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Cerebral edema

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445296/a-case-of-cerebral-hyperperfusion-following-spontaneous-recanalization-of-occluded-middle-cerebral-artery-reperfusion-injury-or-true-cerebral-hyperperfusion-syndrome
#1
Ziqi Xu, Jiajia Zhou, Hui Liang, Benyan Luo, Ping Liu
BACKGROUND: Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) and reperfusion injury are distinct pathological phenomena. CASE SUMMARY: We present the case of a young ischemic stroke patient with middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion and spontaneous recanalization. Follow-up transcranial Doppler ultrasound showed high velocity flow in the left MCA, and neuroimaging revealed infarction, brain edema, artery dilatation, and hyperperfusion, consistent with both CHS and reperfusion injury...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443484/manual-aspiration-thrombectomy-with-a-penumbra-catheter-for-acute-anterior-cerebral-artery-occlusion
#2
Gyung Ho Chung, Hyo Sung Kwak, Jung Soo Park, Jong Myong Lee
Purpose The purpose of this article is to assess the efficacy and safety of manual aspiration thrombectomy (MAT) using a Penumbra catheter in patients with anterior cerebral artery (ACA) occlusions. Materials and methods From January 2012 to March 2016, 16 patients underwent MAT with Penumbra catheters using a proximal and distal supporting technique to treat ACA occlusions. We evaluated immediate angiographic results and clinical outcomes by reviewing patient electrical medical records. Results Of these patients, 11 had a complete obstruction of the distal internal carotid artery (ICA) and five had ACA and middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusions...
January 1, 2017: Interventional Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439253/secondary-hematoma-expansion-and-perihemorrhagic-edema-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage-from-bench-work-to-practical-aspects
#3
REVIEW
Krista Lim-Hing, Fred Rincon
Intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) represent about 10-15% of all strokes per year in the United States alone. Key variables influencing the long-term outcome after ICH are hematoma size and growth. Although death may occur at the time of the hemorrhage, delayed neurologic deterioration frequently occurs with hematoma growth and neuronal injury of the surrounding tissue. Perihematoma edema has also been implicated as a contributing factor for delayed neurologic deterioration after ICH. Cerebral edema results from both blood-brain barrier disruption and local generation of osmotically active substances...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435903/non-aneurysmal-and-non-traumatic-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-after-attempted-suicide-by-incomplete-hanging
#4
Tae Hu Kim, Soo Hoon Lee, Dong Hoon Kim, Seong Chun Kim, Wonyoungyong Jin, So Yeon Kim, Sang Heon Shin, Sang Bong Lee
Hanging is a common method of suicide that is being reported more frequently in many countries. Several complications including injuries to the cervical spine, neck vessels, and brain can occur after attempted suicide by hanging. There are only a few reports of brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of hanging victims. The most common abnormality was diffuse cerebral edema. A subarachnoid hemorrhage is an atypical complication by suicidal hanging. We report a case of a female patient who presented to an emergency department with altered mental status after attempting suicide by incomplete hanging...
March 2017: Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433745/hypoxia-augments-lps-induced-inflammation-and-triggers-high-altitude-cerebral-edema-in-mice
#5
Yanzhao Zhou, Xin Huang, Tong Zhao, Meng Qiao, Xingnan Zhao, Ming Zhao, Lun Xu, Yongqi Zhao, Liying Wu, Kuiwu Wu, Ruoli Chen, Ming Fan, Lingling Zhu
High altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is a life-threatening illness that develops during the rapid ascent to high altitudes, but its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Growing evidence has implicated inflammation in the susceptibility to and development of brain edema. In the present study, we investigated the inflammatory response and its roles in HACE in mice following high altitude hypoxic injury. We report that acute hypobaric hypoxia induced a slight inflammatory response or brain edema within 24 h in mice...
April 19, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431741/chloride-dysregulation-seizures-and-cerebral-edema-a-relationship-with-therapeutic-potential
#6
REVIEW
Joseph Glykys, Volodymyr Dzhala, Kiyoshi Egawa, Kristopher T Kahle, Eric Delpire, Kevin Staley
Pharmacoresistant seizures and cytotoxic cerebral edema are serious complications of ischemic and traumatic brain injury. Intraneuronal Cl(-) concentration ([Cl(-)]i) regulation impacts on both cell volume homeostasis and Cl(-)-permeable GABAA receptor-dependent membrane excitability. Understanding the pleiotropic molecular determinants of neuronal [Cl(-)]i - cytoplasmic impermeant anions, polyanionic extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins, and plasmalemmal Cl(-) transporters - could help the identification of novel anticonvulsive and neuroprotective targets...
April 18, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431614/permeability-surface-area-product-analysis-in-malignant-brain-edema-prediction-a-pilot-study
#7
O Volny, P Cimflova, T-Y Lee, B K Menon, C D d'Esterre
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Using an extended CT perfusion acquisition (150s), we sought to determine the association between perfusion parameters and malignant edema after ischemic stroke. METHODS: Patients (from prospective study PROVE-IT, NCT02184936) with terminal internal carotid artery±proximal middle cerebral occlusion were involved. CTA was assessed for clot location and status of leptomeningeal collaterals. The following CTP parameters were calculated within the ischemic territory and contralaterally: permeability surface area product (PS), cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429775/fucoxanthin-provides-neuroprotection-in-models-of-traumatic-brain-injury-via-the-nrf2-are-and-nrf2-autophagy-pathways
#8
Li Zhang, Handong Wang, Youwu Fan, Yongyue Gao, Xiang Li, Zhigang Hu, Ke Ding, Yujie Wang, Xiaoliang Wang
Fucoxanthin is abundant in seaweed and is considered as a powerful antioxidant. It has been proposed to possess anti-cancer, anti-obesity and anti-diabetes effects. However, its roles in brain injury models have not been fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the neuroprotection of fucoxanthin in models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the role of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant-response element (ARE) and Nrf2-autophagy pathways in the putative neuroprotection...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429734/neuroprotective-pentapeptide-cn-105-is-associated-with-reduced-sterile-inflammation-and-improved-functional-outcomes-in-a-traumatic-brain-injury-murine-model
#9
Daniel T Laskowitz, Haichen Wang, Tony Chen, David T Lubkin, Viviana Cantillana, Tian Ming Tu, Dawn Kernagis, Guanen Zhou, Gary Macy, Bradley J Kolls, Hana N Dawson
At present, there are no proven pharmacological treatments demonstrated to improve long term functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury(TBI). In the setting of non-penetrating TBI, sterile brain inflammatory responses are associated with the development of cerebral edema, intracranial hypertension, and secondary neuronal injury. There is increasing evidence that endogenous apolipoprotein E(apoE) modifies the neuroinflammatory response through its role in downregulating glial activation, however, the intact apoE holoprotein does not cross the blood-brain barrier due to its size...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424147/treatment-of-leukoencephalopathy-with-calcifications-and-cysts-with-bevacizumab
#10
Alex J Fay, Allison A King, Joshua S Shimony, Yanick J Crow, Jan E Brunstrom-Hernandez
BACKGROUND: Leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts is a rare, autosomal recessive cerebral microangiopathy that causes progressive white matter disease, calcifications, and cysts within the brain. It is typically associated with slowly progressive psychomotor regression, seizures, and movement disorders. Although leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts affects only the central nervous system, it demonstrates remarkable neuropathologic and radiologic overlap with Coats plus, a disorder of small vessels of the brain, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, and bone...
March 23, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419850/overpressure-blast-injury-induced-oxidative-stress-and-neuroinflammation-response-in-rat-frontal-cortex-and-cerebellum
#11
Hale Z Toklu, Zhihui Yang, Sehkar Oktay, Yasemin Sakarya, Nataliya Kirichenko, Michael K Matheny, Judy Muller-Delp, Kevin Strang, Philip J Scarpace, Kevin K W Wang, Nihal Tümer
BACKGROUND & AIM: Overpressure blast-wave induced brain injury (OBI) and its long-term neurological outcome pose significant concerns for military personnel. Our aim is to investigate the mechanism of injury due to OBI. METHODS: Rats were divided into 3 groups: 1) Control, 2) OBI (exposed 30psi peak pressure, 2-2.5ms), 3) Repeated OBI (r-OBI) (three exposures over one-week period). Lung and brain (cortex and cerebellum) tissues were collected at 24h post injury...
April 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414666/just-a-puff-of-smoke
#12
A Leonard
CASE: A 44 year old woman with a history of stroke s/p aneurysm clipping, seizure, and substance abuse was brought to the hospital after a family member received a call from her friend saying she was acting unusual and may have had a seizure while hanging out on the street. At her baseline, she needed modest assistance in daily activities after her CVA and conversed without issue. Her mother died of a stroke. On exam the patient was afebrile, normotensive with mild tachycardia to 110...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413694/first-neonatal-demise-with-travel-associated-zika-virus-infection-in-the-united-states-of-america
#13
Nikolaos Zacharias, Janice Whitty, Sarah Noblin, Sophia Tsakiri, Jose Garcia, Michael Covinsky, Meenakshi Bhattacharjee, David Saulino, Nina Tatevian, Sean Blackwell
Zika virus is increasingly recognized as a fetal pathogen worldwide. We describe the first case of neonatal demise with travel-associated Zika virus infection in the United States of America, including a novel prenatal ultrasound finding. A young Latina presented to our health care system in Southeast Texas for prenatal care at 23 weeks of gestation. Fetal Dandy-Walker malformation, asymmetric cerebral ventriculomegaly, single umbilical artery, hypoechoic fetal knee, dorsal foot edema, and mild polyhydramnios were noted upon initial screening prenatal sonography at 26 weeks...
April 2017: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412320/glibenclamide-ameliorates-cerebral-edema-and-improves-outcomes-in-a-rat-model-of-status-epilepticus
#14
Zhenzhou Lin, Hua Huang, Yong Gu, Kaibin Huang, Yafang Hu, Zhong Ji, Yongming Wu, Shengnan Wang, Tingting Yang, Suyue Pan
Glibenclamide (GBC), a sulfonylurea receptor 1 blocker, emerges recently as a promising neuron protectant in various neurological disorders. This study aimed to determine whether GBC improves survival and neurological outcome of status epilepticus (SE). Male Sprague-Dawley rats successfully undergoing SE for 2.5 h (n = 134) were randomly assigned to GBC or vehicle group. Rats in the GBC group received a loading dose of 10 μg/kg of GBC, followed by 1.2 μg/6 h for 3 days, while same dose of vehicle was used as control...
April 12, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412071/emergency-medicine-myths-cerebral-edema-in-pediatric-diabetic-ketoacidosis-and-intravenous-fluids
#15
Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a disease associated with several complications that can be severe. One complication includes cerebral edema (CE), and patients may experience significant morbidity with this disease. OBJECTIVE: This review evaluates the myths concerning CE in pediatric DKA including mechanism, presentation of edema, clinical assessment of dehydration, and association with intravenous (i.v.) fluids. DISCUSSION: Multiple complications may occur in pediatric DKA...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411926/advances-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-high-altitude-illness
#16
REVIEW
Christopher Davis, Peter Hackett
High altitude illness encompasses a spectrum of clinical entities to include: acute mountain sickness, high altitude cerebral edema, and high altitude pulmonary edema. These illnesses occur as a result of a hypobaric hypoxic environment. Although a mild case of acute mountain sickness may be self-limited, high altitude cerebral edema and high altitude pulmonary edema represent critical emergencies that require timely intervention. This article reviews recent advances in the prevention and treatment of high altitude illness, including new pharmacologic strategies for prophylaxis and revised treatment guidelines...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410605/frosted-branch-angiitis-and-cerebral-venous-sinus-thrombosis-as-an-initial-onset-of-neuro-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Bruno Fortaleza de Aquino Ferreira, Ever Ernesto Caso Rodriguez, Leandro Lara do Prado, Celio Roberto Gonçalves, Carlos Eduardo Hirata, Joyce Hisae Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: Frosted branch angiitis is a rare, severe condition. It can be either a primary or a secondary condition and is characterized by rapid deterioration of vision and fulminant retinal vasculitis that manifests as diffuse sheathing of retinal vessels, macular edema, papillitis, vitritis and anterior uveitis. We aimed to describe a case of frosted branch angiitis and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis as an initial neuro-Behçet's disease onset. Diagnosis of Behçet's disease was based on the current 2014 International Criteria for Behçet's Disease and the International consensus recommendation criteria for neuro-Behçet's disease...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409034/increased-intracranial-pressure-during-hemodialysis-in-a-patient-with-anoxic-brain-injury
#18
Anton Lund, Mette B Damholt, Ditte G Strange, Jesper Kelsen, Hasse Møller-Sørensen, Kirsten Møller
Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS) is a serious neurological complication of hemodialysis, and patients with acute brain injury are at increased risk. We report a case of DDS leading to intracranial hypertension in a patient with anoxic brain injury and discuss the subsequent dialysis strategy. A 13-year-old girl was admitted after prolonged resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Computed tomography (CT) revealed an inferior vena cava aneurysm and multiple pulmonary emboli as the likely cause. An intracranial pressure (ICP) monitor was inserted, and, on day 3, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) was initiated due to acute kidney injury, during which the patient developed severe intracranial hypertension...
2017: Case Reports in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408462/intent-to-treat-leukemia-remission-by-cd19car-t-cells-of-defined-formulation-and-dose-in-children-and-young-adults
#19
Rebecca A Gardner, Olivia Finney, Colleen Annesley, Hannah Brakke, Corinne Summers, Kasey Leger, Marie Bleakley, Christopher Brown, Stephanie Mgebroff, Karen Spratt, Virginia Hoglund, Catherine Lindgren, Assaf P Oron, Daniel Li, Stanley R Riddell, Julie R Park, Michael C Jensen
Transitioning CD19-directed CAR-T cells from early phase trials in relapsed patients to a viable therapeutic approach with predictable efficacy and low toxicity for broad application in patients with high unmet need is currently complicated by product heterogeneity resulting from transduction of undefined T cell mixtures, variability of transgene expression, and terminal differentiation of cells at the end of culture. A phase 1 trial of 45 children and young adults with relapsed or refractory B-lineage ALL was conducted using a CD19 CAR product of defined CD4/CD8 composition, uniform CAR expression, and limited effector differentiation...
April 13, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408159/brain-mrs-glutamine-as-a-biomarker-to-guide-therapy-of-hyperammonemic-coma
#20
Anne H O'Donnell-Luria, Alexander P Lin, Sai K Merugumala, Frances Rohr, Susan E Waisbren, Rebecca Lynch, Vatche Tchekmedyian, Aaron D Goldberg, Andrew Bellinger, J Ricardo McFaline-Figueroa, Tracey Simon, Esteban F Gershanik, Bruce D Levy, David E Cohen, Martin A Samuels, Gerard T Berry, Natasha Y Frank
Acute idiopathic hyperammonemia in an adult patient is a life-threatening condition often resulting in a rapid progression to irreversible cerebral edema and death. While ammonia-scavenging therapies lower blood ammonia levels, in comparison, clearance of waste nitrogen from the brain may be delayed. Therefore, we used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to monitor cerebral glutamine levels, the major reservoir of ammonia, in a gastric bypass patient with hyperammonemic coma undergoing therapy with N-carbamoyl glutamate and the ammonia-scavenging agents, sodium phenylacetate and sodium benzoate...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
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