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Strongyloides stercoralis

Elizabete de Jesus Inês, Mônica Lopes Sampaio Silva, Joelma Nascimento de Souza, Alana Alcântara Galvão, Márcia Cristina Aquino Teixeira, Neci Matos Soares
The objective of this study was to investigate paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, cortisol levels, and the lipid profile in the sera of alcoholic and non-alcoholic Strongyloides stercoralis-infected and uninfected individuals in a sample of 276 individuals attended at the National Health System in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The activity of PON1 was measured by the Beltowski method, serum lipids, and cortisol levels using commercial kits. PON1 activity was low in both alcoholic and non-alcoholic individuals infected with S...
October 19, 2016: Acta Tropica
Marcelo Arantes Levenhagen, Hélio Conte, Julia Maria Costa-Cruz
Strongyloides stercoralis is a helminth parasite that can infect millions of people worldwide, particularly in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions with poor sanitation. Several aspects of epidemiology, biology and host-parasite interactions of S. stercoralis have been studied, and substantial knowledge has been acquired; however, very few studies on immunotherapeutic control strategies to prevent infection and disease in humans have been conducted. Therefore, this article reviews the current progress and targets toward vaccine and passive immunization approaches for Strongyloides spp...
October 18, 2016: Immunology Letters
Miwa Higashiarakawa, Tetsuo Hirata, Teruhisa Tanaka, Gretchen Parrott, Tetsu Kinjo, Hidekatsu Naka, Akira Hokama, Jiro Fujita
Infections with parasites, such as Strongyloides stercoralis, typically cause elevated levels of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and eosinophils; however, co-infection with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) can cause lower levels of serum IgE during S. stercoralis infection. We conducted this study to determine whether serum IgE levels and eosinophil counts could also be related to other patient characteristics or symptoms. Between 1991 and 2014, we measured and compared the symptoms of 237 patients and evaluated serum IgE levels and eosinophil counts of 199 patients who were infected with S...
October 12, 2016: Parasitology International
María Isabel Pacheco-Tenza, José Antonio Ruiz-Maciá, María Navarro-Cots, Joan Gregori-Colomé, José María Cepeda-Rodrigo, Jara Llenas-García
INTRODUCTION: Strongyloides stercoralis infection is more prevalent in tropical regions but autochthonous cases have been reported in Spain, mainly in La Safor (Valencia). The objective is to describe the strongyloidiasis cases registered in a regional hospital of Alicante province (Spain) and to determine if they were autochthonous cases. METHODS: Retrospective study of all diagnosed cases of strongyloidiasis in Vega Baja Hospital (Orihuela, Alicante) between January 1999 and March 2016...
October 12, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
J H Kim, D S Kim, Y K Yoon, J W Sohn, M J Kim
BACKGROUND: Donor-derived Strongyloides stercoralis infection in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients is uncommon. Immunosuppressed SOT recipients are at risk of developing severe forms of strongyloidiasis infection through transmission from an infected donor allograft. METHODS: PubMed was searched for English-written articles published up to April 2015. Articles that reported cases of donor-derived strongyloidiasis infection in SOT recipients were reviewed for a pooled analysis...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Adane Derso, Endalkachew Nibret, Abaineh Munshea
BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections affect tens of millions of pregnant women worldwide, and directly or indirectly lead to a spectrum of adverse maternal and fetal/placental effects. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care center in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar city, northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted from November 2013 to January 2014 among 384 pregnant women...
September 30, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Fatehi Elnour Elzein, Mohammed Alsaeed, Sulafa Ballool, Ashraf Attia
The mortality in Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome (SHS) is alarmingly high. This is particularly common in bone marrow, renal, and other solid organ transplant (SOT) patients, where figures may reach up to 50-85%. Immunosuppressives, principally corticosteroids, are the primary triggering factor. In general, the clinical features of Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection are nonspecific; therefore, a high index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and starting appropriate therapy. Although recurrent Gram-negative sepsis and meningitis have been previously reported, the combination of both cytomegalovirus (CMV) and strongyloidiasis had rarely been associated...
2016: Case Reports in Transplantation
Fabiana Martins de Paula, Fernanda Mello Malta, Marcelo Andreetta Corral, Priscilla Duarte Marques, Maiara Gottardi, Dirce Mary Correia Lima Meisel, Juliana Yamashiro, João Renato Rebello Pinho, Vera Lucia Pagliusi Castilho, Elenice Messias do Nascimento Gonçalves, Ronaldo César Borges Gryschek, Pedro Paulo Chieffi
Strongyloidiasis is a potentially serious infection in immunocompromised patients. Thus, the availability of sensitive and specific diagnostic methods is desirable, especially in the context of immunosuppressed patients in whom the diagnosis and treatment of strongyloidiasis is of utmost importance. In this study, serological and molecular tools were used to diagnose Strongyloides stercoralis infections in immunosuppressed patients. Serum and stool samples were obtained from 52 patients. Stool samples were first analyzed by Lutz, Rugai, and Agar plate culture methods, and then by a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
2016: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Miguel M Cabada, Maria Luisa Morales, Martha Lopez, Spencer T Reynolds, Elizabeth C Vilchez, Andres G Lescano, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Hector Hugo Garcia, Clinton A White
Hymenolepis nana is the most common cestode infection in the world. However, limited information is available regarding its impact on affected populations. We studied the epidemiology and symptoms associated with hymenolepiasis among children 3-16 years old in 16 rural communities of the highlands of the Cusco region in Peru. Information on demographics, socioeconomic status, symptoms as reported by parents, and parasitological testing was obtained from the database of an ongoing Fasciola hepatica epidemiologic study...
September 26, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Eric Q Konnick, Siu-Kei Chow, Nicholas P Reder, Dhruba J Sengupta, Daniel R Hoogestraat, Paul S Pottinger, April N Abbott, Peter W Monsaas, Kyoko Kurosawa, Karen Stephens, Stephen J Salipante, Cecilia C S Yeung
Strongyloides stercoralis is an important human parasite, especially in rural areas and developing countries. Infected immunosuppressed patients are at risk for hyperinfection, with severe clinical consequences. Here we describe the incidental detection and diagnosis of an unexpected S. stercoralis infection by methods designed to detect fungal 28S ribosomal DNA.
September 4, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Pelagie M Boko, Moudachirou Ibikounle, Ablawa Onzo-Aboki, Jean-Jacques Tougoue, Yollande Sissinto, Wilfrid Batcho, Dorothe Kinde-Gazard, Achille Kabore
In 2013, Benin developed strategies to control neglected tropical diseases and one of the first step was the disease mapping of the entire country in order to identify endemic districts of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths (STH). This study was carried out in 30 of the 77 districts of Benin. Of these 30 districts 22 were previously treated for Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) using the Ivermectin and Albendazole combination. In each district, five schools were selected and 50 children aged 8 to 14 years were sampled in each school, making a total of 250 children sampled in the district...
2016: PloS One
Niranjan Tachamo, Salik Nazir, Saroj Lohani, Paras Karmacharya
Strongyloidiasis is a parasitic infestation caused by Strongyloides stercoralis. Most cases are asymptomatic; however, symptomatic patients may present with a wide range of non-specific cutaneous, pulmonary, or gastrointestinal symptoms posing a diagnostic dilemma and delay in diagnosis. We report a case of a 58-year-old female who presented with months of generalized pruritus and abdominal discomfort along with persistent eosinophilia due to strongyloidiasis, which completely resolved with treatment.
2016: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
Dora Buonfrate, Federico Gobbi, Anna Beltrame, Zeno Bisoffi
Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted helminth widely diffused in tropical areas. Chronic infection is usually characterized by absent or mild symptoms, but immunocompromised subjects are at risk of developing a severe syndrome that can be fatal if not promptly treated. We report a case of S. stercoralis infection causing severe anemia (hemoglobin 4.9 g/dL) and a lung nodule in a 14-year-old girl of Ethiopian origin adopted by an Italian couple. Severe anemia due to strongyloidiasis has been rarely reported, and mostly in severely ill patients, whereas our patient was immunocompetent and in good general conditions...
September 6, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Toan Nguyen, Fei Wen Cheong, Jonathan Wee Kent Liew, Yee Ling Lau
BACKGROUND: Despite the global effort against neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), developing countries with middle to low income are still burdened by them. Vietnam has been undergoing substantial economic growth and urbanization, but underprivileged people living in rural and suburban areas are still having little access to public health infrastructure and proper sanitation. Hitherto, limited information is available for seroprevalence and risk factors of several parasitic diseases in Vietnam...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Ayşegül Aksoy Gökmen, Selmin Çaylak, Burak Ekrem Citil, Hamdi Sözen, Cem Şahin, Erkan Yula, Selçuk Kaya, Mustafa Demirci
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the incidence of Strongyloides stercoralis in individuals who live in rural areas in the towns near Mugla and have contact with humid soil and gather saffron milk cap mushroom in autumn, and to obtain epidemiological data in our region. METHODS: A total of 281 volunteers were included; 192 of them were the individuals who only gather mushroom, only work in the garden, or gather mushroom as well as work in the garden, while 89 had no contact with the soil...
June 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
A Galiano, M Trelis, Á Moya-Herráiz, J Sánchez-Plumed, J F Merino
Most cases of strongyloidiasis associated with solid organ transplantation have been due to the reactivation of a latent infection in the recipient as a result of the immunosuppressive therapy; however, donor-derived infections are becoming increasingly frequent. The case of a patient who nearly died of a Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection after receiving simultaneous kidney/pancreas transplants is described herein. No specific parasitological tests were performed pre-transplantation, despite the fact that both the recipient and the donor originated from endemic areas...
August 30, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Lahari Rampur, Sunit P Jariwala, Golda Hudes, David L Rosenstreich, Gabriele de Vos
BACKGROUND: The immunomodulatory effects of helminths have been well described. However, there is a relative lack of literature regarding the link between parasites and allergic diseases. A number of patients with allergic symptoms have positive serologic test results for Strongyloides stercoralis. OBJECTIVE: To identify patients with allergy-type symptoms and coexisting Strongyloides infection and to analyze the effect of Strongyloides eradication therapy with ivermectin on these symptoms...
October 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Armelle Forrer, Virak Khieu, Christian Schindler, Fabian Schär, Hanspeter Marti, Meng Chuor Char, Sinuon Muth, Peter Odermatt
BACKGROUND: Strongyloides stercoralis is the only soil-transmitted helminth with the ability to replicate within its host, leading to long-lasting and potentially fatal infections. It is ubiquitous and its worldwide prevalence has recently been estimated to be at least half that of hookworm. Information on the epidemiology of S. stercoralis remains scarce and modalities for its large-scale control are yet to be determined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A community-based two-year cohort study was conducted among the general population in a rural province in North Cambodia...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Tatvam T Choksi, Gul Madison, Tawseef Dar, Mohammed Asif, Kevin Fleming, Leon Clarke, Mervyn Danilewitz, Randa Hennawy
Strongyloides stercoralis is well known to cause hyperinfection syndrome during the period of immunosuppression; but dissemination, worsening hyperinfection, and development of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome after initiation of ivermectin has not been reported in the past. Herein, we describe the case of a 62-year-old man with chronic strongyloidiasis and human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 coinfection, who developed significant clinical worsening after 24-48 hours of initiation of treatment with ivermectin (200 μg/kg daily)...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Dora Buonfrate, Mara Baldissera, Fabrizio Abrescia, Matteo Bassetti, Giacomo Caramaschi, Mario Giobbia, Marta Mascarello, Paola Rodari, Novella Scattolo, Giuseppina Napoletano, Zeno Bisoffi
Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted helminth widely diffused in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Autochthonous cases have been also diagnosed sporadically in areas of temperate climate. We aimed at defining the epidemiology of strongyloidiasis in immigrants and Italians living in three northern Italian Regions. Screening for S. stercoralis infection was done with serology, confirmation tests were a second serological method or stool agar culture. A case-control approach was adopted and patients with a peripheral eosinophil count ≥ 500/mcL were classified as cases...
August 4, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
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