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Bone and mineral metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735463/impact-of-pioglitazone-on-bone-mineral-density-and-bone-marrow-fat-content
#1
L M Pop, I Lingvay, Q Yuan, X Li, B Adams-Huet, N M Maalouf
Pioglitazone use is associated with an increased risk of fractures. In this randomized, placebo-controlled study, pioglitazone use for 12 months was associated with a significant increase in bone marrow fat content at the femoral neck, accompanied by a significant decrease in total hip bone mineral density. The change in bone marrow fat with pioglitazone use was predominantly observed in female vs. male participants. INTRODUCTION: Use of the insulin sensitizer pioglitazone is associated with greater fracture incidence, although the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood...
July 22, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733716/osteosarcopenia-where-bone-muscle-and-fat-collide
#2
REVIEW
H P Hirschfeld, R Kinsella, G Duque
As the world's population ages, the prevalence of chronic diseases increases. Sarcopenia and osteoporosis are two conditions that are associated with aging, with similar risk factors that include genetics, endocrine function, and mechanical factors. Additionally, bone and muscle closely interact with each other not only anatomically, but also chemically and metabolically. Fat infiltration, a phenomenon observed in age-related bone and muscle loss, is highly prevalent and more severe in sarcopenic and osteoporotic subjects...
July 22, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733032/pilose-antler-polypeptides-potentiates-osteoblast-differentiation-and-inhibits-osteoclastogenesis-via-manipulating-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#3
Guangwang Liu, Chao Ma, Peian Wang, Peiying Zhang, Xinhua Qu, Shen Liu, Zanjing Zhai, Degang Yu, Juan Gao, Jun Liang, Weixiang Dai, Lindong Zhou, Mengjiao Xia, Huilin Yang
Bones are inflexible yet ever-changing metabolic organs, and bone homeostasis is maintained through two delicately regulated processes: bone construction and bone reabsorption. An imbalance in bone metabolism is linked to most orthopedic diseases, including osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Importantly, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) blocks osteoblast differentiation and stimulates osteoclast formation, resulting in delayed deposition of new bone and accelerated bone resorption, especially in rheumatoid arthritis patients with inflammatory conditions...
July 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730728/beneficial-long-term-antidiabetic-actions-of-n-and-c-terminally-modified-analogues-of-apelin-13-in-diet-induced-obese-diabetic-mice
#4
V Parthsarathy, C Hogg, P R Flatt, F P M O'Harte
AIMS: This study investigated the chronic effects of twice daily administration of stable apelin analogues, apelin-13 amide and (pGlu)apelin-13 amide, on metabolic parameters in glucose intolerant and insulin resistant diet-induced obese (DIO) mice fed a high-fat diet for 150 days. STUDY DESIGN & METHODS: Groups of mice received twice daily (09:00 and 17:00 h) injections of saline vehicle, apelin-13 amide, (pGlu)apelin-13 amide or exendin-4(1-39) for 28 days (all at 25 nmol/kg)...
July 20, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728941/comparison-of-calcimimetic-r568-and-calcitriol-in-mineral-homeostasis-in-the-hyp-mouse-a-murine-homolog-of-x-linked-hypophosphatemia
#5
Maren Leifheit-Nestler, Julia Kucka, Emi Yoshizawa, Geert Behets, Patrick D'Haese, Christian Bergen, Martin Meier, Dagmar-Christiane Fischer, Dieter Haffner
X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) caused by mutations in the Phex gene is the most common human inherited phosphate wasting disorder characterized by enhanced synthesis of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) in bone, renal phosphate wasting, 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25D) deficiency, rickets and osteomalacia. Here we studied the effects of calcimimetic R568 and calcitriol treatment in the Hyp mouse, a murine homolog of XLH. We hypothesized that mineral homeostasis is differentially affected by R568 and 1,25D with respect to the PTH-vitamin D-FGF23-Klotho axis and bone health...
July 18, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727342/-obesity-fat-and-bones-friends-or-foes
#6
Emmanuel Biver
Low fat mass is associated with an increased risk of fracture because of low bone mineral density (BMD) and altered bone micro-architecture. Conversely, overweight and obese patients also have an increased risk of fracture, particularly of the humerus and ankle, despite greater BMD. Visceral abdominal fat, which is the most metabolically active, may be associated with poorer quality of bone tissue properties, as suggested in diabetes. Other factors may contribute to higher fracture risk in overweight patients, notably higher frequency of falls and lower bioavailability of vitamin D stoked in fat...
April 19, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726185/raising-awareness-on-the-therapeutic-role-of-cholecalciferol-in-ckd-a-multidisciplinary-based-opinion
#7
REVIEW
Sandro Giannini, Sandro Mazzaferro, Salvatore Minisola, Luca De Nicola, Maurizio Rossini, Mario Cozzolino
Vitamin D is recognized to play an essential role in health and disease. In kidney disease, vitamin D analogs have gained recognition for their involvement and potential therapeutic importance. Nephrologists are aware of the use of oral native vitamin D supplementation, however, uncertainty still exists with regard to the use of this treatment option in chronic kidney disease as well as clinical settings related to chronic kidney disease, where vitamin D supplementation may be an appropriate therapeutic choice...
July 19, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724055/bone-turnover-after-bariatric-surgery
#8
Thalita Lima Melo, Leila Froeder, Leandro da Cunha Baia, Ita Pfeferman Heilberg
Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate parameters of bone and mineral metabolism after bariatric surgery. Subjects and methods: This sectional study included data from medical records from 61 bariatric surgery (BS) patients (minimum period of 6 months after the procedure) and from 30 class II and III obese patients as a control group (Cont), consisting of daily dietary intake of macronutrients, calcium and sodium, serum 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) and other biochemical serum and urinary parameters...
July 13, 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722834/effects-of-gip-glp-1-and-glp-1ras-on-bone-cell-metabolism
#9
Morten S S Hansen, Michaela Terencova, Jacob Frølich, Moustapha Kassem, Morten Frost
The relationship between gut and skeleton is increasingly recognised as part of the integrated physiology of the whole organism. The incretin hormones gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are secreted from the intestine in response to nutrient intake and exhibit several physiological functions including regulation of islet hormone secretion and glucose levels. A number of GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are currently used in treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. However, GIP and GLP-1 cognate receptors are widely expressed suggesting that incretin hormones mediate effects beyond control of glucose homeostasis, and reports on associations between incretin hormones and bone metabolism have emerged...
July 19, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720774/a-novel-fluorescent-probe-based-flow-cytometric-assay-for-mineral-containing-nanoparticles-in-serum
#10
Edward R Smith, Tim D Hewitson, Michael M X Cai, Parisa Aghagolzadeh, Matthias Bachtler, Andreas Pasch, Stephen G Holt
Calciprotein particles, nanoscale aggregates of insoluble mineral and binding proteins, have emerged as potential mediators of phosphate toxicity in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. Although existing immunochemical methods for their detection have provided compelling data, these approaches are indirect, lack specificity and are subject to a number of other technical and theoretical shortcomings. Here we have developed a rapid homogeneous fluorescent probe-based flow cytometric method for the detection and quantitation of individual mineral-containing nanoparticles in human and animal serum...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719612/renal-osteodystrophy-in-the-obesity-era-is-metabolic-syndrome-relevant
#11
Janaina Da Silva Martins, João Henrique Castro, Nestor A Sainz Rueda, Luciene Machado Dos Reis, Vanda Jorgetti, Rosa Maria Affonso Moysés, Jacqueline Teixeira Caramori
BACKGROUND: Observational studies have shown a beneficial effect of obesity on bone health; however, most of those studies were not based on bone biopsies. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) could have an effect on bone remodeling. However, there are no data on the effects of MetS in the presence of renal osteodystrophy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate associations between MetS and renal osteodystrophy using the bone histomorphometric turnover-mineralization-volume (TMV) classification...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715881/comparison-of-bone-metabolism-based-on-the-different-ages-and-competition-levels-of-junior-and-high-school-female-rhythmic-gymnasts
#12
Taewoong Oh, Tatsuki Naka
PURPOSE: This study was to clarify the effect of age and competition level by measuring bone metabolism markers and bone mineral density measurements of junior high school and high school female rhythmic gymnasts, who restrict their diets to maintain a low body weight, while routinely undertaking long hours of high-intensity exercise, comparing the gymnasts based on their elite/non-elite. METHODS: The study investigated 7 junior high school and 12 high school female rhythmic gymnasts...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712983/older-age-and-higher-body-mass-index-are-associated-with-a-more-degraded-trabecular-bone-score-compared-to-bone-mineral-density
#13
Young Ho Shin, Hyun Sik Gong, Kyung Jae Lee, Goo Hyun Baek
Trabecular bone score (TBS) may detect subjects with a more degraded microarchitecture but whose bone mineral density (BMD) reflects normal or osteopenia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether age and body sizes were associated with the discordance between BMD and TBS. We analyzed BMD and TBS in 1505 Korean women over 40 yr of age who had no history of osteoporotic fractures or conditions that affect bone metabolism. We considered 3 groups to have TBS values that reflected a more degraded TBS than their BMD values: (1) normal BMD but partially degraded TBS, (2) normal BMD but degraded TBS, and (3) osteopenia but degraded TBS...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710615/aldosterone-antagonist-therapy-and-its-relationship-with-inflammation-fibrosis-thrombosis-mineral-bone-disorder-and-cardiovascular-complications-in-peritoneal-dialysis-pd-patients
#14
Rafał Donderski, Paweł Stróżecki, Beata Sulikowska, Magdalena Grajewska, Ilona Miśkowiec, Anna Stefańska, Joanna Siódmiak, Grażyna Odrowąż-Sypniewska, Jacek Manitius
BACKGROUND: High aldosterone level may contribute to pathogenesis of hypertension, vessels damage and cardiovascular system deterioration in chronic kidney disease patients. Besides its classical action via mineralocorticoid receptor, aldosterone is also involved in cell growth, inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and exerts fibroproliferative effects. The aim of the study was to assess whether aldosterone antagonist treatment may influence serum level of inflammatory, fibrosis, thrombosis and mineral-bone metabolism markers in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and blood pressure, aortic stiffness, echocardiographic indices after 12 months of treatment...
July 14, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698158/pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-play-a-positive-role-in-bone-mineralization-of-osteoblasts-derived-from-diabetic-patients
#15
Na Song, Jiateng Zhong, Jinghang Zhang, Jian Yu, Jinsong Li, Jinbo Qi, Jun Yang, Yanyan Qiu, Wei Su, Zhiwei Feng, Haijun Wang
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a multifunctional secreted protein which plays important role in anti-angiogenic, anti-tumorigenic, as well as involves in the metabolism and regeneration of bone. In this study, our aim is to investigate the role of PEDF in regulating mineralization of osteoblasts from diabetic patients (DP). We isolated and cultured osteoblasts derived from DP and non-diabetic patients (NDP), in order to analyze the variable differences via gene expression and calcification assay in vitro...
July 8, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697041/circulating-osteoprotegerin-in-postmenopausal-osteoporotic-women-marker-of-impaired-glucose-regulation-or-impaired-bone-metabolism
#16
Margarita Mashavi, Miriam Menaged, Marina Shargorodsky
OBJECTIVE: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is closely related to insulin resistance and bone remodeling. However, no studies have examined the role of OPG in postmenopausal women with coexistent impaired glucose and bone regulation. The present study investigated the relationship of OPG to glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in postmenopausal osteoporotic women with different types of glucose tolerance. METHODS: In all, 114 postmenopausal osteoporotic women were divided into three groups according to glucose tolerance status: 51 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, group 1), 31 with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, group 2), and 32 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM, group 3)...
July 10, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696961/current-body-composition-measurement-techniques
#17
Thaisa Lemos, Dympna Gallagher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current article reviews the most innovative and precise, available methods for quantification of in-vivo human body composition. RECENT FINDINGS: Body composition measurement methods are continuously being perfected. Ongoing efforts involve multisegmental and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, quantitative magnetic resonance for total body water, fat, and lean tissue measurements, imaging to further define ectopic fat depots...
July 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693592/bone-metabolism-and-inflammatory-characteristics-in-14-cases-of-chronic-nonbacterial-osteomyelitis
#18
Yurika Ata, Yutaka Inaba, Hyonmin Choe, Naomi Kobayashi, Jiro Machida, Naoyuki Nakamura, Tomoyuki Saito
BACKGROUND: Chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) is a multifocal autoinflammatory disease that often impairs daily life in children. This study aimed to investigate the bone metabolic and inflammatory characteristics of patients with CNO, and to assess the differences between responders and nonresponders to conservative treatment. METHODS: We investigated the clinical symptoms; laboratory data including inflammatory and bone metabolic biomarkers; and imaging findings from plain radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and dual-energy x-ray absorption (DEXA) in 14 patients with CNO...
July 11, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688892/vascular-ossification-pathology-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#19
Michael A Fuery, Lusha Liang, Frederick S Kaplan, Emile R Mohler
In recent years, the mechanisms and clinical significance of vascular calcification have been increasingly investigated. For over a century, however, pathologists have recognized that vascular calcification is a form of heterotopic ossification. In this review, we aim to describe the pathology and molecular processes of vascular ossification, to characterize its clinical significance and treatment options, and to elucidate areas that require further investigation. The molecular mechanisms of vascular ossification involve the activation of regulators including bone morphogenic proteins and chondrogenic transcription factors and the loss of mineralization inhibitors like fetuin-A and pyrophosphate...
July 5, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686736/higher-mineralized-bone-volume-is-associated-with-a-lower-plain-x-ray-vascular-calcification-score-in-hemodialysis-patients
#20
Teresa Adragao, Anibal Ferreira, Joao M Frazao, Ana Luisa Papoila, Iola Pinto, Marie-Claude Monier-Faugere, Hartmut H Malluche
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In dialysis patients, there is an increasing evidence that altered bone metabolism is associated with cardiovascular calcifications. The main objective of this study was to analyse, in hemodialysis patients, the relationships between bone turnover, mineralization and volume, evaluated in bone biopsies, with a plain X-ray vascular calcification score. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND MEASUREMENTS: In a cross-sectional study, bone biopsies and evaluation of vascular calcifications were performed in fifty hemodialysis patients...
2017: PloS One
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