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Cerebral edema

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234383/goreisan-inhibits-upregulation-of-aquaporin-4-and-formation-of-cerebral-edema-in-the-rat-model-of-juvenile-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#1
Yoshiaki Yano, Hajime Yano, Hisaaki Takahashi, Kouhei Yoshimoto, Shinji Tsuda, Kenta Fujiyama, Yusuke Izumo-Shimizu, Ryota Motoie, Masanori Ito, Junya Tanaka, Eiichi Ishii, Mitsumasa Fukuda
Secondary cerebral edema regulation is of prognostic significance in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), and aquaporin 4 (AQP4) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cerebral edema. The traditional Japanese herbal medicine Goreisan relieves brain edema in adults; however, its effect and pharmacological mechanism in children are unknown. We investigated the effects of Goreisan on HIE-associated brain edema and AQP4 expression in a juvenile rat model, established by combined occlusion of middle cerebral and common carotid arteries...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230542/secondary-intracranial-hypertension-pseudotumor-cerebri-presenting-as-post-traumatic-headache-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-series
#2
Tonia Sabo, Charlene Supnet, Sushmita Purkayastha
BACKGROUND: Cerebral edema peaks 36-72 h after moderate traumatic brain injury but thought to be uncommon after mild traumatic brain injury. Post-traumatic headache can develop 48-72 h post-injury, perhaps reflecting the developing cerebral edema. Pseudotumor cerebri can result from various causes, including cerebral edema, and is characterized by increased intracranial pressure, headache, visual, and other common symptoms. Our objective was to report a phenotypically identifiable post-traumatic headache subtype...
December 11, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228907/secondary-pallidonigral-degeneration-mimicking-recurrent-acute-stroke-in-clinical-presentation-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-a-case-report
#3
Ruei-Je Tsai, Li-Chun Hsieh, Sho-Jen Cheng, Cheng-Yu Chen
BACKGROUND: Secondary pallidonigral transneuronal degeneration after a remote primary cerebral infarct can mimic recurrent stroke at clinical presentation. We describe a patient with secondary pallidonigral degeneration following a previous putaminal infarct, which was diagnosed through diffusion-weighted (DWI) and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI). CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old man complained of an acute relapse of right-lower-limb weakness following a cerebral infarction 2 months before presentation...
December 11, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228704/role-of-hif-1a-in-regulating-autophagic-cell-survival-during-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-in-rats
#4
Yongqing Guo
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1a (HIF-1a) plays a beneficial role during cerebral ischemia reperfusion (IR), but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects and molecular regulation of HIF-1a on brain cell apoptosis and autophagy during IR. We found that augmentation of HIF-1a in re-perfused hematopoietic cells significantly reduced brain damage, alleviated brain edema and improved neural function during IR, seemingly through two HIF-1a target genes BNIP3 and NIX, which were critical regulators for cell apoptosis and autophagic cell survival...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228667/metformin-ameliorates-sepsis-induced-brain-injury-by-inhibiting-apoptosis-oxidative-stress-and-neuroinflammation-via-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#5
Guangming Tang, Huiyun Yang, Jing Chen, Mengrao Shi, Lingqing Ge, Xuhua Ge, Guoji Zhu
Sepsis-induced brain injuries increase mortality, morbidity, cognitive impairment and lack of effective therapeutic treatment. Previous studies have suggested that metformin provides neuroprotective effects against ischemia, brain trauma and other brain damage, but whether metformin protects a septic brain remains unknown. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the possible effects and the mechanism of metformin against septic brain damage using the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. Mice were randomly divided into five groups: the Sham group, CLP group, CLP+ Met group, CLP+ vehicle group and CLP+ Met+ LY group...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218128/neurobrucellosis-presenting-as-pseudotumor-cerebri-first-report-from-oman
#6
Padam P Sharma, Mangudi V Murali, Tahsin Hamdi
A ten-year-old boy presented to the hospital with body ache and joint pains for two months and headache, vomiting, and skin rash for three days. He was drowsy and lethargic at admission. Physical examination revealed bilateral papilledema. There were no cranial nerve involvement, neuromotor deficit, or signs of meningeal irritation. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain did not reveal any evidence of cerebral edema or space occupying lesion. In view of the high endemicity of brucellosis in the area, Brucella agglutination test (BAT) was done at the time of admission and was negative...
November 2017: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217500/peripheral-neuropathy-as-a-complication-of-diabetic-ketoacidosis-in-a-child-with-newly-diagnosed-diabetes-type-1-case-report
#7
Marta Baszyńska-Wilk, Marta Wysocka-Mincewicz, Anna Świercz, Jolanta Świderska, Magdalena Marszał, Mieczysław Szalecki
BACKGROUND: Neurological complications of diabetic ketoacidosis are considered to be very serious clinical problem. The most common complication is cerebral edema. However this group includes also less common syndromes such as ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis or very rare peripheral neuropathy. CASE REPORT: We present a case of 9-year old girl with new onset type 1 diabetes, diabetic ketoacidosis, cerebral edema, multifocal vasogenic brain lesions and lower limbs peripheral paresis...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216762/protective-effect-of-astaxanthin-on-acute-cerebral-infarction-in-rats
#8
Yu Nai, Hong Liu, Xizhuang Bi, Hongyu Gao, Chao Ren
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of astaxanthin and its possible mechanisms on acute cerebral infarction (ACI) in rat model. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham group, model group, and astaxanthin-treated groups (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg). Neurological examination, the ratio of cerebral edema, and histopathology changes were assessed. Moreover, some oxidative stress markers were obtained for biochemical analysis, and the expression of neurotrophic factors gene was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210221/heart-rate-sensitive-optical-coherence-angiography-for-measuring-vascular-changes-due-to-posttraumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#9
Jordi L Tremoleda, Karl Alvarez, Abdirahman Aden, Robert Donnan, Adina T Michael-Titus, Peter H Tomlins
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in direct vascular disruption, triggering edema, and reduction in cerebral blood flow. Therefore, understanding the pathophysiology of brain microcirculation following TBI is important for the development of effective therapies. Optical coherence angiography (OCA) is a promising tool for evaluating TBI in rodent models. We develop an approach to OCA that uses the heart-rate frequency to discriminate between static tissue and vasculature. This method operates on intensity data and is therefore not phase sensitive...
December 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208736/pathophysiological-and-behavioral-deficits-in-developing-mice-following-rotational-acceleration-deceleration-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Guoxiang Wang, Yi Ping Zhang, Zhongwen Gao, Lisa B E Shields, Fang Li, Tianci Chu, Huayi Lv, Thomas Moriarty, Xiao-Ming Xu, Xiaoyu Yang, Christopher B Shields, Jun Cai
Abusive head trauma (AHT) is the leading cause of death from trauma in infants and young children. An AHT animal model was developed on 12-day-old mice subjected to 90° head extension-flexion sagittal shaking repeated 30, 60, 80, and 100 times. The mortality and time until return of consciousness were dependent on the number of repeats and severity of the injury. Under 60 times of repeated head shakings, the pups demonstrated apnea and/or bradycardia immediately after injury. Acute oxygen desaturation was observed by pulse oximetry during respiratory and cardiac suppression...
November 30, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208604/jcar015-in-all-a-root-cause-investigation
#11
(no author information available yet)
After conducting an internal probe of the five deaths that halted JCAR015's development for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Juno Therapeutics has concluded that multiple factors were at play. A surge in inflammatory cytokine levels from rapid, early T-cell proliferation may have provoked the blood-brain barrier disruption seen in these patients, inducing fatal cerebral edema.
December 5, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201855/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-after-head-trauma-surgery-in-pediatric-patient-without-any-underlying-disease
#12
Jae Eon Yoon, Cheol Young Lee, Hyun Woo Kim
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurological disorder characterized by signs of posterior cerebral edema upon radiographic examination. A 16-year-old girl was involved in motorcycle accident and depressed frontal fracture was presented. She had generalized seizures 3 days after dural repair and fracture reduction. Signal changes was noted on both parietal lobes in the magnetic resonance images and it was completely resolved in 3 months follow-up. We would like to present the case that demonstrated PRES related hypertension after head trauma surgery for cerebrospinal fluid leakage in pediatric patient without any underlying disease...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201849/concurrent-surgery-of-craniectomy-and-splenectomy-as-initial-treatment-in-severe-traumatic-head-injury-a-case-report
#13
Hyeong Rae Lee, Nam Kyu You, Sook Jin Seo, Mi Sun Choi
It is not a common case for neurosurgery department and the other departments to perform joint operation at the same time. Patients with severe head injury are a condition in which vital signs are unstable due to severe brain swelling and increased intracranial pressure, and emergency surgery is required. A 44-year-old man visited the trauma center with a motorcycle accident. The Glasgow Coma Scale score at the time of emergency department was 3 points, and the pupil was fixed at 6 mm on both sides. His medical history was unknown...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201841/the-combined-use-of-cardiac-output-and-intracranial-pressure-monitoring-to-maintain-optimal-cerebral-perfusion-pressure-and-minimize-complications-for-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Jin Shup So, Jung-Ho Yun
Objective: To show the effect of dual monitoring including cardiac output (CO) and intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring for severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patiens. We hypothesized that meticulous treatment using dual monitoring is effective to sustain maintain minimal intensive care unit (ICU) complications and maintain optimal ICP and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) for severe TBI patiens. Methods: We included severe TBI, below Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 8 and head abbreviation injury scale (AIS) >4 and performed decompressive craniectomy at trauma ICU of our hospital...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201838/ganoderma-lucidum-protects-rat-brain-tissue-against-trauma-induced-oxidative-stress
#15
Özevren Hüseyin, İrtegün Sevgi, Deveci Engin, Aşır Fırat, Pektanç Gülsüm, Deveci Şenay
Objective: Traumatic brain injury causes tissue damage, breakdown of cerebral blood flow and metabolic regulation. This study aims to investigate the protective influence of antioxidant Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) polysaccharides (GLPs) on brain injury in brain-traumatized rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley conducted a head-traumatized method on rats by dropping off 300 g weight from 1 m height. Groups were categorized as control, G. lucidum, trauma, trauma+ G. lucidum (20 mL/kg per day via gastric gavage)...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201544/occurrence-of-overt-seizures-in-comatose-survivor-patients-treated-with-targeted-temperature
#16
Anda Eilam, Volodymyr Samogalskyi, Gennady Bregman, Sarit Eliner-Avishai, Ronit Gilad
Background: Unconscious patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest have a high risk of death. Therapeutic hypothermia is recommended by international resuscitation guidelines in order to attenuate secondary destructive physiological processes such as reperfusion injury, apoptosis, and cerebral edema. The target temperature to reach ranges between 32 and 34°C for at least 24 hr. Hypothermia can induce metabolic disturbances. There are some reports in the literature indicating the presence of seizures during targeted temperature management...
November 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201438/pathomorphological-peculiarities-of-tuberculous-meningoencephalitis-associated-with-hiv-infection
#17
Volodymyr M Kozko, Andriy V Bondarenko, Anatoliy V Gavrylov, Olga S Shevchenko, Vitalii V Gargin
Background and aims: One of the most severe manifestation displays of tuberculosis (TB) generalization is meningitis/meningoencephalitis. The purpose of this work was to improve the diagnostic efficiency of TB central nervous system (CNS) affection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. Materials and methods: Meninges and cerebral tissues, taken from died patients, who were HIV-infected and dead from TB of CNS affection, were investigated histologically...
September 2017: Interventional Medicine & Applied Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198689/utility-of-tolvaptan-in-the-perioperative-management-of-severe-hyponatremia-during-liver-transplantation-a-case-report
#18
A Parekh, P Rajaram, G Patel, R M Subramanian
Severe hyponatremia can complicate the pretransplantation management of patients with decompensated cirrhosis while they await liver transplantation. Before the liver transplant, it is critical to correct severe hyponatremia to an appropriate level to reduce the risks of perioperative complications such as central pontine myelinolysis, cerebral edema, and seizures. Vasopressin receptor antagonists, and in particular tolvaptan, offer a therapeutic modality that can correct severe refractory hyponatremia in a timely and predictable manner before liver transplantation...
December 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193450/clostridium-butyricum-exerts-a-neuroprotective-effect-in-a-mouse-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-via-the-gut-brain-axis
#19
H Li, J Sun, J Du, F Wang, R Fang, C Yu, J Xiong, W Chen, Z Lu, J Liu
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common occurrence following gastrointestinal dysfunction. Recently, more and more attentions are being focused on gut microbiota in brain and behavior. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is considered as a mediator that links the gut-brain axis. The aim of this study was to explore the neuroprotective effects of Clostridium butyricum (Cb) on brain damage in a mouse model of TBI. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a model of TBI-induced by weight-drop impact head injury and were treated intragastrically with Cb...
November 27, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188158/fulminant-hepatic-failure-and-fatal-cerebral-edema-following-clostridium-perfringens-bacteremia-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#20
Alice Shen, Gabriel O Ologun, Robert Behm
Clostridium perfringens (CP) bacteremia is a rare but rapidly fatal infection. Only 36 cases of CP bacteremia with gas containing liver abscesses on image studies have been reported in the literature since 1990. In this report, we describe a 65-year-old diabetic male with CP bacteremia which progressed into fulminant hepatic failure with subsequent fatal cerebral edema.
September 26, 2017: Curēus
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