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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649223/pretreatment-with-sodium-phenylbutyrate-alleviates-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-upregulating-dj-1-protein
#1
Rui-Xin Yang, Jie Lei, Bo-Dong Wang, Da-Yun Feng, Lu Huang, Yu-Qian Li, Tao Li, Gang Zhu, Chen Li, Fang-Fang Lu, Tie-Jian Nie, Guo-Dong Gao, Li Gao
Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play critical roles in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. DJ-1 is an endogenous antioxidant that attenuates oxidative stress and maintains mitochondrial function, likely acting as a protector of I/R injury. In the present study, we explored the protective effect of a possible DJ-1 agonist, sodium phenylbutyrate (SPB), against I/R injury by protecting mitochondrial dysfunction via the upregulation of DJ-1 protein. Pretreatment with SPB upregulated the DJ-1 protein level and rescued the I/R injury-induced DJ-1 decrease about 50% both in vivo and in vitro...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648459/acute-liver-failure-is-associated-with-altered-cerebral-expression-profiles-of-long-non-coding-rnas
#2
Vinícius R Silva, Rodrigo Secolin, Raghu Vemuganti, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, Alan S Hazell
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) represents a serious complication of acute liver failure (ALF) in which cerebral edema leading to brainstem herniation as a result of increased intracranial hypertension is a major consequence. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a significant role in coordinating gene expression, with recent studies indicating an influence in the pathogenesis of several diseases. To investigate their involvement in the cerebral pathophysiology of ALF, we profiled the expression of lncRNAs in the frontal cortex of mice at coma stage following treatment with the hepatotoxin azoxymethane...
June 22, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646445/update-on-neurocritical-care-of-stroke
#3
Jason Siegel, Michael A Pizzi, J Brent Peel, David Alejos, Nnenne Mbabuike, Benjamin L Brown, David Hodge, W David Freeman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will highlight the recent advancements in acute ischemic stroke diagnosis and treatment, with special attention to new features and recommendations of stroke care in the neurocritical care unit. RECENT FINDINGS: New studies suggest that pre-hospital treatment of stroke with mobile stroke units and telestroke technology may lead to earlier stroke therapy with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and recent studies show tPA can be given in previously contraindicated situations...
August 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645780/salvia-miltiorrhiza-bunge-danshen-extract-attenuates-permanent-cerebral-ischemia-through-inhibiting-platelet-activation-in-rats
#4
Yu-Xiang Fei, Si-Qi Wang, Li-Jian Yang, Yan-Ying Qiu, Yi-Ze Li, Wen-Yuan Liu, Tao Xi, Wei-Rong Fang, Yun-Man Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Danshen is a crude herbal drug isolated from dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. This plant is widely used in oriental medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The supercritical CO2 extract from Danshen (SCED) (57.85%, 5.67% and 4.55% for tanshinone IIA, tanshinone I and cryptotanshinone respectively) was studied in this article, whose potential molecular mechanism remains unclear, especially in anti-thrombosis. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was designed to observe the protective effect of SCED on ischemic stroke in rats and to explore the underlying anti-thrombosis mechanism...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645524/orientin-attenuates-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rat-model-through-the-aqp-4-and-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-tnf-%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#5
Xiaoru Wang, Fang An, Shulin Wang, Zexin An, Shuhua Wang
BACKGROUND: Orientin has been reported to have extensive pharmaceutical effects of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antithrombosis, antiapoptosis, and so on. In the present study, we tried to investigate the protective effects of orientin on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and explored the possible mechanisms. METHODS: Middle cerebral artery occlusion rat model was established and then treated with low, middle, and high concentrations of orientin, respectively, with edaravone as a positive control...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642177/protective-functions-of-pj34-a-parp-inhibitor-is-related-to-down-regulation-of-calpain-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-a-mouse-model-of-tbi
#6
Xiaogang Tao, Xuetao Chen, Zonggang Hou, Shuyu Hao, Baiyun Liu
OBJECTIVES: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), calpain, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) are reported to participate in inflammatory reactions in pathological conditions and are involved in traumatic brain injury. The objective of this study was to investigate whether PARP participated in inflammation related to calpain and NF-κB in a mouse model of controlled cortical impact (CCI). METHODS: PJ34 (10 mg/kg), a selective PARP inhibitor, was administered intraperitoneally 5 min and 8 h after experimental CCI...
June 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639721/trpv4-channels-contribute-to-calcium-transients-in-astrocytes-and-neurons-during-peri-infarct-depolarizations-in-a-stroke-model
#7
Cordula Rakers, Matthias Schmid, Gabor C Petzold
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and long-term disability. In the penumbra, that is, the area surrounding the infarct core, peri-infarct depolarizations (PIDs) are accompanied by strong intracellular calcium elevations in astrocytes and neurons, thereby negatively affecting infarct size and clinical outcome. The dynamics of PIDs and the cellular pathways that are involved during PID formation and progression remain incompletely understood. We have previously shown that inositol triphosphate-gated calcium release from internal stores is a major component of PID-related astroglial calcium signals, but whether external calcium influx through membrane-localized channels also contributes to PIDs has remained unclear...
June 22, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632754/permissive-hypercapnia-for-severe-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-immunocompromised-children-a-single-center-experience
#8
Hans Fuchs, Nicola Rossmann, Manuel B Schmid, Manfred Hoenig, Ulrich Thome, Benjamin Mayer, Daniel Klotz, Helmut D Hummler
BACKGROUND: Controlled hypoventilation while accepting hypercapnia has been advocated to reduce ventilator-induced lung injury. The aim of the study was to analyze outcomes of a cohort of immunocompromised children with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) ventilated with a strategy of stepwise increasing PCO2 targets up to 140 mm Hg. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of outcomes of a cohort of children with oncologic disease or after stem cell transplantation and severe respiratory failure in comparison with a historical control cohort...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630232/long-noncoding-rna-h19-promotes-neuroinflammation-in-ischemic-stroke-by-driving-histone-deacetylase-1-dependent-m1-microglial-polarization
#9
Jue Wang, Haiping Zhao, Zhibin Fan, Guangwen Li, Qingfeng Ma, Zhen Tao, Rongliang Wang, Juan Feng, Yumin Luo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Long noncoding RNA H19 is repressed after birth, but can be induced by hypoxia. We aim to investigate the impact on and underlying mechanism of H19 induction after ischemic stroke. METHODS: Circulating H19 levels in stroke patients and mice subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion were assessed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. H19 siRNA and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) plasmid were used to knock down H19 and overexpress HDAC1, respectively...
June 19, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629771/chemokines-play-complex-roles-in-cerebral-ischemia
#10
REVIEW
Chen Chen, Shi-Feng Chu, Dan-Dan Liu, Zhao Zhang, Ling-Lei Kong, Xin Zhou, Nai-Hong Chen
Ischemic stroke (IS) is a disease caused by deficiency of blood and oxygen in focal or complete brain, followed by inflammation cascade and other pathological reactions, which finally lead to irreversible damage to the cerebrum. For the inflammation is a key progress at the initiation of ischemia and poststroke, and chemokines work as vital cytokines in inflammation, we focus the roles of chemokines in IS. Studies have shown cerebral ischemia is associated with marked induction of both CXC and CC chemokines which resulting in extensive leukocyte infiltration in the ischemic brain, and neutrophil infiltration may increase cerebral edema inducing injury in the ischemic area...
June 16, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629576/differentiation-of-brain-tumor-related-edema-based-on-3d-t1rho-imaging
#11
J E Villanueva-Meyer, R F Barajas, M C Mabray, W Chen, A Shankaranarayanan, P Koon, I J Barani, T Tihan, S Cha
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral edema associated with brain tumors is an important source of morbidity. Its type depends largely on the capillary ultra-structures of the histopathologic subtype of underlying brain tumor. The purpose of our study was to differentiate vasogenic edema associated with brain metastases and infiltrative edema related to diffuse gliomas using quantitative 3D T1 rho (T1ρ) imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Preoperative MR examination including whole brain 3D T1ρ imaging was performed in 23 patients with newly diagnosed brain tumors (9 with metastasis, 8 with lower grade glioma, LGG, 6 with glioblastoma, GBM)...
June 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626100/-neuronavigator-assisted-microsurgical-resection-of-glioma-located-in-cerebral-functional-areas
#12
Guohui Su, Zhixiong Liu, Lei Huo, Chuntao Li, Mingyu Zhang
To evaluate value of neuronavigator-assisted microsurgery of glioma located in cerebral functional areas.
 Methods: Patients with glioma located in cerebral functional areas were underwent operation in Xiangya Hospital. Of 64 patients, 34 patients were performed neuronavigator-assisted microsurgery, and 30 were underwent routine surgical operation.
 Results: The neuronavigator-assisted microsurgery group showed high complete resection rate with low neurological deficit and cerebral edema compared with the routine surgical group (P<0...
May 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625252/-cerebral-injury-induced-by-heat-stroke-and-the-therapeutic-effect-of-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy
#13
Xiaoxiao Ni, Zhifeng Liu, Qiuyou Xie, Huasheng Tong, Lei Su, Ronghao Yu
With the global warming, the incidence of heat stroke was significantly higher than before. Severe heat stroke has a high mortality, high morbidity and consolidated central nervous system injury characteristics. The main features of severe heat stroke cerebral injury include cognitive impairment, delirium, convulsions and coma. Its mechanism is related with heat shock induced cerebral tissue ischemia and hypoxia, vascular dysfunction, secondary cascade inflammation and so on. Currently, the main treatment of heat stroke cerebral injury is the hypothermia therapy, dehydration for the reduction of intracranial pressure, naloxone and other cerebral protection and nutrition treatments...
June 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622752/microvascular-fluid-exchange-during-cpb-with-deep-hypothermia-circulatory-arrest-or-low-flow
#14
Bjørg Elvevoll, Paul Husby, Venny L Kvalheim, Lodve Stangeland, Arve Mongstad, Øyvind S Svendsen
OBJECTIVE: Use of deep hypothermic low-flow (DHLF) cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has been associated with higher fluid loading than the use of deep hypothermia circulatory arrest (DHCA). We evaluated whether these perfusion strategies influenced fluid extravasation rates and edema generation differently per-operatively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve anesthetized pigs, randomly allocated to DHLF (n = 6) or DHCA (n = 6), underwent 2.5 hours CPB with cooling to 20°C for 30 minutes (min), followed by 30 min arrested circulation (DHCA) or 30 min low-flow circulation (DHLF) before 90 min rewarming to normothermia...
June 1, 2017: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611780/il-10-dysregulation-in-acute-mountain-sickness-revealed-by-transcriptome-analysis
#15
Bao Liu, Jian Chen, Long Zhang, Yixing Gao, Jianhua Cui, Erlong Zhang, Gang Xu, Yan Liang, Yu Liang, Jian Wang, Yuqi Gao
Acute mountain sickness (AMS), which may progress to life-threatening high-altitude cerebral edema, is a major threat to millions of people who live in or travel to high altitude. Although studies have revealed the risk factors and pathophysiology theories of AMS, the molecular mechanisms of it do not comprehensively illustrate. Here, we used a system-level methodology, RNA sequencing, to explore the molecular mechanisms of AMS at genome-wide level in 10 individuals. After exposure to high altitude, a total of 1,164 and 1,322 differentially expressed transcripts were identified in AMS and non-AMS groups, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611153/effects-of-short-term-mild-hypercapnia-during-head-down-tilt-on-intracranial-pressure-and-ocular-structures-in-healthy-human-subjects
#16
Steven S Laurie, Gianmarco Vizzeri, Giovanni Taibbi, Connor R Ferguson, Xiao Hu, Stuart M C Lee, Robert Ploutz-Snyder, Scott M Smith, Sara R Zwart, Michael B Stenger
Many astronauts experience ocular structural and functional changes during long-duration spaceflight, including choroidal folds, optic disc edema, globe flattening, optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) distension, retinal nerve fiber layer thickening, and decreased visual acuity. The leading hypothesis suggests that weightlessness-induced cephalad fluid shifts increase intracranial pressure (ICP), which contributes to the ocular structural changes, but elevated ambient CO2 levels on the International Space Station may also be a factor...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611097/epidemiology-endovascular-treatment-and-prognosis-of-cerebral-venous-thrombosis-us-center-study-of-152-patients
#17
Kristin Salottolo, Jeffrey Wagner, Donald F Frei, David Loy, Richard J Bellon, Kathryn McCarthy, Judd Jensen, Christopher Fanale, David Bar-Or
BACKGROUND: Cerebral venous thrombosis is a rare cause of stroke that poses diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic challenges. Mainstay treatment is systemic anticoagulation, but endovascular treatment is increasingly advocated. Our objectives were to describe the epidemiology, treatment, and prognosis of 152 patients with cerebral venous thrombosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a retrospective study of consecutive cerebral venous thrombosis cases from 2006 to 2013 at a comprehensive stroke center through hospital discharge...
June 13, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610434/isoflavones-and-gastrointestinal-infection-two-potential-triggers-for-reversible-cerebral-vasoconstriction-syndrome
#18
Björn Machner, Tobias Boppel, Thomas Münte
Background Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is an important differential diagnosis of singular or recurrent thunderclap headache. Prognosis is generally good, however complications of the transient segmental vasospasms of cerebral arteries such as stroke, subarachnoidal hemorrhage and brain edema may worsen the clinical outcome. Although the exact pathomechanism is still unclear, various vasoactive substances and conditions (e.g. post partum) have been identified as triggering RCVS. Cases We report on the clinical course and management of two cases of typical RCVS that were associated with two different precipitants previously not described: A gastrointestinal infection and isoflavones, which are phytoestrogens used for menopausal vasomotor symptoms...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607351/early-oxygen-therapy-does-not-protect-the-brain-from-vasogenic-edema-following-acute-ischemic-stroke-in-adult-male-rats
#19
Elmira Pasban, Hamdollah Panahpour, Akbar Vahdati
Brain edema aggravates primary brain injury and increases its mortality rate after ischemic stroke. It is believed that normobaric oxygen therapy (NBO) may produce neuroprotective effects against ischemic stroke; however, reports have been controversial, and its effects on vasogenic brain edema as a major complication of brain ischemia have not been clarified. The present study investigates the effects of NBO on cerebral edema and blood - brain barrier integrity using rat model of ischemic stroke. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min followed by 24 h reperfusion...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607332/massive-ischemic-stroke-due-to-pulmonary-barotrauma-and-cerebral-artery-air-embolism-during-commercial-air-travel
#20
Sara Farshchi Zarabi, Matteo Parotto, Rita Katznelson, James Downar
BACKGROUND Air embolism into the systemic arterial circulation secondary to pulmonary barotrauma has rarely been reported. Herein, we report the clinical course of an extremely rare presentation of cerebral air embolism likely due to ruptured pulmonary bullae during commercial air travel. CASE REPORT A 65-year-old man suddenly became unconscious during an airplane descent. Upon landing, he was immediately transferred to the nearest emergency department where he was intubated for airway protection. His head CT angiogram showed multiple air pockets in the right parietal lobe suspicious for multiple air emboli...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
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