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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349092/cathepsin-b-plays-a-key-role-in-optimal-production-of-the-influenza-a-virus
#1
Macon D Coleman, Soon-Duck Ha, S M Mansour Haeryfar, Stephen Dominic Barr, Sung Ouk Kim
Background: Influenza A virus (IAV) is the etiologic agent of the febrile respiratory illness, commonly referred to as 'flu'. The lysosomal protease cathepsin B (CTSB) has shown to be involved in the lifecycle of various viruses. Here, we examined the role of CTSB in the IAV lifecycle. Methods: CTSB-deficient (CTSB-/-) macrophages and the human lung epithelial cell line A549 cells treated with CA-074Me were infected with the A/Puerto Rico/8/34 strain of IAV (IAV-PR8)...
2018: Journal of Virology & Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339972/evaluation-of-green-tea-extract-as-a-safe-personal-hygiene-against-viral-infections
#2
Yun Ha Lee, Yo Han Jang, Young-Seok Kim, Jinku Kim, Baik Lin Seong
Background: Viral infections often pose tremendous public health concerns as well as economic burdens. Despite the availability of vaccines or antiviral drugs, personal hygiene is considered as effective means as the first-hand measure against viral infections. The green tea catechins, in particular, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), are known to exert potent antiviral activity. In this study, we evaluated the green tea extract as a safe personal hygiene against viral infections. Results: Using the influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) as a model, we examined the duration of the viral inactivating activity of green tea extract (GTE) under prolonged storage at various temperature conditions...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330615/the-parameter-identification-problem-for-sir-epidemic-models-identifying-unreported-cases
#3
Pierre Magal, Glenn Webb
A SIR epidemic model is analyzed with respect to identification of its parameters, based upon reported case data from public health sources. The objective of the analysis is to understand the relation of unreported cases to reported cases. In many epidemic diseases the ratio of unreported to reported cases is very high, and of major importance in implementing measures for controlling the epidemic. This ratio can be estimated by the identification of parameters for the model from reported case data. The analysis is applied to three examples: (1) the Hong Kong seasonal influenza epidemic in New York City in 1968-1969, (2) the bubonic plague epidemic in Bombay, India in 1906, and (3) the seasonal influenza epidemic in Puerto Rico in 2016-2017...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324866/regulation-of-influenza-virus-replication-by-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#4
Sunil More, Xiaoyun Yang, Zhengyu Zhu, Gayan Bamunuarachchi, Yujie Guo, Chaoqun Huang, Keith Bailey, Jordan P Metcalf, Lin Liu
Wnt/β-catenin signaling is an essential pathway in cell cycle control. Dysregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway during viral infection has been reported. In this study, we examined the effect of modulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling during influenza virus infection. The activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by Wnt3a increased influenza virus mRNA and virus production in in vitro in mouse lung epithelial E10 cells and mRNA expresson of influenza virus genes in vivo in the lungs of mice infected with influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324781/neuraminidase-inhibitor-susceptibility-and-neuraminidase-enzyme-kinetics-of-human-influenza-a-and-b-viruses-circulating-in-thailand-in-2010-2015
#5
Nipaporn Tewawong, Bindumadhav M Marathe, Yong Poovorawan, Sompong Vongpunsawad, Richard J Webby, Elena A Govorkova
Amino acid substitutions within or near the active site of the viral neuraminidase (NA) may affect influenza virus fitness. In influenza A(H3N2) and B viruses circulating in Thailand between 2010 and 2015, we identified several NA substitutions that were previously reported to be associated with reduced inhibition by NA inhibitors (NAIs). To study the effect of these substitutions on the enzymatic properties of NA and on virus characteristics, we generated recombinant influenza viruses possessing either a wild type (WT) NA or an NA with a single I222V, S331G, or S331R substitution [in influenza A(H3N2) viruses] or a single D342S, A395T, A395V, or A395D NA substitution (in influenza B viruses)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324475/bilateral-cochlear-implants-maximizing-expected-outcomes
#6
Kate E Willis, Nathan J Blum, Stephanie A Waryasz, Marilyn Augustyn
Sonia is a 4 1/12-year-old girl with Waardenburg syndrome and bilateral sensorineural hearing loss who had bilateral cochlear implants at 2 7/12 years of age. She is referred to Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics by her speech/language pathologist because of concerns that her language skills are not progressing as expected after the cochlear implant. At the time of the implant, she communicated using approximately 20 signs and 1 spoken word (mama). At the time of the evaluation (18 months after the implant) she had approximately 70 spoken words (English and Spanish) and innumerable signs that she used to communicate...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321848/divergent-habitat-use-of-two-urban-lizard-species
#7
Kristin M Winchell, Elizabeth J Carlen, Alberto R Puente-Rolón, Liam J Revell
Faunal responses to anthropogenic habitat modification represent an important aspect of global change. In Puerto Rico, two species of arboreal lizard, Anolis cristatellus and A. stratulus, are commonly encountered in urban areas, yet seem to use the urban habitat in different ways. In this study, we quantified differences in habitat use between these two species in an urban setting. For each species, we measured habitat use and preference, and the niche space of each taxon, with respect to manmade features of the urban environment...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313741/drinking-and-driving-in-puerto-rico
#8
Raul Caetano, Patrice A C Vaeth, Eduardo Romano, Glorisa Canino
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological information is lacking for driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) in Puerto Rico. OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence and correlates of DUI in Puerto Rico. METHODS: Data are from a household sample of 1510 individuals, aged 18-64 years in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The response rate was 83%. RESULTS: The rate of 12 month self-reported DUI was 20% among men and 8% among women (p < 0...
January 9, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310451/lessons-learned-from-hurricane-maria-pharmacists-perspective
#9
Kyle Melin, Wanda T Maldonado, Angel López-Candales
The destruction in Puerto Rico following Hurricane Maria brought an increased demand for health care services while severely limiting the health care system's ability to provide patient care. Immediately following the hurricane, countless patients found themselves in a situation without their medications for both acute and chronic conditions. Many of these patients turned first to community pharmacies for access to their medications. In this letter, we describe the response of pharmacists to the needs of their communities following the natural disaster, Hurricane Maria, and summarize some lessons learned from the experience that may be useful in future disaster planning...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308118/exploring-the-feasibility-and-acceptability-of-biomarker-collection-for-hiv-infection-and-chronic-stress-among-transwomen-in-puerto-rico
#10
Sheilla L Rodríguez Madera, Nelson Varas Díaz, Alíxida Ramos Pibernus, Mark Padilla, Ana Vasques Guzzi, Gabriela Rodríguez Rodríguez, Walter Bockting
The assessment of biomarkers related to HIV and chronic stress increases opportunities for the design of more comprehensive research and intervention efforts on the health of transwomen within the context of Health Psychology. In this paper, we present data from a study implemented in Puerto Rico that aimed to: document the feasibility/acceptability of collecting biomarkers for chronic stress and HIV among transwomen; qualitatively document the factors related to the collection of biomarkers in this population; and explore the feasibility of collecting other types of biological specimens from transwomen in future studies...
July 2017: Revista Puertorriqueña de Psicología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306607/the-prevalence-and-correlates-of-frailty-in-urban-and-rural-populations-in-latin-america-china-and-india-a-10-66-population-based-survey
#11
Juan J Llibre Rodriguez, A Matthew Prina, Daisy Acosta, Mariella Guerra, Yueqin Huang, K S Jacob, Ivonne Z Jimenez-Velasquez, Aquiles Salas, Ana Luisa Sosa, Joseph D Williams, A T Jotheeswaran, Isaac Acosta, Zhaorui Liu, Martin J Prince
BACKGROUND: There have been few cross-national studies of the prevalence of the frailty phenotype conducted among low or middle income countries. We aimed to study the variation in prevalence and correlates of frailty in rural and urban sites in Latin America, India, and China. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based catchment area surveys conducted in 8 urban and 4 rural catchment areas in 8 countries; Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Peru, Mexico, China, and India...
January 3, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300686/220-mutation-in-the-hemagglutinin-of-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-alters-antigenicity-during-vaccine-strain-development
#12
Liqi Liu, Jian Lu, Zi Li, Jianfang Zhou, Junfeng Guo, Xiyan Li, Jia Liu, Yuelong Shu, Dayan Wang
Since the first confirmed case of H7N9 infection was reported in China, there have been five epidemic waves of human H7N9 infections between 2013 and 2017. The fifth wave differed from the previous four waves in that highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 viruses with multiple basic amino acids at the cleavage site were detected in humans, poultry and environmental samples. The HPAI H7N9 viruses were genetically and antigenically distinct from previous H7N9 viruses. Therefore, a new candidate vaccine virus(CVV) derived from a HPAI A/Guangdong/17SF003/2016-like virus was proposed by the World Health Organization(WHO)...
January 4, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299964/a-mainly-circum-mediterranean-origin-for-west-eurasian-and-north-african-mtdnas-in-puerto-rico-with-strong-contributions-from-the-canary-islands-and-west-africa
#13
Héctor J Díaz-Zabala, María A Nieves-Colón, Juan C Martínez-Cruzado
Maternal lineages of West Eurasian and North African origin account for 11.5% of total mitochondrial ancestry in Puerto Rico. Historical sources suggest that this ancestry arrived mostly from European migrations that took place during the four centuries of the Spanish colonization of Puerto Rico. This study analyzed 101 mitochondrial control region sequences and diagnostic coding region variants from a sample set randomly and systematically selected using a census-based sampling frame to be representative of the Puerto Rican population, with the goal of defining West Eurasian-North African maternal clades and estimating their possible geographical origin...
April 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298320/ensemble-method-for-dengue-prediction
#14
Anna L Buczak, Benjamin Baugher, Linda J Moniz, Thomas Bagley, Steven M Babin, Erhan Guven
BACKGROUND: In the 2015 NOAA Dengue Challenge, participants made three dengue target predictions for two locations (Iquitos, Peru, and San Juan, Puerto Rico) during four dengue seasons: 1) peak height (i.e., maximum weekly number of cases during a transmission season; 2) peak week (i.e., week in which the maximum weekly number of cases occurred); and 3) total number of cases reported during a transmission season. A dengue transmission season is the 12-month period commencing with the location-specific, historical week with the lowest number of cases...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295514/broadening-the-h5n3-vaccine-immunogenicity-against-h5n1-virus-by-modification-of-neutralizing-epitopes
#15
Subaschandrabose Rajesh Kumar, Sharenya Chelvaretnam, Yunrui Tan, Mookkan Prabakaran
The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus remains to be one of the world's largest pandemic threats due to the emergence of new variants. The rapid evolution of new sub-lineages is currently the greatest challenge in vaccine development. In this study, we developed an epitope modified non-pathogenic H5N3 (A/duck/Singapore/97) vaccine for broad protection against influenza H5 subtype. H5N3 hemagglutinin (HA) mutant reassortant viruses with A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) backbone were generated by mutating amino acids at the 140th loop and 190th α-helix of hemagglutinin...
December 23, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289600/a-novel-small-molecule-displays-two-different-binding-modes-during-inhibiting-h1n1-influenza-a-virus-neuraminidases
#16
Shanshan Guan, Yan Xu, Yongbo Qiao, Ziyu Kuai, Mengdan Qian, Xiaoyu Jiang, Song Wang, Hao Zhang, Wei Kong, Yaming Shan
Neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors can suppress NA activity to block the release of progeny virions and are effective against influenza viruses. As potential anti-flu drugs with unique functions, NA inhibitors are greatly concerned by the worldwide scientists. It has been reported recently that one of the novel quindoline derivatives named 7a, could inhibit both A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) NA (NAPR) and A/California/04/09 (H1N1) NA (NACA). However, potential structure differences in the active site could be easily detected between the NAPR and NACA according to the flexibilities of their 150-loops located catalytic site...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284190/vegetation-cover-in-relation-to-socioeconomic-factors-in-a-tropical-city-assessed-from-sub-meter-resolution-imagery
#17
Sebastián Martinuzzi, Olga M Ramos-González, Tischa A Muñoz-Erickson, Dexter H Locke, Ariel E Lugo, Volker C Radeloff
Fine-scale information about urban vegetation and social-ecological relationships is crucial to inform both urban planning and ecological research, and high spatial resolution imagery is a valuable tool for assessing urban areas. However, urban ecology and remote sensing have largely focused on cities in temperate zones. Our goal was to characterize urban vegetation cover with sub-meter resolution aerial imagery, and identify social-ecological relationships of urban vegetation patterns in a tropical city, the San Juan Metropolitan Area, Puerto Rico...
December 28, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281752/associations-among-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-and-seedlings-are-predicted-to-change-with-tree-successional-status
#18
Bachelot Benedicte, María Uriarte, Robert Muscarella, Jimena Forero-Montaña, Jill Thompson, Krista McGuire, Jess Zimmerman, Nathan G Swenson, James S Clark
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the soil may influence tropical tree dynamics and forest succession. The mechanisms are poorly understood, because the functional characteristics and abundances of tree species and AM fungi are likely to be codependent. We used generalized joint attribute modeling to evaluate if AM fungi are associated with three forest community metrics for a sub-tropical montane forest in Puerto Rico. The metrics chosen to reflect changes during forest succession are: the abundance of seedlings of different successional status, the amount of foliar damage on seedlings of different successional status, and community-weighted mean functional trait values (adult specific leaf area (SLA), adult wood density, and seed mass)...
December 27, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280758/changes-in-insulin-sensitivity-over-time-and-associated-factors-in-hiv-infected-adolescents
#19
Mitchell E Geffner, Kunjal Patel, Denise L Jacobson, Julia Wu, Tracie L Miller, Rohan Hazra, Mariana Gerschenson, Tanvi Sharma, Margarita Silio, Jennifer Jao, Jody K Takemoto, Russell B Van Dyke, Linda A Dimeglio
OBJECTIVE: To compare prevalence of IR between perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) and perinatally HIV-exposed, but uninfected adolescents (PHEU), determine incidence of and contributory factors to new and resolved cases of IR in PHIV+, and evaluate glucose metabolism. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design for comparison of prevalence among PHIV+ and PHEU. Longitudinal design for incidence and resolution of IR among PHIV+ at risk for these outcomes. METHODS: The source population was adolescents from pediatric HIV clinics in the US and Puerto Rico participating in PHACS AMP, an ongoing prospective cohort study designed to evaluate impact of HIV infection and its treatment on multiple domains in preadolescents and adolescents...
December 26, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279788/diet-lung-function-and-asthma-exacerbations-in-puerto-rican-children
#20
Yueh-Ying Han, Erick Forno, Maria Alvarez, Angel Colón-Semidey, Edna Acosta-Perez, Glorisa Canino, Juan C Celedón
Changes in dietary patterns may partly explain the epidemic of asthma in industrialized countries. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and lung function and asthma exacerbations in Puerto Rican children. This is a case-control study of 678 Puerto Rican children (ages 6-14 years) in San Juan (Puerto Rico). All participants completed a respiratory health questionnaire and a 75-item food frequency questionnaire. Food items were aggregated into 7 groups: fruits, vegetables, grains, protein, dairy, fats, and sweets...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
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