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M C Lardone, F Argandoña, M Flórez, A Parada-Bustamante, M Ebensperger, C Palma, A Piottante, A Castro
Several observational studies have showed a combination of lower testosterone (T) to LH ratio and higher estradiol (E2 ) to T ratio in secretory infertile men compared to men with normal spermatogenesis, suggesting a steroidogenic dysfunction of Leydig cells (Lc) that may involve increased aromatase activity. Low T/LH ratio is associated with Lc hyperplasia, which together with LH hyperstimulation may represent compensation for impaired T production. Aromatase expression and oestrogen production are mainly detected in Lc of the testis, although Sertoli and germ cells also contribute to testicular aromatase activity...
October 21, 2016: Andrology
R Boni, A Gallo, S Cecchini
Owing to the progressive decline of sperm motility during storage there is a need to find substances capable of enhancing sperm energy metabolism and motility and/or preserving it from oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate in frozen/thawed bovine spermatozoa the effect of several compounds, such as myo-inositol, pentoxifylline, penicillamine + hypotaurine + epinephrine mixture (PHE), caffeine and coenzyme Q10+ zinc + d-aspartate mixture (CZA), on either kinetic or metabolic parameters. Sperm kinetics was evaluated by Sperm Class Analyser whereas specific fluorochromes were used to evaluated mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular pH, intracellular calcium concentration and lipid peroxidation...
October 21, 2016: Andrology
Collin W Blackburn, Sarah R Vossoughi, Bukola Ojo, Prakash Gorroochurn, Charles C Marboe, Yelena Akelina, Robert J Strauch
Background During microvascular anastomosis, needle placement is facilitated by inserting the tips of the forceps into the lumen of the vessel, rather than grasping and everting the luminal wall, to minimize trauma to the vessel. This study examines whether the vessel wall can be grasped and everted during microvascular anastomosis without compromising surgical outcomes. Methods A total of 20 Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 252 and 483 g were used. Bilateral anastomoses of the animals' femoral arteries (mean size: 0...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
Vincent K Dik, Ignace T C Hooge, Martijn G H van Oijen, Peter D Siersema
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Considerable variation in adenoma detection has been shown between endoscopists, which may be explained by differences in colon inspection. Eye-tracking technology is an objective tool that detects differences in viewing patterns. We investigated the feasibility of eye-tracking technology during real-time, self-performed colonoscopies. METHODS: In this pilot study, 10 endoscopists performed two colonoscopies each. A mobile eye-tracking system to register the right eye position was used to determine the gaze across four areas of interest of the endoscopy monitor (upper, lower, left, and right quadrant)...
December 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Christina Gutierrez Bracamontes, Rebecca Lopez-Valdez, Ramadevi Subramani, Arunkumar Arumugam, Sushmita Nandy, Venkatesh Rajamanickam, Vignesh Ravichandran, Rajkumar Lakshmanaswamy
Early parity reduces the risk of breast cancer in women while nulliparity and late parity increase the risk of breast cancer. In order to translate this protection to women where early pregnancy is not feasible, much work has focused on understanding how parity confers protection against breast cancer, the molecular mechanisms by which this occurs is still not well understood. Healthy parous and nulliparous women were recruited for this study. We assessed serum protein profiles of early parous, late parous, and nulliparous women using the Phospho Explorer antibody array...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Amber A Bokhari, Laura R Lee, Dewayne Raboteau, Jane Turbov, Isabel V Rodriguez, J Wesley Pike, Chad A Hamilton, G Larry Maxwell, Gustavo C Rodriguez, Viqar Syed
Here, we evaluated the expression of CYP24A1, a protein that inactivates vitamin D in tissues. CYP24A1 expression was increased in advanced-stage endometrial tumors compared to normal tissues. Similarly, endometrial cancer cells expressed higher levels of CYP24A1 than immortalized endometrial epithelial cells. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to examine CYP24A1 mRNA and protein levels in endometrial cancer cells after 8, 24, 72, and 120 h of exposure to progesterone, progestin derivatives and calcitriol, either alone or in combination...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Erika Heninger, Timothy E G Krueger, Stephanie M Thiede, Jamie M Sperger, Brianna L Byers, Madison R Kircher, David Kosoff, Bing Yang, David F Jarrard, Douglas G McNeel, Joshua M Lang
Immune tolerance to self-antigens can limit robust anti-tumor immune responses in the use of tumor vaccines. Expression of novel tumor associated antigens can improve immune recognition and lysis of tumor cells. The cancer-testis antigen (CTA) family of proteins has been hypothesized to be an ideal class of antigens due to tumor-restricted expression, a subset of which have been found to induce antibody responses in patients with prostate disease. We demonstrate that CTA expression is highly inducible in five different Prostate Cancer (PC) cell lines using a hypomethylating agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5AZA) and/or a histone deacetylase inhibitor LBH589...
October 17, 2016: Oncotarget
Rania R Abdelaziz, Wagdi F Elkashef, Eman Said
Silicosis is a crippling respiratory disorder characterized by massive lung inflammation and fibrosis. The current study provides evidence on the protective potential of tadalafil; a specific phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor against experimentally-induced pulmonary silicosis in rats. Silicosis was induced by intranasal instillation of crystalline silica (50mg/rat). Halofuginone hydrobromide; a standard collagen-1 synthesis inhibitor was selected as a reference anti-fibrotic. Daily oral administration of tadalafil (1mg/kg) for 8weeks significantly ameliorated silica-induced pulmonary damage...
October 18, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
E Kamanga-Sollo, K J Thornton, M E White, W R Dayton
In feedlot steers, estradiol-17β (E2) and combined E2 and trenbolone acetate (a testosterone analog) implants enhance rate and efficiency of muscle growth; and, consequently, these compounds are widely used as growth promoters in several countries. Treatment with E2 stimulates protein synthesis rate and suppresses protein degradation rate in fused bovine satellite cell (BSC) cultures; however, the mechanisms involved in these effects are not known with certainty. Although the genomic effects of E2 mediated through the classical estrogen receptors have been characterized, recent studies indicate that binding of E2 to the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER)-1 mediates nongenomic effects of E2 on cellular function...
September 13, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Kate Ablett, Andrew R Thompson
Childhood skin conditions can affect the quality of life of children, adolescents, and families. As such, paediatric dermatological conditions have been the focus of a number of qualitative studies and there is now a need to integrate the findings. A meta-ethnography was carried out with the existing 12 studies, which included nine studies examining parental experiences and three studies of child experiences. Meta-ethnographic analysis of the studies identified themes focused on the child's sense of stigmatisation and the challenges for families that arose from this...
October 18, 2016: Body Image
Yi Wang, Yao-Xin Lin, Sheng-Lin Qiao, Hong-Wei An, Yang Ma, Zeng-Ying Qiao, R P Yeshan J Rajapaksha, Hao Wang
Immunotherapy has shown a promising effect for a variety of cancers. However, the immune treatment efficiency of solid tumor is limited due to barely infiltration of immune cells in solid tumor. Researchers realized conversion of tumor supportive macrophages to tumor against ones was an effective method to induce the functional reverse of macrophage and contributed to the subsequent antitumor response. The current challenge in the field is that while making use of cytokines usually coupled with poor-distribution and systemic side effects...
October 4, 2016: Biomaterials
Alexandra C Sundermann, Troy D Abell, Lisa C Baker, Mark B Mengel, Kathryn E Reilly, Michael A Bonow, Gregory E Hoy, Richard D Clover
BACKGROUND: The specialization of human fat deposits is an inquiry of special importance in the study of fetal growth. It has been theorized that maternal lower-body fat is designated specifically for lactation and not for the growth of the fetus. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to compare the contributions of maternal upper-body versus lower-body adiposity to infant birth weight. We hypothesized that upper-body adiposity would be strongly associated with infant birth weight and that lower-body adiposity would be weakly or negligibly associated with infant birth weight-after adjusting for known determinants...
September 21, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Kartik Ramakrishna, Kalpana Premkumar, Jayakanthan Kabeerdoss, K R John
BACKGROUND & AIM: Innate immune responses are important in susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). In order to test the hypothesis that Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 function would be abnormal in patients with active pulmonary TB we compared the cytokine responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to innate immune ligands in a case-control study. METHODS: PBMC from 19 untreated pulmonary TB patients, 17 healthy controls, and 11 treated pulmonary TB patients, were cultured for 24h with TLR 2 ligand (PAM-CSK) and other TLR ligands (muramyl dipeptide, flagellin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN))...
October 18, 2016: Cytokine
Wei Huang, Ying-Jie Yang, Hong Hu, Shi-Bao Zhang
Low temperature associated with high light can induce photoinhibition of photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII). However, the photosynthetic electron flow and specific photoprotective responses in alpine evergreen broad-leaf plants in winter is unclear. We analyzed seasonal changes in PSI and PSII activities, and energy quenching in PSI and PSII in three alpine broad-leaf tree species, Quercus guyavifolia (Fagaceae), Rhododendron decorum (Ericaceae), Euonymus tingens (Celastraceae). In winter, PSII activity remained stable in Q...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Anirban Basu, Gopinatha Suresh Kumar
Interaction of proflavine with hemoglobin (Hgb) was studied employing spectroscopy, calorimetry, and atomic force microscopy. The equilibrium constant was found to be of the order 10(4)M(-1). The quenching of Hgb fluorescence by proflavine was due to the complex formation. Calculation of the molecular distance (r) between the donor (β-Trp37 of Hgb) and acceptor (proflavine) suggested that energy can be efficiently transferred from the β-Trp37 residue at the α1β2 interface of the protein to the dye. Proflavine induced significant secondary structural changes in Hgb...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Camilo A F Salvador, Mariana R Dal Bó, Fernando H Costa, Marcia O Taipina, Eder S N Lopes, Rubens Caram
In this study, we explored the Ti-Nb-Fe system to find an optimal cost-effective composition with the lowest elastic modulus and the lowest added Nb content. Six Ti-(31-4x)Nb-(1+0.5x)Fe ingots were prepared and Nb was substituted with Fe, starting at Ti-31Nb-1.0Fe and going up to Ti-11Nb-3.5Fe (wt%). The ingots were subjected to cold rolling, recrystallization and solution treatment, followed by water-quenching (WQ), furnace cooling (FC) or step-quenching to 350°C, which caused massive formation of isothermal ω phase...
September 19, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Xiang-Xin Huang, Yun-Xuan Li, Xiang-Yu Li, Xiao-Xia Hu, Peng-Fei Tang, Guo-Xin Hu
Currently, crizotinib is the first generation drug, which has been used in the treatment of ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, more and more patients are found in crizotinib-resistance. In the last year, alectinib has been approved for treatment of patients with crizotinib-resistance. In this study, we aim to develop and validate a simple, rapid and sensitive tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of alectinib in rat plasma. Diazepam was chosen as an internal standard (IS)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Helene R White, Jordan Beardslee, Dustin Pardini
OBJECTIVE: Although several studies have delineated risk factors for adolescent regular marijuana use, few studies have identified those factors that differentiate who will and will not eventually stop using marijuana during young adulthood. This study examined the extent to which adolescent risk factors, including individual attitudes, temperament, and behaviors and peer, family, and neighborhood factors, could prospectively identify which adolescence-onset monthly marijuana users (AMMU) would stop using marijuana in young adulthood and whether race moderated these associations...
October 10, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Svetlana V Fedorenko, Svetlana L Grechkina, Asiya R Mustafina, Kirill V Kholin, Alexey S Stepanov, Irek R Nizameev, Ildus E Ismaev, Marsil K Kadirov, Rustem R Zairov, Alfia N Fattakhova, Rustem R Amirov, Svetlana E Soloveva
The present work introduces deliberate synthesis of Gd(III)-doped silica nanoparticles with high relaxivity at magnetic field strengths below 1.5T. Modified microemulsion water-in-oil procedure was used in order to achieve superficial localization of Gd(III) complexes within 40-55nm sized silica spheres. The relaxivities of the prepared nanoparticles were measured at 0.47, 1.41 and 1.5T with the use of both NMR analyzer and whole body NMR scanner. Longitudinal relaxivities of the obtained silica nanoparticles reveal significant dependence on the confinement mode, changing from 4...
October 14, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Adrian R Ferré-D'Amaré
Sequence-specific nucleic acid binding proteins do not recognize one sequence out of all possibilities; rather, they bind to many sequences with a range of affinities. In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Lin et al. (2016), describe the entire landscape of affinities between different RNA molecules and an RNA-binding protein, thus providing a comprehensive description of the factors affecting specificity.
October 20, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
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