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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743156/components-of-mesophyll-resistance-and-their-environmental-responses-a-theoretical-modeling-analysis
#1
Yi Xiao, Xin-Guang Zhu
Mesophyll resistance (rm ), together with stomatal resistance and biochemical limitations, are recognized as three critical factors limiting leaf photosynthesis. Contrary to the expectation of being a constant, rm not only varies with light and CO2 conditions but also shows different responses among species. To elucidate the mechanistic basis of these responses, we derived an analytical model of rm , which incorporates various anatomical and biochemical factors including permeabilities of cell wall and chloroplast envelope to CO2 and HCO3(-) , carbonic anhydrase activities in cytosol and stroma, Rubisco activities, and relative location of mitochondria and chloroplast...
July 25, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743062/peripheral-leucocytes-and-tissue-gene-expression-of-granzyme-b-perforin-system-and-serpinb9-impact-on-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-coronary-atherosclerosis
#2
Eman F Sanad, Nadia M Hamdy, Adel K El-Etriby, Samer A Sebak, Hala O El-Mesallamy
AIM: The imbalance between proapoptotic granzyme B (GZB)/perforin (PRF) system and proteinase inhibitor-9 (PI-9; serpinB9); the only known inhibitor of human GZB, has been demonstrated in atherosclerosis. However, their role in atherosclerosis with the impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) as well as their contribution to hallmarks of atherosclerosis is not clear. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: ELISA for serum insulin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and GZB levels in atherosclerotic coronary artery diseases (CAD) patients were estimated in comparison to apparently healthy controls, while GZB, PRF and PI-9 mRNA expression levels were quantified by Taqman RT-PCR in both peripheral leucocytes and atherosclerotic tissues...
July 12, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743061/circulating-ctrp9-levels-are-increased-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes-and-correlated-with-insulin-resistance
#3
Yanjun Jia, Xiaohe Luo, Ying Ji, Jingwen Xie, Han Jiang, Mao Fu, Xiaoqiang Li
AIMS: C1q/TNF-related protein-9 (CTRP9) is a novel adipokine that has been shown to promote lipid metabolism, enhance insulin sensitivity and protect against cardiovascular disease. However, previous studies in humans have produced controversial results regarding the association between CTRP9 and insulin resistance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships between CTRP9 and insulin resistance in Chinese population. METHODS: Subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n=108), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n=92), and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (nT2DM, n=106) were recruited to determining the circulating CTRP9 and adiponectin levels by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay...
July 8, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743060/glucose-fluctuation-and-the-resultant-endothelial-injury-are-correlated-with-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-dysfunction-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#4
Makoto Murata, Hitoshi Adachi, Shigeru Oshima, Masahiko Kurabayashi
AIMS: We evaluated whether glucose fluctuation (GF) causes vascular endothelial injury and affects glucometabolic factors during lengthy oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). METHODS: We enrolled consecutive 116 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) who were performed coronary angiography and 4-h OGTT. Blood samples were collected before and 4h after glucose load to measure endothelial injury factor [von Willebrand factor (vWF) and vWF/a disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type-1 motifs 13 (ADAMTS-13) ratio]...
July 8, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742985/gabab-receptors-suppress-burst-firing-in-reticular-thalamic-neurons
#5
Stuart M Cain, Esperanza Garcia, Zeina Waheed, Karen L Jones, Trevor J Bushell, Terrance P Snutch
Burst-firing in thalamic neurons is known to play a key role in mediating thalamocortical (TC) oscillations that are associated with non-REM sleep and some types of epileptic seizure. Within the TC system the primary output of GABAergic neurons in the reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN) is thought to induce the de-inactivation of T-type calcium channels in thalamic relay (TR) neurons, promoting burst-firing drive to the cortex and the propagation of TC network activity. However, RTN neurons also project back onto other neurons within the RTN...
July 25, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742872/the-wheat-wrky-transcription-factors-tawrky49-and-tawrky62-confer-differential-high-temperature-seedling-plant-resistance-to-puccinia-striiformis-f-sp-tritici
#6
Junjuan Wang, Fei Tao, Wei Tian, Zhongfeng Guo, Xianming Chen, Xiangming Xu, Hongsheng Shang, Xiaoping Hu
WRKY transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in plant resistance responses to pathogens. Wheat stripe rust, caused by the fungal pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is a destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. In this study, the two WRKY genes TaWRKY49 and TaWRKY62 were originally identified in association with high-temperature seedling-plant resistance to Pst (HTSP) resistance in wheat cultivar Xiaoyan 6 by RNA-seq. Interestingly, the expression levels of TaWRKY49 and TaWRKY62 were down- and up-regulated, respectively, during HTSP resistance in response to Pst...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742868/combining-ability-of-highland-tropic-adapted-potato-for-tuber-yield-and-yield-components-under-drought
#7
Betaw Hirut, Hussein Shimelis, Mengistu Fentahun, Merideth Bonierbale, Manuel Gastelo, Asrat Asfaw
Recurrent drought and late blight disease are the major factors limiting potato productivity in the northwest Ethiopian highlands. Incorporating drought tolerance and late blight resistance in the same genotypes will enable the development of cultivars with high and stable yield potential under erratic rainfall conditions. The objectives of this study were to assess combining ability effects and gene action for tuber yield and traits related to drought tolerance in the International Potato Centre's (CIP's) advanced clones from the late blight resistant breeding population B group 'B3C2' and to identify promising parents and families for cultivar development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742861/targeting-the-permeability-barrier-and-peptidoglycan-recycling-pathways-to-disarm-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-against-the-innate-immune-system
#8
Gabriel Torrens, Marcelo Pérez-Gallego, Bartolomé Moya, Marta Munar-Bestard, Laura Zamorano, Gabriel Cabot, Jesús Blázquez, Juan A Ayala, Antonio Oliver, Carlos Juan
Antimicrobial resistance is a continuously increasing threat that severely compromises our antibiotic arsenal and causes thousands of deaths due to hospital-acquired infections by pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, situation further aggravated by the limited development of new antibiotics. Thus, alternative strategies such as those targeting bacterial resistance mechanisms, virulence or potentiating the activity of our immune system resources are urgently needed. We have recently shown that mutations simultaneously causing the peptidoglycan recycling blockage and the β-lactamase AmpC overexpression impair the virulence of P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742812/broad-range-lytic-bacteriophages-that-kill-staphylococcus-aureus-local-field-strains
#9
Virginia Abatángelo, Natalia Peressutti Bacci, Carina A Boncompain, Ariel A Amadio, Soledad Carrasco, Cristian A Suárez, Héctor R Morbidoni
Staphylococcus aureus is a very successful opportunistic pathogen capable of causing a variety of diseases ranging from mild skin infections to life-threatening sepsis, meningitis and pneumonia. Its ability to display numerous virulence mechanisms matches its skill to display resistance to several antibiotics, including β-lactams, underscoring the fact that new anti-S. aureus drugs are urgently required. In this scenario, the utilization of lytic bacteriophages that kill bacteria in a genus -or even species- specific way, has become an attractive field of study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742795/cancer-associated-fibroblasts-promote-bone-invasion-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#10
A A Elmusrati, A E Pilborough, S A Khurram, D W Lambert
BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanisms involved in the invasion of bone by oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) are poorly understood, and little is known about the role of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF), the presence of which confers a poor prognosis. METHODS: Clinicopathological data from 277 OSCC cases involving bone resections were reviewed, and 32 cases thoroughly analysed histologically. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine αSMA, RANKL and OPG. Western blotting and qPCR were used to assess myofibroblast (CAF-like) differentiation, RANKL and OPG expression in vitro, and RANKL secretion was analysed by ELISA...
July 25, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742638/extraocular-muscle-findings-in-myasthenia-gravis-associated-treatment-resistant-ophthalmoplegia-a-case-report
#11
Robyn M Rautenbach, Komala Pillay, Anthony D N Murray, Jeannine M Heckmann
We report the histopathological and ultrastructural tissue analysis of extraocular muscle (EOM) obtained from a patient with seronegative myasthenia gravis (MG) with treatment-resistant ophthalmoplegia for 3.5 years. The EOM demonstrated predominantly myopathic features and ultrastructural evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction, but the most striking features were increased endomysial collagen and adipocyte replacement of muscle fibers. By contrast, control EOM from a patient undergoing strabismus surgery for a sensory exotropia in a nonseeing eye and a similar duration of deviation, showed normal muscle histology...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742609/the-efficacy-of-dynamic-contract-relax-stretching-on-delayed-onset-muscle-soreness-among-healthy-individuals-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Yanfei Xie, Beibei Feng, Kedi Chen, Lars L Andersen, Phil Page, Yuling Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of dynamic contract-relax stretching on delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in the calf muscle of healthy individuals. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Three groups of 16 healthy participants (n = 48) were recruited by convenience sampling. INTERVENTIONS: Three sets of resisted bilateral heel-raising exercises until exhaustion were conducted to initiate DOMS...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742502/temozolomide-therapy-for-resistant-prolactin-secreting-pituitary-adenomas-and-carcinomas-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Mussa H Almalki, Nora Nasser Aljoaib, Maha Jurais Alotaibi, Bayan Saloum Aldabas, Tayba Saleh Wahedi, Maswood H Ahmad, Fahad Alshahrani
Pituitary tumors represent 10-15% of all intracranial tumors; of these, prolactinomas account for 40-50% of cases. Prolactinomas usually respond well to dopamine agonists (DA) as first-line therapy. However, treatment resistance remains a concern. Temozolomide (TMZ) is an oral alkylating agent that has shown promise in treating aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas that are resistant to other therapies. To date, no control trials have been undertaken and only single case reports of pituitary tumors treated with TMZ have been published...
April 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742501/novel-insights-into-the-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-generalized-glucocorticoid-resistance-and-hypersensitivity-syndromes
#14
REVIEW
Nicolas C Nicolaides, Evangelia Charmandari
Glucocorticoids play a fundamental role in many physiologic functions and contribute substantially to the achievement of homeostasis. These pleiotropic glucocorticoid actions are mediated by a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor, the human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR), which may influence the transcription rate of numerous target genes, interact with other transcription factors, trigger the activation of several kinase pathways or modulate mitochondrial DNA expression. Any genetic defects in the NR3C1gene that encodes the hGR may cause Primary Generalized Glucocorticoid Resistance or Hypersensitivity Syndromes, two rare allostatic endocrinologic conditions characterized by partial impaired tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids...
April 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742479/understanding-and-combating-resistance-to-online-learning
#15
John Vivolo
Resistance to change is an easy thing for human beings to understand. It is at the heart of our desire to find comfort with the familiar such as family, friends and our homes. We create homes that are designed a certain way and usually are slow to change. We make friends for years and keep those memories etched in stone, even though time and age create a romanticised version of the past. Change scares us so much that we reflect on our past, the old days, with such reverence that we paint over the ugly parts...
December 1, 2016: Science Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742460/resistance-genes-in-global-crop-breeding-networks
#16
Karen A Garrett, Kelsey F Andersen, Frank Asche, Robert Bowden, Greg Forbes, Peter Kulakow, Bo Zhou
Resistance genes are a major tool for managing crop diseases. The networks of crop breeders who exchange resistance genes and deploy them in varieties help to determine the global landscape of resistance and epidemics, an important system for maintaining food security. These networks function as a complex adaptive system, with associated strengths and vulnerabilities, and implications for policies to support resistance gene deployment strategies. Extensions of epidemic network analysis can be used to evaluate the multilayer agricultural networks that support and influence crop breeding networks...
July 25, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742459/identification-of-clusters-that-condition-resistance-to-anthracnose-in-the-common-bean-differential-cultivars-ab136-and-mdrk
#17
Ana Campa, Noemi Trabanco, Juan Jose Ferreira
The correct identification of the anthracnose resistance systems present in the common bean cultivars AB136 and MDRK is important because both are included in the set of 12 differential cultivars proposed for use in classifying the races of the anthracnose causal agent, Colletrotrichum lindemuthianum. In this work, the responses against seven C. lindemuthianum races were analyzed in a recombinant inbred line population derived from the cross AB136 x MDRK. A genetic linkage map of 100 molecular markers distributed across the 11 bean chromosomes was developed in this population to locate the gene or genes conferring resistance against each race, based on linkage analyses and chi-square tests of independence...
July 25, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742447/a-crisis-emerges-lesbian-health-between-breast-cancer-and-hiv-aids
#18
Mairead Sullivan
In this essay, I argue that lesbians have come to be a population of concern for state-based health organizations as a result of lesbian health activism that drew connections between breast cancer and HIV/AIDS. In order to develop this analysis, I tell the story of the rise of lesbian breast cancer activism in concert with HIV/AIDS in San Francisco in the early 1990s. The state recognition of lesbian health needs, and with it the solidification of lesbian as a biopolitical category, was catalyzed by associations with the AIDS crisis and HIV activism, but also required an articulated difference, or lesbian specificity, which breast cancer provided...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Lesbian Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742407/tlr5-polymorphisms-rs2072493-rs5744174-and-rs5744168-are-not-genetic-risk-factors-for-chronic-helicobacter-pylori-infection-in-indian-tamils
#19
Vaishnavi Goda, Megala Jayaraman, Rekha Loganathan, Mehnaz Nazeer, Mohammed Ali, Premkumar Karunakaran, Panneer Devaraju
The incidence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and gastric cancer is on the rise in India, and the genetic factors influencing the increased susceptibility in Indian population remain obscure. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a major role in innate immune system and genetic polymorphisms affecting their function were reported to enhance the risk for H. pylori infection. Seventy-seven patients (n = 77) diagnosed with H. pylori infection and 230 healthy subjects were recruited in this study. The rs2072493, rs5744174, and rs5744168 polymorphisms within TLR5 gene were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and Tetra-ARMS PCR genotyping techniques...
July 25, 2017: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742382/occurrence-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-listeria-species-and-staphylococcus-aureus-in-cattle-slaughterhouses-of-kerala-south-india
#20
Tanuja K G M Gowda, Latha C, Sunil B, Inge Van Damme
A total of 765 samples were collected from beef carcasses, knives, cutting table surfaces, beef, hands, air, and water from four cattle slaughterhouses of Kerala, South India, to determine the occurrence and antibiotic susceptibility of Listeria species and Staphylococcus aureus. Listeria spp. were isolated from beef carcasses (2.0%), knives (3.7%), cutting table surfaces (1.9%), beef (0.7%), and water (1.3%). The identified species were Listeria monocytogenes (0.1%), Listeria innocua (0.9%), and Listeria ivanovii (0...
July 25, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
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