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Bone and mineral metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933339/efficacy-and-safety-of-osteoporosis-medications-in-a-rat-model-of-late-stage-chronic-kidney-disease-accompanied-by-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-and-hyperphosphatemia
#1
M Ota, M Takahata, T Shimizu, Y Kanehira, H Kimura-Suda, Y Kameda, H Hamano, S Hiratsuka, D Sato, N Iwasaki
: This study showed that bisphosphonate was safe and effective for the treatment of bone disorders in stage 4 chronic kidney disease (CKD) rats. Intermittent teriparatide therapy showed an anabolic action on bone even under secondary hyperparathyroidism conditions without having an adverse effect on mineral metabolism in late-stage CKD. INTRODUCTION: Patients with late-stage CKD are at high risk for fragility fractures. However, there are no consensus on the efficacy and safety of osteoporosis medications for patients with late-stage CKD...
December 8, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928591/the-activity-of-adiponectin-in-bone
#2
Dorit Naot, David S Musson, Jillian Cornish
The adipokine adiponectin affects multiple target tissues and plays important roles in glucose metabolism and whole-body energy homeostasis. Circulating adiponectin levels in obese people are lower than in non-obese, and increased serum adiponectin is associated with weight loss. Numerous clinical studies have established that fat mass is positively related to bone mass, a relationship that is maintained by communication between the two tissues through hormones and cytokines. Since adiponectin levels inversely correspond to fat mass, its bone effects and its potential contribution to the relationship between fat and bone have been investigated...
December 7, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928449/severe-asymptomatic-coronary-obstruction-in-chronic-hemodialysed-patient-a-case-report
#3
Voiculeț C, Zara O, Văcăroiu I, Bogeanu C, Tiron T, Turcu F, Aron G, Ciocâlteu A
Introduction. Arterial stiffness and vascular calcifications are independent predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5D population. According to the guidelines, patients on renal replacement therapy represent a very high cardiovascular risk class. Case report. We report the case of a 67-year-old hypertensive male patient, known with CKD stage 5D on hemodialysis (three times per week), secondary bone mineral disease, admitted for progressive right leg pain...
October 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925440/enhancing-bioactive-properties-of-silk-fibroin-with-diatom-particles-for-bone-tissue-engineering-applications
#4
Thi Duy Hanh Le, Volha Liaudanskaya, Walter Bonani, Claudio Migliaresi, Antonella Motta
Many studies have highlighted the role of silicon in human bone formation and maintenance. Silicon, in fact, is considered to nucleate the precipitation of hydroxyapatite and to reduce the bone resorption. For this reason, we have combined silk fibroin with silicon releasing diatom particles, as potential material for bone tissue engineering applications. Sponges of fibroin loaded with different amounts and sizes of diatom particles were prepared by solvent casting-particulate leaching method, and their morphology, porosity and mechanical properties were evaluated...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923594/synthesis-of-the-cyp24a1-major-metabolite-of-2%C3%AE-2-tetrazol-2-yl-ethyl-1%C3%AE-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3
#5
REVIEW
Masashi Takano, Kaori Yasuda, Eri Tohyama, Erika Higuchi, Toshiyuki Sakaki, Atsushi Kittaka
Previously, we found that 2α-[2-(tetrazol-2-yl)ethyl]-1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (AH-1) showed higher osteocalcin promoter transactivation activity in human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells and a greater therapeutic effect on ovariectomized (OVX) rats for enhancing bone mineral density than those of 1α,25(OH)2D3 without hypercalcemic side effects in vivo. Although CYP24A1 catalyzes multi-step oxidations toward the CD-ring side chain of the active vitamin D3 [1α,25(OH)2D3], the CYP24A1-dependent metabolism of AH-1 tended to stop at the first step hydroxylation at the C24-position of AH-1...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922938/skeletal-muscle-mass-is-associated-with-higher-dietary-protein-intake-and-lower-body-fat-in-postmenopausal-women-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Thaís R Silva, Poli M Spritzer
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between skeletal muscle mass and dietary protein intake, habitual physical activity, body composition, and metabolic variables. METHODS: One hundred three healthy postmenopausal women from southern Brazil (age 55.2 ± 4.9 y, body mass index 27.2 ± 4.6 kg/m) were enrolled. Bone mineral density, %body fat, %trunk fat mass, and appendicular lean mass were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, resting metabolic rate by indirect calorimetry, and habitual physical activity by pedometer...
December 5, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919752/bioavailable-25-oh-d-but-not-total-25-oh-d-is-an-independent-determinant-for-bone-mineral-density-in-chinese-postmenopausal-women
#7
Chenguang Li, Peizhan Chen, Xiaohua Duan, Jing Wang, Bing Shu, Xiaoguang Li, Qian Ba, Jingquan Li, Yongjun Wang, Hui Wang
Total 25(OH)D levels were determined to assess bone health in elderly populations; however, the bioavailability of 25(OH)D is regulated by the albumin and vitamin D binding protein (DBP) levels and DBP variations. Whether bioavailable 25(OH)D level is a superior biomarker for vitamin D than total 25(OH)D level regarding the BMD and the bone metabolism were not yet fully understood. With a community based cross-sectional study of 967 postmenopausal women, we found that the variant rs7041, but not rs4588, of DBP was significantly associated with the blood DBP level, which was positively correlated with the total 25(OH)D level but negatively associated with bioavailable 25(OH)D levels...
November 28, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919683/effects-of-c-terminal-amelogenin-peptides-on-the-metabolism-of-osteoblasts
#8
Tetsuya Awada, Ryo Kunimatsu, Yuki Yoshimi, Naoto Hirose, Tomomi Mitsuyoshi, Keisuke Sumi, Kotaro Tanimoto
OBJECTIVES: Amelogenins, enamel matrix proteins secreted by ameloblasts, comprise 90% of the developing extracellular enamel matrix. Recent evidence suggests that amelogenins might induce the proliferation of various cells. However, the residues comprising the active site of amelogenin remain unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effects of a human amelogenin C-terminal peptide (amgCP) on the metabolism of osteoblasts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mouse calvarial osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1) were cultured and treated with amgCP...
December 2, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919248/bone-mineral-density-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-hereditary-ataxia-or-hereditary-spastic-paraplegia-after-at-least-10%C3%A2-years-of-disease-a-case-control-study
#9
Cecilia Smith Simonsen, Elisabeth Gulowsen Celius, Cathrine Brunborg, Chantal Tallaksen, Erik Fink Eriksen, Trygve Holmøy, Stine Marit Moen
BACKGROUND: Although disability is considered the main cause of low bone mineral density (BMD) in multiple sclerosis (MS), other factors related to the disease process or treatment could also be involved. The aim of this study was to assess whether patients with MS are more likely to develop low BMD (osteopenia or osteoporosis) than patients with the non-inflammatory neurological diseases Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) and Hereditary Ataxia (HA). METHODS: We performed a case control study comparing BMD (spine, hip and total body) and biochemical measures of bone metabolism in 91 MS patients and 77 patients with HSP or HA, matched for age, gender and disability...
December 5, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918446/metabolomics-and-its-application-in-the-development-of-discovering-biomarkers-for-osteoporosis-research
#10
REVIEW
Huanhuan Lv, Feng Jiang, Daogang Guan, Cheng Lu, Baosheng Guo, Chileung Chan, Songlin Peng, Baoqin Liu, Wenwei Guo, Hailong Zhu, Xuegong Xu, Aiping Lu, Ge Zhang
Osteoporosis is a progressive skeletal disorder characterized by low bone mass and increased risk of fracture in later life. The incidence and costs associated with treating osteoporosis cause heavy socio-economic burden. Currently, the diagnosis of osteoporosis mainly depends on bone mineral density and bone turnover markers. However, these indexes are not sensitive and accurate enough to reflect the osteoporosis progression. Metabolomics offers the potential for a holistic approach for clinical diagnoses and treatment, as well as understanding of the pathological mechanism of osteoporosis...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918081/st1926-attenuates-steroid-induced-osteoporosis-in-rats-by-inhibiting-inflammation-response
#11
Hong-Xing Zhao, Yuan-Xia Huang, Jin-Gang Tao
Steroid, also known as glucocorticoid, induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head in young adults, which has been a challenging disorder for the frequent incidence of collapse of femoral head, leading to dysfunction of hip joint and impairing life quality of human. Bioavailable and less toxic synthetic retinoids, such as the atypical adamantyl retinoid ST1926, have been developed and investigated in clinical trials for many diseases. Serum lipid-related indicators were assessed to elucidate the role of ST1926 in regulating lipid metabolism...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917214/treadmill-walking-exercise-modulates-bone-mineral-status-and-inflammatory-cytokines-in-obese-asthmatic-patients-with-long-term-intake-of-corticosteroids
#12
Shehab M Abd El-Kader, Osama H Al-Jiffri, Eman M Ashmawy, Riziq Allah M Gaowgzeh
BACKGROUND: Obesity and asthma are an important public health problem in Saudi Arabia. An increasing body of data supports the hypothesis that obesity is a risk factor for asthma. Asthma appears to be associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) due to long-term use of corticosteroids. Studies recently showed that weight bearing exercise training can increase mineral bone density, reduce weight and improve metabolic control. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to measure the effects of treadmill walking exercises on bone mineral status and inflammatory cytokines in obese asthmatic patients treated with long term intake of corticosteroids...
September 2016: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916560/thinning-of-articular-cartilage-after-joint-unloading-or-immobilization-an-experimental-investigation-of-the-pathogenesis-in-mice
#13
Masato Nomura, Naoyoshi Sakitani, Hiroyuki Iwasawa, Yuta Kohara, Shoko Takano, Yoshio Wakimoto, Hiroshi Kuroki, Hideki Moriyama
OBJECTIVE: Moderate mechanical stress generated by normal joint loading and movement is essential for the maintenance of healthy articular cartilage. However, the effects of reduced loading caused by the absence of weight bearing or joint motion on articular cartilage and subchondral bone is still poorly understood. We aimed to characterize morphological and metabolic responses of articular cartilage and subchondral bone to decreased mechanical stress in vivo. METHODS: Mice were subjected to periods of hindlimb unloading by tail suspension or external fixation of the knee joints...
December 1, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915991/control-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-colorectal-cancer-by-synthetic-vitamin-d-receptor-ligands
#14
Ichiro Takada, Makoto Makishima
Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are associated with an increased risk of cancer, autoimmune disease, inflammation, infection, cardiovascular disease and metabolic disease, as well as bone and mineral disorders. The vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a receptor for the active form of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], and mediates vitamin D regulation of specific target gene expression. The secondary bile acid lithocholic acid, which is produced by intestinal bacteria, is another natural VDR ligand...
December 2, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914707/adiponectin-alters-renal-calcium-and-phosphate-excretion-through-regulation-of-klotho-expression
#15
Joseph M Rutkowski, Johanne Pastor, Kai Sun, Sun K Park, I Alexandru Bobulescu, Christopher T Chen, Orson W Moe, Philipp E Scherer
The kidney controls systemic calcium and phosphate levels and disturbances of its control mechanisms can lead to a variety of diseases. The insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin is renoprotective and accelerates functional recovery following renal injury. However, unlike other adipokines, adiponectin is reduced in obesity. High adiponectin levels are also correlated with bone loss, suggestive of an additional action in mineral metabolism. Using knockout, wild-type, and adiponectin-overexpressing transgenic mice, we sought to identify the mechanistic basis for adiponectin's ability to regulate calcium and phosphate balance at the level of the kidney...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909782/associations-between-serum-vitamin-e-concentration-and-bone-mineral-density-in-the-us-elderly-population
#16
J Zhang, X Hu, J Zhang
: Mixed findings regarding effects of vitamin E on bone metabolism existed. We were the first to find a negative association between serum α-tocopherol concentration and bone mineral density in the US elderly population. Using vitamin E supplement as α-tocopherol to promote bone health was not warranted at this time. INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study is to examine the associations between serum vitamin E (α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol) status and bone mineral density (BMD) among the US elderly population...
December 1, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906690/the-long-road-to-leptin
#17
Jeffrey Friedman
Leptin is an adipose tissue hormone that functions as an afferent signal in a negative feedback loop that maintains homeostatic control of adipose tissue mass. This endocrine system thus serves a critical evolutionary function by protecting individuals from the risks associated with being too thin (starvation) or too obese (predation and temperature dysregulation). Mutations in leptin or its receptor cause massive obesity in mice and humans, and leptin can effectively treat obesity in leptin-deficient patients...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906582/fiat-deletion-increases-bone-mass-but-does-not-prevent-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-complications
#18
Bahareh Hekmatnejad, Vionnie W C Yu, William Addison, Vice Mandic, Martin Pellicelli, Alice Arabian, René St-Arnaud
FIAT (Factor Inhibiting ATF4-mediated Transcription) interacts with ATF4 to repress its transcriptional activity. We performed a phenotypic analysis of Fiat-deficient male mice (Fiat(-/Y)) at 8 and 16 weeks of age. Fiat(-/Y) mice appeared normal at birth and weight gain was comparable between genotypes. μCT analysis of proximal femur demonstrated 46% and 13% age-dependent increases in trabecular bone volume and thickness, respectively, in Fiat(-/Y) mice. Cortical bone measurements at the femoral midshaft revealed a significant increase in cortical thickness in older Fiat(-/Y) mice...
December 1, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904825/can-acetazolamide-be-used-to-treat-diseases-involving-increased-bone-mineral-density
#19
Juan David González-Rodríguez, María Isabel Luis-Yanes, Esther Inglés-Torres, Pedro Arango-Sancho, José Eugenio Cabrera-Sevilla, María Rosario Duque-Fernández, Salvador Gil-Sánchez, Víctor Manuel García-Nieto
Sclerosing bone dysplasias are a series of clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases characterized by functional failure of the osteoclasts in bone resorption, leading to an excessive amount of bone mineral density (BMD) which could have serious clinical consequences. We treated three children affected with seriously high levels of BMD with acetazolamide, with the intention of inducing metabolic acidosis, thus increasing bone resorption and reducing BMD. All our patients tolerated and followed the treatment well and the clinical response was satisfactory in all cases...
November 2016: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900568/control-of-phosphate-balance-by-the-kidney-and-intestine
#20
REVIEW
Ichiro Kaneko, Sawako Tatsumi, Hiroko Segawa, Ken-Ichi Miyamoto
The prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia are major goals of the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD)-bone mineral disorders, and thus, Pi balance requires special attention. Pi balance is maintained by intestinal absorption, renal excretion, and bone accretion. The kidney is mainly responsible for the plasma Pi concentration. In CKD, reduced glomerular filtration rate leads to various Pi metabolism abnormalities, and Pi absorption in the small intestine also has an important role in Pi metabolism...
November 30, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
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