hospital. The present study aims to analyse the effect of P.A.R.T.Y. on safety perceptions of driving after alcohol, seat belt use and risk-taking activities. METHODS: Pre-programme, immediately post-programme and 3-5 months post-programme surveys with questions focused on the programme aims were distributed to all consented participants...
January 21, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356345/four-days-of-simulated-shift-work-reduces-insulin-sensitivity-in-humans
#13
R Bescos, M J Boden, M L Jackson, A J Trewin, E C Marin, I Levinger, A Garnham, D S Hiam, F Falcao-Tebas, F Conte, J A Owens, D J Kennaway, G K McConell
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of four consecutive simulated night shifts on glucose homeostasis, mitochondrial function and central and peripheral rhythmicity compared with a simulated day shift schedule. METHODS: Seventeen healthy adults (8M:9F) matched for sleep, physical activity, and dietary/fat intake participated in this study (night shift work n= 9; day shift work n= 8). Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity before and after 4 nights of shift work were measured by an intravenous glucose tolerance test and a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, respectively...
January 22, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356341/cryopreserved-neonatal-hepatocytes-may-be-a-source-for-transplantation-evaluation-of-functionality-towards-clinical-use
#14
Charlotte A Lee, Anil Dhawan, Valeria Iansante, Sharon Lehec, Shirin Elizabeth Khorsandi, Celine Filippi, Simon Walker, Raquel Fernandez-Dacosta, Nigel Heaton, Sanjay Bansal, Ragai R Mitry, Emer Fitzpatrick
Neonatal livers are a potential source of good quality hepatocytes for clinical transplantation. We compared viability and function of neonatal and adult hepatocytes, and report their clinical use both intra-portally and in alginate microbeads. Following isolation from donor livers, hepatocyte function was assessed using albumin, alpha-1 antitrypsin and factor VII. Metabolic function was investigated by measuring resorufin conjugation, ammonia metabolism, UGT enzyme activity and cytochrome P450 function following induction...
January 21, 2018: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356300/pathophysiology-of-thrombotic-thrombocytopenic-purpura-and-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome
#15
Johanna A Kremer Hovinga, Silvan R Heeb, Magdalena Skowronska, Monica Schaller
Thrombotic microangiopathies are rare disorders characterized by the concomitant occurrence of severe thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and a variable degree of ischemic end organ damage. The latter particularly affects the brain, the heart and the kidneys. The primary forms, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), although in their clinical presentation often overlapping, have distinctive pathophysiologies. TTP is the consequence of a severe ADAMTS13 deficiency, immune-mediated due to circulating autoantibodies (iTTP), or caused by mutations in the ADAMTS13 gene (cTTP)...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356276/influence-of-breathing-patterns-and-orthostatic-stress-on-postural-control-in-older-adults
#16
Gabriel D Rodrigues, Jonas L Gurgel, Thiago R Gonçalves, Flávia Porto, Pedro Paulo da S Soares
AIM: To investigate the influence of breathing patterns and blood pressure behavior postural control in older adults. METHODS: A total of 20 older adults carried out spontaneous, controlled (15 cycles/min) and deep (6 cycles/min) breathing trials, in random order. In this session, the heart rate was recorded continuously and blood pressure measured every 3 min. In addition, the challenge from sitting to an active standing position was carried out with eyes closed during 6 min on a baropodometer plate with electromyography recording...
January 22, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356268/chiral-stable-thermally-activated-delayed-fluorescence-enantiomers-for-highly-efficient-oleds-with-circularly-polarized-electroluminescence
#17
Chuan-Feng Chen, Meng Li, Si-Hua Li, Dongdong Zhang, Minghan Cai, Lian Duan, Man-Keung Fung
A couple of chiral aromatic imide based TADF enantiomers (+)-(S,S)-CAI-Cz and (-)-(R,R)-CAI-Cz were efficiently synthesized by introducing chiral 1,2-diaminocyclohexane into achiral TADF unit. The TADF enantiomers exhibited high PLQY of up to 98 %, small ∆EST of 0.06 eV, as well as obvious temperature-dependent transient PL spectra, demonstrating their excellent TADF properties. Moreover, the TADF enantiomers with optical stabilities also showed mirror-image CD and CPL activities. Especially, the CP-OLEDs with CPEL properties based on the TADF enantiomers not only achieved high EQE of up to 19...
January 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356247/a-comprehensive-survey-of-aeromonas-spp-and-vibrio-spp-in-seabirds-from-southeastern-brazil-outcomes-for-public-health
#18
Maíra Duarte Cardoso, Leila Soledade Lemos, Emily Moraes Roges, Jailson Fulgencio de Moura, Davi Castro Tavares, Carlos Alexandre R Matias, Dália Dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Salvatore Siciliano
AIMS: To perform a microbiological survey regarding the presence, prevalence and characterization of Aeromonas sp. and Vibrio sp. in debilitated wrecked marine birds recovered from the center-north coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS AND RESULTS: Swabs obtained from 116 alive and debilitated wrecked marine birds, comprising 19 species, from the study area were evaluated by biochemical methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests and pathogenicity gene screening were performed for bacterial strains of public health importance...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356239/phonological-processing-during-silent-reading-in-teenagers-who-are-deaf-hard-of-hearing-an-eye-movement-investigation
#19
Hazel I Blythe, Jonathan H Dickins, Colin R Kennedy, Simon P Liversedge
There has been considerable variability within the literature concerning the extent to which deaf/hard of hearing individuals are able to process phonological codes during reading. Two experiments are reported in which participants' eye movements were recorded as they read sentences containing correctly spelled words (e.g., church), pseudohomophones (e.g., cherch), and spelling controls (e.g., charch). We examined both foveal processing and parafoveal pre-processing of phonology for three participant groups-teenagers with permanent childhood hearing loss (PCHL), chronological age-matched controls, and reading age-matched controls...
January 22, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356220/comparison-of-false-negative-rates-and-limits-of-detection-following-macrofoam-swab-sampling-of-bacillus-anthracis-surrogates-via-rapid-viability-pcr-and-plate-culture
#20
Janine R Hutchison, Greg F Piepel, Brett G Amidan, Becky M Hess, Michael A Sydor, Brooke L Deatherage Kaiser
AIMS: We evaluated the effects of Bacillus anthracis surrogates, low surface concentrations, surface materials, and assay methods on false-negative rate (FNR) and limit of detection (LOD95 ) for recovering Bacillus spores using a macrofoam-swab sampling procedure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacillus anthracis Sterne or Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura spores were deposited over a range of low target concentrations (2 - 500 coupon-1 ) onto glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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