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Puerto Rico

Javier I Sanchez-Villamil, Alfredo G Torres
Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, an endemic disease in tropical areas around the world. Cumulative human cases have demonstrated that melioidosis is prevalent and increasingly recognized in the American continent. Even though the first reports of melioidosis in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands date back to the late 1940s, the potential of the disease as a public health concern in the region has not been fully appreciated. Unfortunately, recent studies predicting the global distribution of the disease and the demonstration of melioidosis endemicity in Puerto Rico have not increased recognition of the disease by health professionals in this region...
March 2018: Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
María Calixta Ortiz-Rivera
Objectives: This study evaluates social, behavioral, and environmental determinants to differentiate between active and inactive asthma and how predisposing, enabling, and need factors elucidate asthma-related health services and asthma control among women in Puerto Rico. Methods: This study analyzed secondary cross-sectional data from a subsample of 625 adult females who participated in the Asthma Call Back Survey in Puerto Rico. Logistic and multinomial regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between explanatory variables and asthma outcomes...
2018: SAGE Open Medicine
Michele C Hlavsa, Bryanna L Cikesh, Virginia A Roberts, Amy M Kahler, Marissa Vigar, Elizabeth D Hilborn, Timothy J Wade, Dawn M Roellig, Jennifer L Murphy, Lihua Xiao, Kirsten M Yates, Jasen M Kunz, Matthew J Arduino, Sujan C Reddy, Kathleen E Fullerton, Laura A Cooley, Michael J Beach, Vincent R Hill, Jonathan S Yoder
Outbreaks associated with exposure to treated recreational water can be caused by pathogens or chemicals in venues such as pools, hot tubs/spas, and interactive water play venues (i.e., water playgrounds). During 2000-2014, public health officials from 46 states and Puerto Rico reported 493 outbreaks associated with treated recreational water. These outbreaks resulted in at least 27,219 cases and eight deaths. Among the 363 outbreaks with a confirmed infectious etiology, 212 (58%) were caused by Cryptosporidium (which causes predominantly gastrointestinal illness), 57 (16%) by Legionella (which causes Legionnaires' disease, a severe pneumonia, and Pontiac fever, a milder illness with flu-like symptoms), and 47 (13%) by Pseudomonas (which causes folliculitis ["hot tub rash"] and otitis externa ["swimmers' ear"])...
May 18, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Jenny Zhen-Duan, Farrah Jacquez, Emily Sáez-Santiago
OBJECTIVES: The available literature on ethnic identity among Puerto Ricans has focused on those living in the United States, with little to no attention placed on examining ethnic identity and psychological constructs among youth living in Puerto Rico. Using a colonial mentality framework, the current study examined the associations between ethnic identity, cultural stress, and self-concept among adolescent boys and girls living in Puerto Rico. METHOD: The current cross-sectional study surveyed participants (N = 187) recruited from several junior high schools in the metropolitan area in Puerto Rico...
May 17, 2018: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
Ana Rosa Linde, Carlos Eduardo Siqueira
Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of congenital brain abnormalities. Its consequences to pregnancies has made governments, national and international agencies issue advices and recommendations to women. There is a clear need to investigate how the Zika outbreak affects the decisions that women take concerning their lives and the life of their families, as well as how women are psychologically and emotionally dealing with the outbreak. We conducted a qualitative study to address the impact of the Zika epidemic on the family life of women living in Brazil, Puerto Rico, and the US, who were affected by it to shed light on the social repercussions of Zika...
May 10, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Can Chen, Wenhui Fan, Jing Li, Weinan Zheng, Shuang Zhang, Limin Yang, Di Liu, Wenjun Liu, Lei Sun
Interferon (IFN)-sensitive and replication-incompetent influenza viruses are likely to be the alternatives to inactivated and attenuated virus vaccines. Some IFN-sensitive influenza vaccine candidates with modified non-structural protein 1 (NS1) are highly attenuated in IFN-competent hosts but induce robust antiviral immune responses. However, little research has been done on the manufacturability of these IFN-sensitive vaccine viruses. Here, RIG-I-knockout 293T cells were used to package the IFN-sensitive influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus expressing the mutant NS1 R38A/K41A...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Marcos Reyes-Estrada, Nelson Varas-Díaz, Richard Parker, Mark Padilla, Sheilla Rodríguez-Madera
HIV-related stigma among nurses can impact health care services for people with HIV/AIDS (PWHA). health care professionals' religious views can potentially foster stigmatizing attitudes. There is scarce scientific literature exploring the role of religion on HIV/AIDS stigma among nurses. This study aimed to explore the role of religion in the stigmatization of PWHA by nurses in Puerto Rico. We conducted an exploratory study using qualitative techniques. We conducted 40 in-depth interviews with nurses who provided services to PWHA...
January 2018: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
Rachel P Ogilvie, Shivani A Patel, K M Venkat Narayan, Neil K Mehta
AIMS: Although U.S. territories fall within the mandate outlined by Healthy People 2020, they remain neglected in diabetes care research. We compared the prevalence and secular trends of four recommended diabetes care practices in the U.S. territories of Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands to the 50 United States and D.C. ("U.S. States") in 2001-2015. METHODS: Data were from 390,268 adult participants with self-reported physician diagnosed diabetes in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System...
May 9, 2018: Primary Care Diabetes
Kristy Marynak, Brenna VanFrank, Sonia Tetlow, Margaret Mahoney, Elyse Phillips, Ahmed Jamal Mbbs, Anna Schecter, Doug Tipperman, Stephen Babb
Persons with mental or substance use disorders or both are more than twice as likely to smoke cigarettes as persons without such disorders and are more likely to die from smoking-related illness than from their behavioral health conditions (1,2). However, many persons with behavioral health conditions want to and are able to quit smoking, although they might require more intensive treatment (2,3). Smoking cessation reduces smoking-related disease risk and could improve mental health and drug and alcohol recovery outcomes (1,3,4)...
May 11, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Lex Flagel, Young Wha Lee, Humphrey Wanjugi, Shilpa Swarup, Alana Brown, Jinling Wang, Edward Kraft, John Greenplate, Jeni Simmons, Nancy Adams, Yanfei Wang, Samuel Martinelli, Jeffrey A Haas, Anilkumar Gowda, Graham Head
The use of Bt proteins in crops has revolutionized insect pest management by offering effective season-long control. However, field-evolved resistance to Bt proteins threatens their utility and durability. A recent example is field-evolved resistance to Cry1Fa and Cry1A.105 in fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda). This resistance has been detected in Puerto Rico, mainland USA, and Brazil. A S. frugiperda population with suspected resistance to Cry1Fa was sampled from a maize field in Puerto Rico and used to develop a resistant lab colony...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yueh-Ying Han, Erick Forno, Glorisa Canino, Juan C Celedón
OBJECTIVE: Asthma and psychosocial stressors are common among Puerto Rican adults living in the United States. We estimated the prevalence of current asthma, and examined potential psychosocial risk factors and current asthma, among adults in Puerto Rico. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 3,049 Puerto Ricans aged 18-64 years living in Puerto Rico between May 2014 and June 2016. A structured interview was conducted to obtain information on demographics, lifestyles, mental disorders, and respiratory health...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Linda Squiers, James Herrington, Bridget Kelly, Carla Bann, Sylvia Becker-Dreps, Lola Stamm, Mihaela Johnson, Lauren McCormack
Limited data exist about U.S. travelers' knowledge, risk perceptions, and behaviors related to the Zika virus (ZIKV). Using an internet research panel, in March 2017, we surveyed 1,202 Americans in the continental United States and Puerto Rico who planned to travel to a Zika-affected country, state, or U.S. territory in 2017. We compared levels of knowledge and perceived risk of ZIKV, and intentions to practice ZIKV prevention behaviors across respondents from three regions: Puerto Rico, at-risk states, and other states...
May 7, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Suzanne Phibbs, Christine Kenney, Graciela Rivera-Munoz, Thomas J Huggins, Christina Severinsen, Bruce Curtis
The Inverse Care Law is principally concerned with the effect of market forces on health care which create inequities in access to health services through privileging individuals who possess the forms of social capital that are valued within health care settings. The fields of disaster risk reduction need to consider the ways in which inequities, driven by economic and social policy as well as institutional decision-making, create vulnerabilities prior to a disaster, which are then magnified post disaster through entrenched structural differences in access to resources...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ronald Rosenberg, Nicole P Lindsey, Marc Fischer, Christopher J Gregory, Alison F Hinckley, Paul S Mead, Gabriela Paz-Bailey, Stephen H Waterman, Naomi A Drexler, Gilbert J Kersh, Holley Hooks, Susanna K Partridge, Susanna N Visser, Charles B Beard, Lyle R Petersen
INTRODUCTION: Vectorborne diseases are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In the United States, the most common vectorborne pathogens are transmitted by ticks or mosquitoes, including those causing Lyme disease; Rocky Mountain spotted fever; and West Nile, dengue, and Zika virus diseases. This report examines trends in occurrence of nationally reportable vectorborne diseases during 2004-2016. METHODS: Data reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System for 16 notifiable vectorborne diseases during 2004-2016 were analyzed; findings were tabulated by disease, vector type, location, and year...
May 4, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Cristina Palacios, Maribel Campos, Cheryl Gibby, Marytere Meléndez, Jae Eun Lee, Jinan Banna
OBJECTIVE: To test the effects of weekly SMS for improving infant feeding practices and infant weight. METHODS: This was a multi-site randomized clinical trial in a convenience sample of 202 caregivers of healthy term infants 0-2 months participating in the WIC program in Puerto Rico and Hawaii. Participants were randomized to receive SMS about infant's general health issues (control) or SMS for improving feeding practices (intervention) for four months. Weight, length and infant feeding practices were assessed at baseline and four months later...
April 30, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Samuel Nibouche, Laurent Costet, Jocelyn R Holt, Alana Jacobson, Adrian Pekarcik, Joëlle Sadeyen, J Scott Armstrong, Gary C Peterson, Neal McLaren, Raul F Medina
In the United States (US), the sugarcane aphid (SCA) Melanaphis sacchari (Zehnter) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) was introduced in the 1970s, however at that time it was only considered a pest of sugarcane. In 2013, a massive outbreak of M. sacchari occured on sorghum, resulting in significant economic damage to sorghum grown in North America including the US, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. The aim of the present study was to determine if the SCA pest emergence in American sorghum resulted from the introduction of new genotypes...
2018: PloS One
Charles A Kunos, Holly A Massett, Annette Galassi, Joan L Walker, Marge J Good, Luis Báez Díaz, Worta McCaskill-Stevens
Women in the U.S. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (PR) have a higher age-adjusted incidence rate for uterine cervix cancer than the U.S. mainland as well as substantial access and economic barriers to cancer care. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) funds a Minority/Underserved NCI Community Oncology Research Program in PR (PRNCORP) as part of a national network of community-based health-care systems to conduct multisite cancer clinical trials in diverse populations. Participation by the PRNCORP in NCI's uterine cervix cancer clinical trials, however, has remained limited...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
MichaËl Manuel, Albert Deler-hernÁndez, Yoandri S Megna, JiŘÍ HÁjek
The species of the genus Copelatus Erichson, 1832 occurring in the Dominican Republic are reviewed. Five species are recorded, with recent collecting data provided for four of them. Copelatus martini sp. nov., a member of the consors species group, is described and illustrated. It is compared to the apparently similar species C. guadelupensis Legros, 1948 based on morphological characters and on partial sequences of the CO1 gene. Interesting cases of intraspecific variability in the number of elytral dorsal striae in C...
March 21, 2018: Zootaxa
Natalie G Exum, Elin Betanzo, Kellogg J Schwab, Thomas Y J Chen, Seth Guikema, David P E Harvey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines the effectiveness of drinking water regulations to inform public health during extreme precipitation events. This paper estimates the vulnerability of specific populations to flooding in their public water system, reviews the literature linking precipitation to waterborne outbreaks, examines the role that Safe Drinking Water Act and Public Notification (PN) Rule have in public health emergencies, and reviews the effectiveness of the PN Rule during the 2017 Hurricane Maria in Puerto Rico...
April 23, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
John Misenheimer, Clay Nelson, Evelyn Huertas, Myriam Medina-Vera, Alex Prevatte, Karen Bradham
Arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) are two contaminants of concern associated with urban gardening. In Puerto Rico, data currently is limited on As and Pb levels in urban garden soils, soil metal (loid) bioaccessibility, and uptake of As and Pb in soil by edible plants grown in the region. This study examined total and bioaccessible soil As and Pb concentrations and accumulation in 10 commonly grown garden plants collected from three urban community gardens in Puerto Rico. Bioavailability values were predicted using bioaccessibility data to compare site-specific bioavailability estimates to commonly used default exposure assumptions...
2018: Geosciences
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