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Cerebral edema

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107262/suspected-cerebral-edema-in-diabetic-ketoacidosis-is-there-still-a-role-for-head-ct-in-treatment-decisions
#1
Carmen L Soto-Rivera, Lisa A Asaro, Michael S D Agus, Danielle D DeCourcey
OBJECTIVES: Neurologic deterioration associated with cerebral edema in diabetic ketoacidosis is typically sudden in onset, progresses rapidly, and requires emergent treatment. The utility of brain imaging by head CT in decisions to treat for cerebral edema has not been previously studied. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of pediatric patients with diabetic ketoacidosis who develop altered mental status and evaluate the role of head CT in this cohort. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of clinical, biochemical, and radiologic data...
January 19, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094295/loss-of-pafr-prevents-neuroinflammation-and-brain-dysfunction-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Xiang-Jie Yin, Zhen-Yan Chen, Xiao-Na Zhu, Jin-Jia Hu
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a principal cause of death and disability worldwide, which is a major public health problem. Death caused by TBI accounts for a third of all damage related illnesses, which 75% TBI occurred in low and middle income countries. With the increasing use of motor vehicles, the incidence of TBI has been at a high level. The abnormal brain functions of TBI patients often show the acute and long-term neurological dysfunction, which mainly associated with the pathological process of malignant brain edema and neuroinflammation in the brain...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091411/protective-effects-of-calpain-inhibition-on-neurovascular-unit-injury-through-downregulating-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-related-inflammation-during-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#3
Xiao-Gang Tao, Jing-Hua Shi, Shu-Yu Hao, Xue-Tao Chen, Bai-Yun Liu
BACKGROUND: In addition to neurons, all components of the neurovascular unit (NVU), such as glial, endothelial, and basal membranes, are destroyed during traumatic brain injury (TBI). Previous studies have shown that excessive stimulation of calpain is crucial for cerebral injury after traumatic insult. The objective of this study was to investigate whether calpain activation participated in NVU disruption and edema formation in a mouse model of controlled cortical impact (CCI). METHODS: One hundred and eight mice were divided into three groups: the sham group, the control group, and the MDL28170 group...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090792/cerebral-schistosomiasis-diffusion-weighted-imaging-helps-to-differentiate-from-brain-glioma-and-metastasis
#4
Jinbai Huang, Jing Luo, Jie Peng, Tao Yang, Huanghua Zheng, Chunping Mao
Background Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was introduced into clinical use some years ago. However, its use in the diagnosis of cerebral schistosomiasis has not been reported. Purpose To investigate the ability of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of DWI in the diagnosis of cerebral schistosomiasis, and to differentiate it from brain high-grade gliomas and metastasis. Material and Methods Conventional brain MRI with pre-contrast, post-contrast, and DWI was performed on 50 cases of cerebral schistosomiasis, high-grade glioma, and brain metastasis...
January 1, 2017: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087909/-tripotolide-ameliorates-inflammation-and-apoptosis-induced-by-focal-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-in-rats
#5
Shi Bai, Yayi Sun, Lijuan Wu, Zhongmin Wu, Marong Fang
Objective: To investigate the effects of triptolide on inflammation and apoptosis induced by focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Methods: The rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury was established according to Longa's method. A total of 80 SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups:normal control, sham group, DMSO group, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) group, and MCAO with tripolide treatment group. TTC staining was used to examine the site and volume of cerebral infarction, and Longa score was employed for neurological disorders measurement...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078859/role-of-vitacamphore-in-improving-central-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-following-transient-global-ischemia
#6
J Lin, L Pang, X L Liu, J Xing
Pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are responsive to ischemic stress. This process thereby modulates the responsiveness of many cell types under diseased conditions. The current study was to examine the role played by vitacamphore (VCP) in regulating the levels of PICs and protein expression of PIC receptors in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of rats after cardiac arrest (CA)-induced transient global ischemia. CA was induced by asphyxia followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in rats...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078800/ghrelin-ameliorates-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-in-the-systemic-hypoxia
#7
Gisou Mohaddes, Jalal Abdolalizadeh, Shirin Babri, Fezzeh Hossienzadeh
The blood brain barrier (BBB), which serves to protect homeostasis of the central nervous system, is formed by tight junction proteins. Several studies have indicated that systemic hypoxia leads to cerebral edema through disruption of the tight junction proteins such as occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1). According to our previous studies ghrelin attenuates cerebral edema in the hypoxic brain. However, its mechanisms are not completely understood. The present study was aimed to determine the effect of ghrelin on occludin and Zo-1 in the hypoxic brain...
January 11, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075214/intralipid-vehicle-does-not-interfere-with-the-efficacy-of-progesterone-in-attenuating-edema-following-tbi
#8
Bushra Wali, Donald Stein, Iqbal Sayeed
The recent disappointing results of Phase 3 trials for progesterone (PROG) in traumatic brain injury (TBI) have triggered speculation about reasons for the negative outcomes. One confounding factor may have been the vehicle used to administer PROG. Virtually all of the many preclinical experiments informing the clinical trials and reporting beneficial PROG effects used more soluble 2-hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin (HBC) as a vehicle given intraperitoneally or subcutaneously rather than a lipid formulation given intravenously (i...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068417/preserved-collateral-blood-flow-in-the-endovascular-m2cao-model-allows-for-clinically-relevant-profiling-of-injury-progression-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#9
Philip Little, Ola Kvist, Rikard Grankvist, Stefan Jonsson, Peter Damberg, Michael Söderman, Fabian Arnberg, Staffan Holmin
Interventional treatment regimens have increased the demand for accurate understanding of the progression of injury in acute ischemic stroke. However, conventional animal models severely inhibit collateral blood flow and mimic the malignant infarction profile not suitable for treatment. The aim of this study was to provide a clinically relevant profile of the emergence and course of ischemic injury in cases suitable for acute intervention, and was achieved by employing a M2 occlusion model (M2CAO) that more accurately simulates middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in humans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067742/what-definition-is-used-to-describe-second-impact-syndrome-in-sports-a-systematic-and-critical-review
#10
Steven D Stovitz, Jonathan D Weseman, Matthew C Hooks, Robert J Schmidt, Jonathan B Koffel, Jon S Patricios
Concern about what has been termed, "second impact syndrome" (SIS) is a major factor determining return-to-play decisions after concussion. However, definitions of SIS vary. We used Scopus to conduct a systematic review and categorize the definitions used to describe SIS. Of the 91 sources identified, 79 (87%) clearly specified that SIS involved either cerebral edema or death after a concussion when a prior concussion had not resolved. Twelve articles (13%) could be interpreted as merely the events of two consecutive concussions...
January 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061502/brain-abscesses-associated-with-asymptomatic-pulmonary-arteriovenous-fistulas
#11
Taek-Kyun Nam, Yong-Sook Park, Jeong-Taik Kwon
Brain abscess commonly occurs secondary to an adjacent infection (mostly in the middle ear or paranasal sinuses) or due to hematogenous spread from a distant infection or trauma. Pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are abnormal direct communications between the pulmonary artery and vein. We present two cases of brain abscess associated with asymptomatic pulmonary AVF. A 65-year-old woman was admitted with a headache and cognitive impairment that aggravated 10 days prior. An magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a brain abscess with severe edema in the right frontal lobe...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060696/acute-pancreatitis-and-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-a-case-report
#12
Vítor Magno Pereira, Luís Marote Correia, Tiago Rodrigues, Gorete Serrão Faria
The posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a neurological syndrome characterized by headache, confusion, visual disturbances and seizures associated with identifiable areas of cerebral edema on imaging studies. The authors report the case of a man, 33 years-old, leukodermic with a history of chronic alcohol and tobacco consumption, who is admitted to the emergency department for epigastric pain radiating to the back and vomiting with about six hours of evolution and an intense holocranial headache for two hours...
September 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056927/kudiezi-injection-mitigates-myocardial-injury-induced-by-acute-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#13
Xuemei Liu, Ye Tao, Fengli Wang, Ting Yao, Chen Fu, Hong Zheng, Yan Yan, Xiao Liang, Xiangning Jiang, Yunling Zhang
BACKGROUND: Kudiezi (KDZ) injection is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine as treatment for cerebral infarction and angina pectoris. The present study investigated the therapeutic effects of KDZ injection on myocardial injury induced by acute cerebral ischemia and the possibly protective mechanisms. METHODS: Rats were divided into three groups: sham, 6h-ischemia, and KDZ treatment (KDZ). The neurological deficits were determined by the Garcia score. The cerebral infarct volume was measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, and brain water content was also evaluated...
January 5, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054290/treatment-of-hyponatremia-in-patients-with-acute-neurological-injury
#14
Theresa Human, Aaron M Cook, Brian Anger, Kathleen Bledsoe, Amber Castle, David Deen, Haley Gibbs, Christine Lesch, Norah Liang, Karen McAllen, Christopher Morrison, Dennis Parker, A Shaun Rowe, Denise Rhoney, Kiranpal Sangha, Elena Santayana, Scott Taylor, Eljim Tesoro, Gretchen Brophy
BACKGROUND: Little data exist regarding the practice of sodium management in acute neurologically injured patients. This study describes the practice variations, thresholds for treatment, and effectiveness of treatment in this population. METHODS: This retrospective, multicenter, observational study identified 400 ICU patients, from 17 centers, admitted for ≥48 h with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), traumatic brain injury (TBI), intraparenchymal hemorrhage, or intracranial tumors between January 1, 2011 and July 31, 2012...
January 4, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049252/neurological-complications-resulting-from-non-oral-occupational-methanol-poisoning
#15
Ji Hyun Choi, Seung Keun Lee, Young Eun Gil, Jia Ryu, Kyunghee Jung-Choi, Hyunjoo Kim, Jun Young Choi, Sun Ah Park, Hyang Woon Lee, Ji Young Yun
Methanol poisoning results in neurological complications including visual disturbances, bilateral putaminal hemorrhagic necrosis, parkinsonism, cerebral edema, coma, or seizures. Almost all reported cases of methanol poisoning are caused by oral ingestion of methanol. However, recently there was an outbreak of methanol poisoning via non-oral exposure that resulted in severe neurological complications to a few workers at industrial sites in Korea. We present 3 patients who had severe neurological complications resulting from non-oral occupational methanol poisoning...
February 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046802/su-f-i-46-optimizing-dose-reduction-in-adult-head-ct-protocols-while-maintaining-image-quality-in-postmortem-head-scans
#16
I Lipnharski, C Carranza, N Quails, N Correa, D Rajderkar, J Bennett, L Rill, M Arreola
PURPOSE: To optimize adult head CT protocol by reducing dose to an appropriate level while providing CT images of diagnostic quality. METHODS: Five cadavers were scanned from the skull base to the vertex using a routine adult head CT protocol (120 kVp, 270 mA, 0.75 s rotation, 0.5 mm × 32 detectors, 70.8 mGy CTDIvol) followed by seven reduced-dose protocols with varying combinations of reduced tube current, reduced rotation time, and increased detectors with CTDIvol ranging from 38...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042364/predictors-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-neurocritical-care-patients-receiving-continuous-hypertonic-saline
#17
Michael J Erdman, Heidi Riha, Lauren Bode, Jason J Chang, G Morgan Jones
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Continuous intravenous 3% hypertonic saline (HTS) infusions are commonly used for the management of cerebral edema following severe neurologic injuries. Despite widespread use, data regarding the incidence and predictors of nephrotoxicity are lacking. The purpose of this study was to describe the incidence and identify predictors of acute kidney injury (AKI) in neurocritical care patients administered continuous infusion HTS. METHODS: This was an institutional review board-approved, multicenter, retrospective cohort study of patients receiving HTS infusions at 2 academic medical centers...
January 2017: Neurohospitalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042363/adding-salt-to-the-wounds-perceived-risk-of-hypertonic-saline-for-cerebral-edema
#18
EDITORIAL
David Z Rose, David A Decker, Karen P Wilson, Juan Ramos-Canseco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Neurohospitalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018153/a-pediatric-diabetic-ketoacidosis-management-protocol-incorporating-a-two-bag-intravenous-fluid-system-decreases-duration-of-intravenous-insulin-therapy
#19
Megan Veverka, Kourtney Marsh, Susan Norman, Michael Alan Brock, Monica Peng, Jennifer Shenk, Jerome Gene Chen
OBJECTIVES: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children with type 1 diabetes. We implemented a standardized DKA management protocol by using a 2-bag intravenous (IV) fluid system. The purpose of the study was to examine if the protocol improved clinical outcomes and process efficiency. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients who did and did not undergo the protocol. Patients were included if they were 18 years of age or younger, were diagnosed with DKA, admitted to an intensive care unit or stepdown unit, and received continuous IV insulin...
November 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017224/hemorrhagic-transformation-and-cerebral-edema-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-link-to-cerebral-autoregulation
#20
Pedro Castro, Elsa Azevedo, Jorge Serrador, Isabel Rocha, Farzaneh Sorond
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic transformation and cerebral edema are feared complications of acute ischemic stroke but mechanisms are poorly understood and reliable early markers are lacking. Early assessment of cerebrovascular hemodynamics may advance our knowledge in both areas. We examined the relationship between dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) in the early hours post ischemia, and the risk of developing hemorrhagic transformation and cerebral edema at 24h post stroke METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 46 patients from our center with acute ischemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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