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Bone and mineral metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531801/ace-2-ang1-7-mas-cascade-mediates-ace-inhibitor-captopril-protective-effects-in-estrogen-deficient-osteoporotic-rats
#1
Hatem M Abuohashish, Mohammed M Ahmed, Dina Sabry, Mahmoud M Khattab, Salim S Al-Rejaie
The local role of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) was documented recently beside its conventional systemic functions. Studies showed that the effector angiotensin II (AngII) alters bone health, while inhibition of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE-1) preserved these effects. The newly identified Ang1-7 exerts numerous beneficial effects opposing the AngII. Thus, the current study examines the role of Ang1-7 in mediating the osteo-preservative effects of ACEI (captopril) through the G-protein coupled Mas receptor using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis...
May 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531309/effect-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-bone-and-renal-health-in-young-adults-infected-with-hiv-in-early-life
#2
Aylin B Unsal, Aviva S Mattingly, Sara E Jones, Julia B Purdy, James C Reynolds, Jeffrey B Kopp, Rohan Hazra, Colleen M Hadigan
Context: HIV antiretroviral (ARV) therapy is associated with renal and bone toxicity, but little is known about the potential cumulative effects in adults exposed to ARVs from birth. Objective: To prospectively evaluate renal and bone health in young adults with lifelong HIV and extensive ARV exposure. Design: Cross-sectional comparison of bone mineral density (BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), bone turnover and renal function in young adults infected with HIV in early life (n=65) to matched healthy controls (n=23) and longitudinal evaluation (mean follow-up 4...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530318/-severe-infantile-hypophosphatasia
#3
Evgenia Gurevich, Daniel Landau
Hypophosphatasia is the inborn error of metabolism that is characterized by low serum alkaline-phosphatase activity, due to loss-of-function mutations within the gene for tissuenonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase [TNSALP]. The manifestations of hypophosphatasia range from neonatal death with almost no skeletal mineralization to dental problems in adults without any bone symptoms. There are no case reports of infantile hypophosphatasia in Israel. The existence of enzymatic replacement treatment for this disease makes it important to diagnose this problem as soon as possible...
January 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529739/long-term-supplementation-with-young-coconut-juice-does-not-prevent-bone-loss-but-rather-alleviates-body-weight-gain-in-ovariectomized-rats
#4
Hiroshi Matsushita, Akira Minami, Hiroaki Kanazawa, Takashi Suzuki, Sanan Subhadhirasakul, Kazushi Watanabe, Akihiko Wakatsuki
Young coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.) juice (YCJ) has traditionally been consumed to alleviate symptoms associated with the menopause. Recently, the authors demonstrated that short-term (6-week) YCJ supplementation to ovariectomized rats resulted in increased bone mass and bone formation parameter, suggesting that YCJ consumption has a positive effect on bone metabolism and may represent an intervention to help slow the bone loss during menopause transition. The present study sought to determine how long-term (12-week) YCJ supplementation affects bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats, to investigate whether such supplementation may be helpful to in osteoporosis treatment...
May 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528404/a-direct-comparison-of-the-effects-of-the-antiretroviral-drugs-stavudine-tenofovir-and-the-combination-lopinavir-ritonavir-on-bone-metabolism-in-a-rat-model
#5
M M Conradie, M van de Vyver, E Andrag, M Conradie, W F Ferris
Antiretroviral (ARV) treatment may induce metabolic complications in HIV patients on long-term therapy that can affect bone health. In this study, the effects of the ARVs Stavudine (d4T), Tenofovir (TDF) and Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) on bone metabolism and lipodystrophy were directly compared in rats to negate the consequences of HIV-associated confounding factors. Healthy 12-14-week-old male Wistar rats (n = 40) were divided into four treatment groups and received an oral animal equivalent dose of either Stavudine (6...
May 20, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527949/microproteome-of-dentoalveolar-tissues
#6
Cristiane R Salmon, Ana Paula O Giorgetti, Adriana F Paes Leme, Romênia R Domingues, Tamara N Kolli, Brian L Foster, Francisco H Nociti
Proteomic analysis of extracellular matrices (ECM) of dentoalveolar tissues can provide insights into developmental, pathological, and reparative processes. However, targeted dissection of mineralized tissues, dental cementum (DC), alveolar bone (AB), and dentin (DE), presents technical difficulties. We demonstrate an approach combining EDTA decalcification and laser capture microdissection (LCM), followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), to analyze proteome profiles of these tissues...
May 17, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525352/evaluation-of-endocrine-and-metabolic-dysfunctions-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-children-a-study-from-turkey
#7
Dilek Gurlek Gokcebay, Fatih Azik, Cengiz Bayram, Arzu Yazal Erdem, Ali Fettah, Pamir Isik, Nese Yarali, Fatma Demirel, Bahattin Tunc, Namik Ozbek
BACKGROUND: Endocrine organs are highly susceptible to effects of high-dose chemotherapy. The objective of the study was to evaluate endocrine and metabolic complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in children. METHODS: The patients who underwent HSCT in our center from April 2010 to October 2014 with at least 1 year follow-up were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: One-hundred children (M/F:59/41; mean age 8.9±4...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523945/prevention-of-postmenopausal-osteoporosis-in-chinese-women-a-5-year-double-blind-randomized-parallel-placebo-controlled-study
#8
S Y Ran, Q Yu, Y Chen, S Q Lin
OBJECTIVES: To observe the effectiveness and safety of menopause-related hormone therapy (MHT) to prevent bone loss in Chinese women during the menopausal transition and early menopause, as well as to evaluate the effects of 5-year MHT on overall health to add Level I evidence for the prevention of osteoporosis using MHT. DESIGN: This clinical study was a prospective, double-blind, randomized, parallel placebo-controlled study. Chinese women in the menopausal transition and early menopause were randomly allocated to the MHT group or the placebo group...
May 19, 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521869/high-fgf21-levels-are-associated-with-altered-bone-homeostasis-in-hiv-1-infected-patients
#9
José M Gallego-Escuredo, Maria Karuna Lamarca, Joan Villarroya, Joan C Domingo, Ma Gracia Mateo, Ma Del Mar Gutierrez, Francesc Vidal, Francesc Villarroya, Pere Domingo, Marta Giralt
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) has emerged as an important regulator of glucose, lipid, and body weight homeostasis. However, recent experimental studies have reported that increased FGF21 levels may lead to bone loss. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship of serum FGF21 levels and altered bone homeostasis in HIV-1-infected patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 137 HIV-1-infected patients and 35 healthy controls conducted at the Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520584/eating-disorders-and-bone-metabolism-in-women
#10
Lauren Robinson, Nadia Micali, Madhusmita Misra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Eating Disorders are psychiatric disorders associated with a high risk for low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. Low BMD is a consequence of undernutrition, changes in body composition, and hormonal alterations. This review summarizes recent findings regarding novel strategies for assessing bone outcomes in patients with eating disorders, factors contributing to altered bone metabolism, and possible therapeutic strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging research in this field suggests that not only anorexia nervosa, but also bulimia nervosa results in lower BMD compared to controls...
May 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517037/serum-phosphate-is-related-to-adiposity-in-healthy-adults
#11
Emma O Billington, Greg D Gamble, Sarah Bristow, Ian R Reid
BACKGROUND: Inorganic phosphate is a crucial component of cellular energy metabolism. We have identified an inverse relationship between serum phosphate concentration and fat mass in a cohort of healthy men. This study reports those data and determines whether this association is present in two female populations. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from three independent cohorts, consisting of healthy adult males (Male Cohort, n=323) and healthy postmenopausal women (Female Cohort 1, n=185; and Female Cohort 2, n=1471), are reported...
May 18, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515791/vildagliptin-has-the-same-safety-profile-as-a-sulfonylurea-on-bone-metabolism-and-bone-mineral-density-in-post-menopausal-women-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Andre Gustavo Daher Vianna, Claudio Silva de Lacerda, Luciana Muniz Pechmann, Michelle Garcia Polesel, Emerson Cestari Marino, Victoria Zeghbi Cochenski Borba, Fellype de Carvalho Barreto
BACKGROUND: Several antidiabetic therapies affect bone metabolism. Sulfonylureas have the lowest impact on bone among oral antidiabetics. The objective of this study is to compare the effects of vildagliptin and gliclazide modified release (MR) on bone turnover markers (BTMs) and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: Forty-two postmenopausal women with uncontrolled T2D were randomly allocated into vildagliptin or gliclazide MR (control) groups...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515711/the-impact-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-on-bone-metabolism-and-its-possible-mechanisms
#13
REVIEW
Chenhe Zhao, Jing Liang, Yinqiu Yang, Mingxiang Yu, Xinhua Qu
The impact of antidiabetic drugs on bone metabolism is drawing increasing attention due to the discovery of a correlation between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and osteoporosis. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are a novel and promising class of drugs for T2DM, which may also have clinical applications in bone tissue disorders. This review examines the impact of GLP-1 on bone metabolism, including enhancement of bone mineral density and improvement of bone quality. However, the precise effect of GLP-1 on fracture risk has not been unambiguously defined...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513571/fat-sugar-and-bone-health-a-complex-relationship
#14
REVIEW
Li Tian, Xijie Yu
With people aging, osteoporosis is expected to increase notably. Nutritional status is a relatively easily-modified risk factor, associated with many chronic diseases, and is involved in obesity, diabetes, and coronary heart disease (CHD), along with osteoporosis. Nutrients, such as fats, sugars, and proteins, play a primary function in bone metabolism and maintaining bone health. In Western nations, diets are generally high in saturated fats, however, currently, the nutritional patterns dominating in China continue to be high in carbohydrates from starch, cereals, and sugars...
May 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512916/regulation-of-bone-mass-through-pineal-derived-melatonin-mt2-pathway
#15
Kunal Sharan, Kirsty Lewis, Takahisa Furukawa, Vijay K Yadav
Tryptophan, an essential amino acid through a series of enzymatic reactions gives rise to various metabolites viz., serotonin and melatonin that regulate distinct biological functions. We show here that tryptophan metabolism in the pineal gland favors bone mass accrual through production of melatonin, a pineal-derived neurohormone. Pineal gland-specific deletion of Tph1, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the melatonin biosynthesis lead to a decrease in melatonin levels and a low bone mass due to an isolated decrease in bone formation while bone resorption parameters remained unaffected...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512472/pulsed-electromagnetic-field-regulates-microrna-21-expression-to-activate-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-in-human-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-to-enhance-osteoblast-differentiation
#16
Nagarajan Selvamurugan, Zhiming He, Daniel Rifkin, Branka Dabovic, Nicola C Partridge
Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) have been documented to promote bone fracture healing in nonunions and increase lumbar spinal fusion rates. However, the molecular mechanisms by which PEMF stimulates differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) into osteoblasts are not well understood. In this study the PEMF effects on hBMSCs were studied by microarray analysis. PEMF stimulation of hBMSCs' cell numbers mainly affected genes of cell cycle regulation, cell structure, and growth receptors or kinase pathways...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512292/effects-of-treadmill-running-with-different-intensity-on-rat-subchondral-bone
#17
Zhe Li, Sheng-Yao Liu, Lei Xu, Shao-Yong Xu, Guo-Xin Ni
Subchondral bone (SB) is recognized as a key factor in normal joint protection, not only does it provide a shock absorbing and supportive function for the cartilage, but it may also be important for cartilage metabolism. Mechanical loading is considered to be a critical regulator of skeletal homeostasis, including bone and cartilage. It is suggested that both cartilage and bone may respond to mechanical loading in an intensity-dependent manner. In this report, we have discovered that the subchondral plate became thicker with higher bone mineral density (BMD) and lower porosity, while trabecular bone became more plate-like and denser with higher BMD in high-intensity running (HIR) group...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504547/site-specific-onset-of-low-bone-density-and-correlation-of-bone-turnover-markers-in-exclusive-breastfeeding-mothers
#18
Jarinthorn Teerapornpuntakit, Pharuhas Chanprapaph, Nitsara Karoonuthaisiri, Narattaphol Charoenphandhu
PURPOSE: Lactation often affects calcium metabolism and induces bone loss. Calcium supplementation and a high calcium diet are recommended to prevent bone loss, especially during inadequate calcium intake. Our study aimed at determining bone loss in breastfeeding mothers, and if it occurred, whether it was site specific and there were correlations between serum bone turnover markers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Since the 6-month exclusive breastfeeding is usually recommended in several countries, our study examined bone mineral density (BMD) in early (1-2 month), mid (3-4 month)-, and late (5-6 month) lactation compared with nonpregnant, nonlactating control women...
May 15, 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503265/the-effects-of-caffeine-on-the-long-bones-and-testes-in-immature-and-young-adult-rats
#19
Yoojin Kwak, Hyeonhae Choi, Jaesook Roh
This study was to evaluate the age-dependent effects of caffeine exposure on the long bones and reproductive organs using male rats. A total of 15 immature male rats and 15 young adult male rats were allocated randomly to three groups: a control group and two groups fed caffeine with 120 and 180 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. Exposure to caffeine at either dose significantly reduced body weight gain; a proportional reduction in muscle and fat mass in immature animals, whereas a selective reduction in fat mass with relatively preserved muscle mass in young adult animals...
April 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502032/circulating-markers-of-bone-turnover
#20
REVIEW
Marc G Vervloet, Vincent M Brandenburg
Renal osteodystrophy is a feature of chronic kidney disease (CKD), with increasing prevalence as CKD progresses. This bone disease is responsible for major morbidity, including fractures, and a deterioration in the quality of life and its sequelae. Circulating biomarkers of renal osteodystrophy typically indicate bone turnover, but not other features of bone, like bone volume, mineralization, quality or strength. Bone turnover can be considered to be primarily a reflection of bone cell activity, in particular that of osteoblasts and osteoclasts...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
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