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Cerebral edema

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527875/magnolol-attenuates-the-inflammation-and-apoptosis-through-the-activation-of-sirt1-in-experimental-stroke-rats
#1
Dong-Quan Kou, Yan-Ling Jiang, Jia-Hua Qin, Yin-Hui Huang
BACKGROUND: Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), a histone deacetylase, plays a protective role in ischemic brain injury. Previous studies have shown that magnolol has a beneficial effect on ischemic stroke; however, the role of SIRT1 in the protective effect of magnolol against cerebral ischemia has not been investigated. METHODS: We used a middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke in rats. Before stroke induction, the rats received intraperitoneal injections of magnolol with or without the SIRT1 inhibitor, EX527...
January 10, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527261/-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-report-of-a-fatal-case-and-analysis-of-predictive-factors-of-a-poor-prognosis
#2
Moisés Ulises Torres, Ligia Victoria Delgado, Natalia Giraldo, Piedad Urueña, Sergio Franco, Olga Helena Hernández
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is an illness with multiple causes and distinctive clinicalradiological characteristics that should be known by intensivists and emergency room physicians for a timely diagnosis and treatment. A fatal case of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is presented, and the risk factors related to the outcome are identified.A 60-year-old man without a relevant medical history arrived at the emergency room presenting with depressed consciousness, seizures, and high blood pressure...
April 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527174/cerebral-venous-sinus-thrombosis-and-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-coexisting-in-a-woman-a-rare-coincidence
#3
Surekha Dabla, Himanshu Juneja, Anubha Garg, Renu Bansal, Surender Kumar
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) are two rare diseases which may present with similar symptoms and signs. We report a case with coexisting PRES and CVST in a 34 years old postpartum female presented with multiple episodes of generalized seizures and bilateral vision loss after delivery. MRI brain and venography revealed left transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus and internal cerebral vein thrombosis with vasogenic edema in bilateral parieto-occipital, right temporal and left frontal area, which was suggestive of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES)...
April 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516076/primary-central-nervous-system-vasculitis-mimicking-a-cortical-brain-tumor-a-case-report
#4
Joo-Seok Lee, Tae-Young Jung, Kyung-Hwa Lee, Seul-Kee Kim
We report a case of primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV) mimicking a cortical brain tumor. A 25-year-old woman presented with a 2-week history of headache and transient right hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a cortical-involving lesion on the left frontal lobe. The 6-cm sized lesion showed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. The lesion had continual linear enhancement on the subcortical white matter and leptomeninges...
April 2017: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515593/role-of-penumbra-mechanical-thrombectomy-device-in-acute-dural-sinus-thrombosis
#5
Suraj Mammen, Shyamkumar Nidugala Keshava, Vinu Moses, Sanjith Aaron, Munawwar Ahmed, George K Chiramel, Sunithi E Mani, Mathew Alexander
BACKGROUND: In dural venous sinus thrombosis (DVST), the mortality ranges 5-30%. Deep venous system involvement and septic dural sinus thrombosis have a higher mortality rate. In acute occlusion, collateral flow may not be established, which may result in significant edema and mass effect. Endovascular interventions may be considered as a treatment option in appropriate high-risk patients with DVST. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-confirmed dural sinus thrombosis, who did not respond to the conventional standard medical treatment, were subsequently treated with mechanical thrombectomy using the Penumbra System(®)...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509350/high-sodium-continuous-veno-venous-hemodialysis-with-regional-citrate-anticoagulation-and-online-dialysate-generation-in-patients-with-acute-liver-failure-and-cerebral-edema
#6
Tamim Hamdi, Lenar Yessayan, Jerry Yee, Balazs Szamosfalvi
INTRODUCTION: Acute liver failure is associated with a high mortality rate. Induction of plasma hypertonicity with mannitol or hypertonic saline remains the cornerstone in the management of resultant cerebral edema. Significant disadvantages of this approach include poor or unpredictable control of serum sodium concentration and volume expansion, among others. METHODS: We used high sodium continuous veno-venous hemodialysis with regional citrate anticoagulation and online dialysate generation to accurately control the serum sodium in eleven patients with acute liver failure, renal failure, and cerebral edema...
May 16, 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507312/design-and-evaluation-of-ephrina1-mutants-with-cerebral-protective-effect
#7
Yuanjun Zhu, Yuanqing Gao, Danping Zheng, Mengyang Shui, Kuai Yu, Xiaoyan Liu, Yuan Lin, Li Su, Wenxing Yang, Yinye Wang
The activation of EphA2 receptor by its natural ligand EphrinA1 causes blood brain barrier dysfunction, and inactivation of EphA2 reduces BBB damage in ischemic stroke. Thus, EphA2 targeted antagonists may serve as neuroprotective agents. We engineered four mutants of EphrinA1, EM1, EM2, EM3 and EM4, respectively. The computational analysis showed that these four mutants were capable of interacting with EphA2. Their potential neuroprotective effects were examined in mouse focal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503134/aquaporin-4-mediated-glutamate-induced-astrocyte-swelling-is-partially-mediated-through-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-activation
#8
Zhongfang Shi, Wei Zhang, Yang Lu, Yi Lu, Lixin Xu, Qing Fang, Min Wu, Mei Jia, Yujiao Wang, Liping Dong, Xu Yan, Shaohua Yang, Fang Yuan
Astrocytes are one of the most abundant cell types in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), and astrocyte swelling is the primary event associated with brain edema. Glutamate, the principal excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter in the CNS, is released at high levels after brain injury including cerebral ischemia. This leads to astrocyte swelling, which we previously demonstrated is related to metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) activation. Aquaporin 4 (AQP4), the predominant water channel in the brain, is expressed in astrocyte endfeet and plays an important role in brain edema following ischemia...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499904/completely-thrombosed-distal-middle-cerebral-artery-aneurysm-mimicking-a-cavernous-angioma-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Sokol Trungu, Placido Bruzzaniti, Stefano Forcato, Marco Cimatti, Antonino Raco
BACKGROUND: Distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms originate from branches of MCA distal to its main bifurcation or the peripheral branches. Distal MCA aneurysms are uncommon compared to saccular aneurysms developing along the proximal trunks of MCA. However, thrombotic aneurysms, characterized by organized intraluminal thrombus and solid mass, are frequently in the large and giant size range, while complete thrombosis of non-giant MCA aneurysms is very rare. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the clinical case of a 53 years-old woman with a completely thrombosed medium distal MCA aneurysm which mimics a cavernous angioma...
May 9, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495517/berberine-confers-neuroprotection-in-coping-with-focal-cerebral-ischemia-by-targeting-inflammatory-cytokines
#10
Solmaz Nasseri Maleki, Nahid Aboutaleb, Faramarz Souri
SCOPE: Existing research indicates that anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of berberine play major roles in coping with oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases, but it is not known if this isoquinoline alkaloid affects inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 10 in focal cerebral ischemia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male Wistar rats (10 weeks old) were treated with 40mg/kg concentration of berberine 1h after focal cerebral ischemia and the anti-inflammatory properties of berberine were evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis, water content measure and behavioral tests...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490769/increased-cerebral-expressions-of-mmps-cldn5-ocln-zo1-and-aqps-are-associated-with-brain-edema-following-fatal-heat-stroke
#11
Yu Du, Jing-Tao Xu, Hong-Nian Jin, Rui Zhao, Dong Zhao, Si-Hao Du, Ye Xue, Xiao-Li Xie, Qi Wang
Human brain samples were collected from 46 autopsy cases, including 23 fatal heat stroke cases and 23 age-matched controls. Nine candidate reference genes (PES1, POLR2A, IPO8, HMBS, SDHA, GAPDH, UBC, B2M, ACTB) were evaluated in the cerebral cortex of 10 forensic autopsy cases (5 heat stroke and 5 controls), using the geNorm module in qBase(plus) software. SDHA, POLR2A, IPO8 and HMBS were identified as the most stable reference genes. Using these validated reference genes, mRNA expressions of Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, MMP2 and MMP9), Claudin5 (CLDN5), Occludin (OCLN), Zona occludens protein-1 (ZO1) and Aquaporins (AQPs, AQP1 and AQP4) in the cerebral cortex were examined...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490320/astaxanthin-protects-astrocytes-against-trauma-induced-apoptosis-through-inhibition-of-nkcc1-expression-via-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#12
Mingkun Zhang, Zhenwen Cui, Hua Cui, Yong Wang, Chunlong Zhong
BACKGROUND: Astaxanthin (ATX) is a carotenoid pigment with pleiotropic pharmacological properties that is seen as a possible drug for treating cerebral ischemic injury and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) co-transporter-1 (NKCC1), an intrinsic membrane protein expressed by many cell types, is activated by various insults, leading to the formation of cell swelling and brain edema. We previously established that ATX attenuated brain edema and improved neurological outcomes by modulating NKCC1 expression after traumatic brain injury in mice...
May 10, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487333/enhanced-detection-of-edema-in-malignant-anterior-circulation-stroke-edema-score-a-risk-prediction-tool
#13
Charlene Jennifer Ong, Jeffrey Gluckstein, Osvaldo Laurido-Soto, Yan Yan, Rajat Dhar, Jin-Moo Lee
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rapid recognition of those at high risk for malignant edema after stroke would facilitate triage for monitoring and potential surgery. Admission data may be insufficient for accurate triage decisions. We developed a risk prediction score using clinical and radiographic variables within 24 hours of ictus to better predict potentially lethal malignant edema. METHODS: Patients admitted with diagnosis codes of cerebral edema and ischemic stroke, NIHSS score (National Institute of Health Stroke Score) of ≥8 and head computed tomographies within 24 hours of stroke onset were included...
May 9, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483156/-bilateral-papilledema
#14
REVIEW
M-B Rougier
This article will review the current standard of care in the diagnosis and management of bilateral optic disc edema. Two emergent conditions must be considered first: secondary intracranial hypertension (cerebral tumor, cerebral thrombophlebitis…) and arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (or giant cell arteritis). Having ruled out these two diagnoses, the management follows various steps in order to: (i) rule out pseudo-edema, and (ii) determine the underlying cause of the edema: papilledema, non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy or papillitis...
May 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481626/retinal-hemorrhage-in-a-high-altitude-aid-post-volunteer-doctor-a-case-report
#15
Sanjeeb Sudarshan Bhandari, Pranawa Koirala, Nirajan Regmi, Sushil Pant
Bhandari, Sanjeeb Sudarshan, Pranawa Koirala, Nirajan Regmi, and Sushil Pant. Retinal hemorrhage in a high-altitude aid post volunteer doctor: a case report. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017.-High-altitude retinal hemorrhages (HARHs) are seen at altitudes more than 3000 m, are usually multiple, flame shaped, and adjacent to blood vessels. Development near the macula causes blurring of vision, otherwise, they are symptomless and self-limiting. They often develop during the first few days after ascent to high altitude and subjects often suffer from acute mountain sickness (AMS) or high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE)...
May 8, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478880/neurologic-intensive-care-unit-electrolyte-management
#16
REVIEW
Craig Hutto, Mindy French
Dysnatremia is a common finding in the intensive care unit (ICU) and may be a predictor for mortality and poor clinical outcomes. Depending on the time of onset (ie, on admission vs later in the ICU stay), the incidence of dysnatremias in critically ill patients ranges from 6.9% to 15%, respectively. The symptoms of sodium derangement and their effect on brain physiology make early recognition and correction paramount in the neurologic ICU. Hyponatremia in brain injured patients can lead to life-threatening conditions such as seizures and may worsen cerebral edema and contribute to alterations in intracranial pressure...
June 2017: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478873/the-use-of-mannitol-and-hypertonic-saline-therapies-in-patients-with-elevated-intracranial-pressure-a-review-of-the-evidence
#17
REVIEW
Briana Witherspoon, Nathan E Ashby
Patients with increased intracranial pressure generally require pharmacologic therapies and often more definitive treatments, such as surgical intervention. The overall goal of these interventions is to maintain or re-establish adequate cerebral blood flow and prevent herniation. Regardless of the cause of increased intracranial pressure, osmotherapy is considered the mainstay of medical therapy, and should be administered as soon as possible. This article reviews the history of hyperosmolar and hypertonic therapies, the Monro-Kellie hypothesis, and types of cerebral edema...
June 2017: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471901/right-hand-weakness-and-headache-during-ascent-to-mount-everest-a-case-of-cerebral-venous-infarction
#18
Jeong Hee Kim, Soo Jeong Kim, Hahn Young Kim
INTRODUCTION: The increasing popularity of trekking in alpine regions has drawn attention to high altitude-associated health concerns. CASE REPORT: Here, we report a case of cerebral venous infarction as a consequence of a hypercoagulable state induced by secondary polycythemia as an adaptation to high altitude. CONCLUSIONS: When patients present focal neurological symptoms such as hemiparesis in addition to symptoms of acute mountain sickness or high-altitude cerebral edema such as headache, nausea, vomiting, and dizziness, cerebral venous infarction should be considered...
May 2017: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465676/neurological-complications-and-death-in-children-with-dengue-virus-infection-report-of-two-cases
#19
Neydi Osnaya-Romero, Maria-Gabriela Perez-Guille, Sandra Andrade-García, Erika Gonzalez-Vargas, Rebeca Borgaro-Payro, Sandra Villagomez-Martinez, José de Jesús Ortega-Maldonado, Jose Luis Arredondo-García
BACKGROUND: Dengue virus infection can have different complications; the best known is hemorrhagic dengue fever. However, other effects such as neurological disorders may endanger the lives of patients. Dengue neurological manifestations can be confused with encephalitis symptoms and can lead to cerebral edema and death. Therefore, we consider important in the endemic areas to take into account the diagnosis of dengue encephalitis in patients with neurological disorders, and to request the determination of serology in cerebrospinal fluid for the NS1 antigen test...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464695/mesenchymal-stem-cells-maintain-the-microenvironment-of-central-nervous-system-by-regulating-the-polarization-of-macrophages-microglia-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Chao Xu, Feng Fu, Xiaohong Li, Sai Zhang
Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs), which are regarded as promising candidates for cell replacement therapies, are able to regulate immune responses after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Secondary immune response following the mechanical injury is the essential factor leading to the necrosis and apoptosis of neural cells during and after the cerebral edema has subsided and there is lack of efficient agent that can mitigate such neuroinflammation in the clinical application. By means of three molecular pathways (prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 protein (TSG-6), and progesterone receptor (PR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR)), MSCs induce the activation of macrophages/microglia and drive them polarize into the M2 phenotypes, which inhibits the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and promotes tissue repair and nerve regeneration...
May 3, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
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