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junctional hemorrhage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095204/improvement-of-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-in-traumatic-brain-injury-and-hemorrhagic-shock-following-treatment-with-valproic-acid-and-fresh-frozen-plasma
#1
Vahagn C Nikolian, Simone E Dekker, Ted Bambakidis, Gerald A Higgins, Isabel S Dennahy, Patrick E Georgoff, Aaron M Williams, Anuska V Andjelkovic, Hasan B Alam
OBJECTIVE: Combined traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock are highly lethal. Following injuries, the integrity of the blood-brain barrier can be impaired, contributing to secondary brain insults. The status of the blood-brain barrier represents a potential factor impacting long-term neurologic outcomes in combined injuries. Treatment strategies involving plasma-based resuscitation and valproic acid therapy have shown efficacy in this setting. We hypothesize that a component of this beneficial effect is related to blood-brain barrier preservation...
October 31, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084268/early-structural-changes-of-the-heart-after-experimental-polytrauma-and-hemorrhagic-shock
#2
Christian K Braun, Miriam Kalbitz, Rebecca Halbgebauer, Philipp Eisele, David A C Messerer, Sebastian Weckbach, Anke Schultze, Sonja Braumüller, Florian Gebhard, Markus S Huber-Lang
Evidence is emerging that systemic inflammation after trauma drives structural and functional impairment of cardiomyocytes and leads to cardiac dysfunction, thus worsening the outcome of polytrauma patients. This study investigates the structural and molecular changes in heart tissue 4 h after multiple injuries with additional hemorrhagic shock using a clinically relevant rodent model of polytrauma. We determined mediators of systemic inflammation (keratinocyte chemoattractant, macrophage chemotactic protein 1), activated complement component C3a and cardiac troponin I in plasma and assessed histological specimen of the mouse heart via standard histomorphology and immunohistochemistry for cellular and subcellular damage and ongoing apoptosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077240/training-and-assessing-critical-airway-breathing-and-hemorrhage-control-procedures-for-trauma-care-live-tissue-versus-synthetic-models
#3
Danielle Hart, Robert Rush, Gregory Rule, Joseph Clinton, Gregory Beilman, Shilo Anders, Rachel Brown, Mary Ann McNeil, Troy Reihsen, Jeffrey Chipman, Robert Sweet
INTRODUCTION: Optimal teaching and assessment methods and models for emergency airway, breathing and hemorrhage interventions are not currently known. The University of Minnesota Combat Casualty Training consortium (UMN CCTC) was formed to explore the strengths and weaknesses of synthetic training models (STMs) versus Live tissue (LT) models. In this study, we compare the effectiveness of best in class STMs versus an anesthetized caprine (goat) model for training and assessing 7 procedures: Junctional hemorrhage control, Tourniquet (TQ) placement, Chest seal, Needle thoracostomy (NCD), Nasopharyngeal airway (NPA), Tube thoracostomy, and Cricothyrotomy (Cric)...
October 27, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073030/expanded-subgenomic-mrna-transcriptome-and-coding-capacity-of-a-nidovirus
#4
Han Di, Joseph C Madden, Esther K Morantz, Hsin-Yao Tang, Rachel L Graham, Ralph S Baric, Margo A Brinton
Members of the order Nidovirales express their structural protein ORFs from a nested set of 3' subgenomic mRNAs (sg mRNAs), and for most of these ORFs, a single genomic transcription regulatory sequence (TRS) was identified. Nine TRSs were previously reported for the arterivirus Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). In the present study, which was facilitated by next-generation sequencing, 96 SHFV body TRSs were identified that were functional in both infected MA104 cells and macaque macrophages. The abundance of sg mRNAs produced from individual TRSs was consistent over time in the two different cell types...
October 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061458/unilateral-symptomatic-hypertrophic-olivary-degeneration-secondary-to-midline-brainstem-cavernous-angioma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Jared Rosenblum, Matt Nazari, Yasir Al-Khalili, Valeria Potigailo, Erol Veznedaroglu
BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) is a rare phenomenon in the dento-rubro-olivary pathway due to lesion or disruption of the fibers of the Guillain-Mollaret Triangle. Hemorrhage of pontine and midbrain cavernous angiomas rarely can lead to hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) portending neurological deterioration and possible concomitant life-threatening complications; for this reason, it may define a poignant consideration in planning intervention. CASE DESCRIPTION: 57-year-old female with known midbrain-pontine cavernous angioma...
October 20, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048243/mithramycin-a-improves-functional-recovery-by-inhibiting-bscb-disruption-and-hemorrhage-after-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Jee Y Lee, Hae Y Choi, Chan S Park, Bong G Ju, Tae Y Yune
After spinal cord injury (SCI), blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption and progressive hemorrhage lead to secondary injury, subsequent apoptosis and/or necrosis of neurons and glia, causing permanent neurological deficits. Growing evidence indicates that mithramycin A (MA), an anti-cancer drug, has neuroprotective effects in ischemic brain injury and Huntington's disease (HD). However, the precise mechanism underlying its protective effects is largely unknown. Here, we examined the effect of MA on BSCB breakdown and hemorrhage as well as subsequent inflammation after SCI...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046467/-clinical-characteristics-of-craniocervical-junction-arteriovenous-fistulas
#7
Michio Nakamura, Tadashi Miyazaki, Natsuki Shinozaki, Masaki Izumi, Takashi Itabashi
OBJECTIVE: Craniocervical junction arteriovenous fistulas(CCJ-AVFs)are extremely rare lesions that may result in both subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH)and myelopathy. Diagnosis of CCJ-AVF is difficult and may be delayed due to variable clinical features and a spectrum of neuroradiological findings. To elucidate the clinical characteristics of CCJ-AVF, we analyzed the clinical symptoms, neuroimaging findings, and the results of surgical treatment in five patients. RESULTS: Among the five patients, four were diagnosed with dural AVFs, and the remaining patient was diagnosed with radicular AVF...
October 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017932/tanshinone-i-prevents-atorvastatin-induced-cerebral-hemorrhage-in-zebrafish-and-stabilizes-endothelial-cell-cell-adhesion-by-inhibiting-ve-cadherin-internalization-and-actin-myosin-contractility
#8
Bin Huang, Zhong-Yan Zhou, Shang Li, Xiao-Hui Huang, Jing-Yi Tang, Maggie Pui Man Hoi, Simon Ming Yuen Lee
Defects in vascular integrity in cerebrovasculature lead to serious pathologies including hemorrhagic stroke. The stability of cell adhesion junctions and actin-myosin contractile machinery are two major determinants for the integrity of endothelial monolayer. Here we have evaluated the protective effects of tanshinone I (Tan I), a lipophilic compound presents in Salvia miltiorrhiza, against atorvastatin-induced cerebral hemorrhage in zebrafish in vivo, and further dissected the molecular mechanisms in HUVECs...
October 7, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993442/in-room-assessment-of-intravascular-velocity-from-time-resolved-rotational-angiography-in-patients-with-arteriovenous-malformation-a-pilot-study
#9
Chung Jung Lin, Huai Che Yang, Ai Chi Chien, Wan Yuo Guo, Chih Chun Wu, Sheng Che Hung, Ko Kung Chen, Hsiu Mei Wu, Chao Bao Luo, Wei Fa Chu, Jia Sheng Hong, Chun Shien Frank Wu
BACKGROUND: Time-resolved rotational angiography (t-RA) enables interventionists to better comprehend complex arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), thereby facilitating endovascular treatment. However, its use in evaluating hemodynamic changes has rarely been explored. OBJECTIVE: This study uses t-RA to estimate intravascular flow in patients with AVM to compare this with flow in the normal population. METHODS: Patients with available t-RA scans were prospectively categorized into one of three groups: hemorrhagic AVM, non-hemorrhagic AVM and control...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974518/involvement-of-connexin-43-phosphorylation-and-gap-junctional-communication-between-smooth-muscle-cells-in-vasopressin-induced-rock-dependent-vasoconstriction-after-hemorrhagic-shock
#10
Guangming Yang, Xiaoyong Peng, Yue Wu, Tao Li, Liangming Liu
We examined the roles played by gap junctions (GJs) and the GJ channel protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced vasoconstriction after hemorrhagic shock and their relationship to Rho kinase (ROCK) and protein kinase C (PKC). The results showed that AVP induced an endothelium-independent contraction in rat superior mesenteric arteries (SMAs). Blocking the GJs significantly decreased the contractile response of SMAs and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to AVP after shock and hypoxia...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973675/the-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-early-brain-edema-score-predicts-delayed-cerebral-ischemia-and-clinical-outcomes
#11
Sung-Ho Ahn, Jude P Savarraj, Mubashir Pervez, Wesley Jones, Jin Park, Sang-Beom Jeon, Sun U Kwon, Tiffany R Chang, Kiwon Lee, Dong H Kim, Arthur L Day, H Alex Choi
BACKGROUND: Early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is an important determinant of clinical outcomes. However, a major hindrance to studies of EBI is the lack of radiographic surrogate marker. OBJECTIVE: To propose a scoring system based on early changes in clinically obtained computed tomography (CT), called the Subarachnoid hemorrhage Early Brain Edema Score (SEBES). METHODS: Patients with spontaneous aneurysmal SAH and a CT within 24 h of ictus were included...
July 7, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973104/use-of-resuscitative-endovascular-balloon-occlusion-of-the-aorta-for-proximal-aortic-control-in-patients-with-severe-hemorrhage-and-arrest
#12
Megan Brenner, William Teeter, Melanie Hoehn, Jason Pasley, Peter Hu, Shiming Yang, Anna Romagnoli, Jose Diaz, Deborah Stein, Thomas Scalea
Importance: Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is a percutaneous transfemoral balloon technique used in select centers for resuscitation and temporary hemostasis, often instead of emergency department thoracotomy. The ability to perform aortic occlusion (AO) with an intravascular device allows focused occlusion at the most distal level to perfuse proximal regions while slowing hemorrhage to injured areas. Objective: To describe what is to date the largest single-institution experience with REBOA in the United States...
September 27, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963098/stent-assisted-coiling-of-a-ruptured-vertebrobasilar-junction-aneurysm-via-direct-vertebral-artery-puncture
#13
Tomas Dobrocky, Juergen Beck, Jan Gralla, Pasquale Mordasini
A 78-year-old patient was admitted with subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by rupture of a broad-based vertebrobasilar junction aneurysm. Direct endovascular access to the vertebrobasilar circulation was not possible due to chronic occlusion of the proximal dominant left vertebral artery (VA), hypoplastic right VA and posterior communicating arteries. The distal cervical left VA was reconstituted by muscular branches of the ascending cervical artery. Therefore, endovascular access was gained by direct percutaneous VA puncture guided by a roadmap-controlled anterior approach at the level of C5 proximally to the main reconstituting collateral feeders...
September 27, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943870/gastrointestinal-tract-as-entry-route-for-hantavirus-infection
#14
Peter T Witkowski, Casey C Perley, Rebecca L Brocato, Jay W Hooper, Christian Jürgensen, Jörg-Dieter Schulzke, Detlev H Krüger, Roland Bücker
Background: Hantaviruses are zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fevers and are thought to be transmitted to humans by exposure to aerosolized excreta of infected rodents. Puumala virus (PUUV) is the predominant endemic hantavirus in Europe. A large proportion of PUUV-infected patients suffer from gastrointestinal symptoms of unclear origin. In this study we demonstrate that PUUV infection can occur via the alimentary tract. Methods: We investigated susceptibility of the human small intestinal epithelium for PUUV infection and analyzed the resistance of virions to gastric juice...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941872/effect-of-low-frequency-but-high-intensity-noise-exposure-on-swine-brain-blood-barrier-permeability-and-its-mechanism-of-injury
#15
Xiaoyun Wang, Yaowen Lai, Xiaojian Zhang, Jie Zhao
OBJECTIVES: Vibroacousitic disease (VAD) is caused by excessive exposure to low-frequency but high-intensity noise. The integrity of the brain blood barrier (BBB) is essential for the brain. The study aimed to investigate the effect of noise exposure on the BBB. METHODS: Healthy male Bama swine were exposed to 50, 70, 100, and 120Hz, 140dB noise for 30min. After exposure, CT brain imaging and ex vivo fluorescent imaging of parenchymal EB leakage were performed (each group consisted of N=3 swine)...
September 21, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931617/normobaric-hyperoxia-reduces-blood-occludin-fragments-in-rats-and-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke
#16
Shuhai Shi, Zhifeng Qi, Qingfeng Ma, Rong Pan, Graham S Timmins, Yongmei Zhao, Wenjuan Shi, Yunzhou Zhang, Xunming Ji, Ke Jian Liu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Damage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) increases the incidence of neurovascular complications, especially for cerebral hemorrhage after tPA (tissue-type plasminogen activator) therapy. Currently, there is no effective method to evaluate the extent of BBB damage to guide tPA use. Herein, we investigated whether blood levels of tight junction proteins could serve as biomarker of BBB damages in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in both rats and patients. We examined whether this biomarker could reflect the extent of BBB permeability during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and the effects of normobaric hyperoxia (NBO) on BBB damage...
October 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913126/angular-pregnancy
#17
İbrahim Alanbay, Mustafa Öztürk, Kazım Emre Karaşahin, Müfit Cemal Yenen
Angular pregnancy is a rare condition in which the embryo is implanted in the lateral angle of the uterine cavity, medial to the uterotubal junction and round ligament, and causes life-threatening obstetric complications. It is important to differentiate this condition from interstitial and cornual pregnancy because they all result in emergency conditions. Although angular pregnancy can progress to term pregnancy, it may be associated with major obstetric complications such as uterine rupture, placental retention, postpartum hemorrhage, or may need further surgery and hysterectomy...
December 2016: Turk J Obstet Gynecol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912935/baicalin-attenuates-subarachnoid-hemorrhagic-brain-injury-by-modulating-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-inflammation-and-oxidative-damage-in-mice
#18
Xianqing Shi, Yongjian Fu, SongSong Zhang, Hao Ding, Jin Chen
In subarachnoid hemorrhagic brain injury, the early crucial events are edema formation due to inflammatory responses and blood-brain barrier disruption. Baicalin, a flavone glycoside, has antineuroinflammatory and antioxidant properties. We examined the effect of baicalin in subarachnoid hemorrhagic brain injury. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was induced through filament perforation and either baicalin or vehicle was administered 30 min prior to surgery. Brain tissues were collected 24 hours after surgery after evaluation of neurological scores...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910471/evaluation-of-xstat%C3%A2-and-quickclot%C3%A2-combat-gauze%C3%A2-in-a-swine-model-of-lethal-junctional-hemorrhage-in-coagulopathic-swine
#19
Jennifer M Cox, Jason M Rall
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage is associated with most potentially survivable deaths on the battlefield. Effective and field-tested products are lacking to treat junctional and noncompressible injuries. XSTAT® is a newly developed, U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved product designed to treat junctional hemorrhage. The Committee on Tactical Combat Casualty Care has recently approved the product for use as part of its treatment guidelines, but data are lacking to assess its efficacy in different wounding patterns and physiologic states...
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899830/simple-lateral-suboccipital-approach-and-modification-for-vertebral-artery-aneurysms-a-study-of-52-cases-over-10-years
#20
Mardjono Tjahjadi, Behnam Rezai-Jahromi, Joseph Serrone, Ville Nurminen, Joham Choque-Velasquez, Riku Kivisaari, Hanna Lehto, Mika Niemelä, Juha Hernesniemi
INTRODUCTION: Complex skull base approaches are frequently used to treat intracranial vertebral artery (VA) and proximal posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysms. These complex procedures are associated with higher risk of neurovascular injury. Hence, a less invasive surgical approach is needed to improve treatment's efficacy and safety. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on clinical and radiological data from surgeries where simple lateral suboccipital and "lateral enough" approaches were used to clip VA aneurysms in the Department of Neurosurgery at Helsinki University Central Hospital from 2000 - 2009...
September 9, 2017: World Neurosurgery
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