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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446669/salivary-blockade-protects-the-lower-respiratory-tract-of-mice-from-lethal-influenza
#1
Karen Ivinson, Georgia Deliyannis, Leanne McNabb, Lara Grollo, Brad Gilbertson, David Jackson, Lorena E Brown
It is possible to model progression of influenza virus from the upper respiratory tract to the lower respiratory tract in the mouse using viral inoculum delivered in a restricted manner to the nose. In this model, infection with the A/Udorn/307/72 (Udorn) strain of virus results ultimately in high viral titres in both the trachea and lungs. In contrast, the A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) strain causes an infection that is almost entirely limited to the nasal passages. The factors that govern the progression of virus down the respiratory tract are not well understood...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439790/evaluating-fidelity-to-a-modified-niatx-process-improvement-strategy-for-improving-hiv-services-in-correctional-facilities
#2
Jennifer Pankow, Jennifer Willett, Yang Yang, Holly Swan, Richard Dembo, William M Burdon, Yvonne Patterson, Frank S Pearson, Steven Belenko, Linda K Frisman
In a study aimed at improving the quality of HIV services for inmates, an organizational process improvement strategy using change teams was tested in 14 correctional facilities in 8 US states and Puerto Rico. Data to examine fidelity to the process improvement strategy consisted of quantitative ratings of the structural and process components of the strategy and qualitative notes that explicate challenges in maintaining fidelity to the strategy. Fidelity challenges included (1) lack of communication and leadership within change teams, (2) instability in team membership, and (3) issues with data utilization in decision-making to implement improvements to services delivery...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439180/enhancing-diversity-in-biomedical-data-science
#3
Judith E Canner, Archana J McEligot, María-Eglée Pérez, Lei Qian, Xinzhi Zhang
The gap in educational attainment separating underrepresented minorities from Whites and Asians remains wide. Such a gap has significant impact on workforce diversity and inclusion among cross-cutting Biomedical Data Science (BDS) research, which presents great opportunities as well as major challenges for addressing health disparities. This article provides a brief description of the newly established National Institutes of Health Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) diversity initiatives at four universities: California State University, Monterey Bay; Fisk University; University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus; and California State University, Fullerton...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433683/municipal-wastewater-sludge-as-a-sustainable-bioresource-in-the-united-states
#4
Timothy E Seiple, André M Coleman, Richard L Skaggs
Within the United States and Puerto Rico, publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) process 130.5 Gl/d (34.5 Bgal/d) of wastewater, producing sludge as a waste product. Emerging technologies offer novel waste-to-energy pathways through whole sludge conversion into biofuels. Assessing the feasibility, scalability and tradeoffs of various energy conversion pathways is difficult in the absence of highly spatially resolved estimates of sludge production. In this study, average wastewater solids concentrations and removal rates, and site specific daily average influent flow are used to estimate site specific annual sludge production on a dry weight basis for >15,000 POTWs...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431812/potency-of-whole-virus-particle-and-split-virion-vaccines-using-dissolving-microneedle-against-challenges-of-h1n1-and-h5n1-influenza-viruses-in-mice
#5
Akihiro Nakatsukasa, Koji Kuruma, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Takahiro Hiono, Mizuho Suzuki, Keita Matsuno, Hiroshi Kida, Takayoshi Oyamada, Yoshihiro Sakoda
Transdermal vaccination using a microneedle (MN) confers enhanced immunity compared with subcutaneous (SC) vaccination. Here we developed a novel dissolving MN patch for the influenza vaccine. The potencies of split virion and whole virus particle (WVP) vaccines prepared from A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) and A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-3/2007 (H5N1), respectively, were evaluated. MN vaccination induced higher neutralizing antibody responses than SC vaccination in mice. Moreover, MN vaccination with a lower dose of antigens conferred protective immunity against lethal challenges of influenza viruses than SC vaccination in mice...
April 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426644/notes-from-the-field-varicella-fatality-on-a-cargo-vessel-puerto-rico-2015
#6
Misty Ellis, Carolina Luna-Pinto, Thomas George, Joanna J Regan, Mona Marin, Adriana Lopez, Brenda Rivera-Garcia, Kara Tardivel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417686/trauma-epidemiology-in-puerto-rico-in-hospital-morbidity-and-mortality-from-2002-to-2011
#7
Annette Pascual-Marrero, Ediel O Ramos-Meléndez, Omar García-Rodríguez, José E Morales-Quiñones, Pablo Rodríguez-Ortiz
This study aimed to describe the distribution of injury mechanisms and to assess the impact of those mechanisms on the morbidity and mortality of trauma. All patients admitted to Puerto Rico Trauma Hospital (2002-2011) for road-traffic collisions (RTCs, 5,371), gunshot wounds (GSWs, 2,946), falls (2,319), pedestrian accidents (1,652), and stab wounds (SWs, 1,073) were selected. Gunshot victims were 1.19 (95%CI: 1.07-1.33) times as likely as road-traffic victims to have an ISS ≥25. Pedestrians were 1.76 (95%CI: 1...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417634/anti-influenza-a-virus-activity-of-dendrobine-and-its-mechanism-of-action
#8
Richan Li, Teng Liu, Miaomiao Liu, Feimin Chen, Shu-Wen Liu, Jie Yang
Dendrobine, a major component of Dendrobium nobile, increasingly draws attention to its wide applications in health care. Here we explore potential effect of dendrobine against influenza A virus and elucidate the underlying mechanism. Our results indicated that dendrobine possessed antiviral activity against influenza A viruses, including A/FM-1/1/47 (H1N1), A/Puerto Rico/8/34 H274Y (H1N1) and A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2) with IC50 value of 3.39±0.32, 2.16±0.91, 5.32±1.68 μg/mL, respectively. Mechanism studies revealed that dendrobine inhibited early steps in the viral replication cycle...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416195/pitavastatin-versus-pravastatin-in-adults-with-hiv-1-infection-and-dyslipidaemia-intrepid-12-week-and-52-week-results-of-a-phase-4-multicentre-randomised-double-blind-superiority-trial
#9
Judith A Aberg, Craig A Sponseller, Douglas J Ward, Vladimir A Kryzhanovski, Stuart E Campbell, Melanie A Thompson
BACKGROUND: People living with HIV-1 infection are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease than seronegative adults. Treatment of dyslipidaemia with statins has been challenging in people with HIV because of an increased potential for drug interactions due to competing cytochrome P450 metabolism between statins and commonly used antiretroviral agents. Neither pitavastatin nor pravastatin depend on cytochrome P450 for primary metabolism. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of pitavastatin versus pravastatin in adults with HIV and dyslipidaemia...
April 13, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414053/inhibition-effects-of-novel-polyketide-compound-ppq-b-against-influenza-a-virus-replication-by-interfering-with-the-cellular-egfr-pathway
#10
Miaomiao Wang, Shuyao Wang, Wei Wang, Yi Wang, Hui Wang, Weiming Zhu
Development of anti-influenza A virus (IAV) drugs with novel targets and low toxicity is critical for preparedness against influenza outbreaks. In the current study, our results indicated that the novel polyketide compound purpurquinone B (PPQ-B) derived from acid-tolerant fungus Penicillium purpurogenum strain JS03-21 suppressed the replication of IAV in vitro with low toxicity, and may block some stages after virus adsorption. PPQ-B could inhibit H1N1 (A/Puerto Rico/8/34; PR8), H1N1 (A/California/04/2009; Cal09) and H3N2 (A/swine/Minnesota/02719/2009) virus replication in vitro, suggesting that PPQ-B possesses broad-spectrum anti-IAV activities...
April 13, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409440/repair-of-primary-and-incisional-hernias-using-composite-mesh-fixed-with-absorbable-tackers-preliminary-experience-of-a-laparoscopic-approach-with-a-newly-designed-mesh-in-29-cases
#11
Ferdinando Agresta, Alice Marzetti, Silvia Vigna, Daniela Prando, Raffaele Porfidia, Salomone Di Saverio
Outcome of primary and incisional hernia repair is still affected by clinical complications in terms of recurrences, pain and discomfort. Factors like surgical approach, prosthesis characteristics and method of fixation might influence the outcome. We evaluated in a prospective observational study a cohort population which underwent primary and incisional laparoscopic hernia repair, with the use of a composite mesh in polypropylene fixed with absorbable devices. We focused on assessing the feasibility and safety of these procedures; they were always performed by an experienced laparoscopic surgeon, analyzing data from our patients through the EuraHS registry...
April 13, 2017: Updates in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405283/anolis-lizards-as-biocontrol-agents-in-mainland-and-island-agroecosystems
#12
Ivan V Monagan, Jonathan R Morris, Alison R Davis Rabosky, Ivette Perfecto, John Vandermeer
Our knowledge of ecological interactions that bolster ecosystem function and productivity has broad applications to the management of agricultural systems. Studies suggest that the presence of generalist predators in agricultural landscapes leads to a decrease in the abundance of herbivorous pests, but our understanding of how these interactions vary across taxa and along gradients of management intensity and eco-geographic space remains incomplete. In this study, we assessed the functional response and biocontrol potential of a highly ubiquitous insectivore (lizards in the genus Anolis) on the world's most important coffee pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypothalemus hampei)...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402546/aedes-aegypti-diptera-culicidae-abundance-model-improved-with-relative-humidity-and-precipitation-driven-egg-hatching
#13
Joceline Lega, Heidi E Brown, Roberto Barrera
We propose an improved Aedes aegypti (L.) abundance model that takes into account the effect of relative humidity (RH) on adult survival, as well as rainfall-triggered egg hatching. The model uses temperature-dependent development rates described in the literature as well as documented estimates for mosquito survival in environments with high RH, and for egg desiccation. We show that combining the two additional components leads to better agreement with surveillance trap data and with dengue incidence reports in various municipalities of Puerto Rico than incorporating either alone or neither...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401766/occurrence-and-in-vitro-bioactivity-of-estrogen-androgen-and-glucocorticoid-compounds-in-a-nationwide-screen-of-united-states-stream-waters
#14
Justin M Conley, Nicola Evans, Mary C Cardon, Laura Rosenblum, Luke R Iwanowicz, Phillip C Hartig, Kathleen M Schenck, Paul M Bradley, Vickie S Wilson
In vitro bioassays are sensitive, effect-based tools used to quantitatively screen for chemicals with nuclear receptor activity in environmental samples. We measured in vitro estrogen (ER), androgen (AR), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity, along with a broad suite of chemical analytes, in streamwater from 35 well-characterized sites (3 reference and 32 impacted) across 24 states and Puerto Rico. ER agonism was the most frequently detected with nearly all sites (34/35) displaying activity (range, 0.054-116 ng E2Eq L(-1))...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399804/hla-b-57-01-allele-prevalence-in-hiv-infected-north-american-subjects-and-the-impact-of-allele-testing-on-the-incidence-of-abacavir-associated-hypersensitivity-reaction-in-hla-b-57-01-negative-subjects
#15
Catherine Butkus Small, David A Margolis, Mark S Shaefer, Lisa L Ross
BACKGROUND: The presence of the HLA-B*57:01 allele in HIV-infected subjects is associated with a higher risk of abacavir-associated hypersensitivity reaction (ABC HSR). HLA-B*57:01 allele prevalence varies in different populations, but HLA-B*57:01 testing with immunological confirmation has had a negative predictive value for ABC HSR between 97 and 100%. METHODS: In the ASSURE study (EPZ113734), the HLA-B*57:01 prevalence in virologically suppressed, antiretroviral treatment-experienced, HIV-infected subjects from the United States, including Puerto Rico, was assessed...
April 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399306/effect-of-temperature-thresholds-on-modeled-aedes-aegypti-diptera-culicidae-population-dynamics
#16
Heidi E Brown, Roberto Barrera, Andrew C Comrie, Joceline Lega
Dynamic simulation models provide vector abundance estimates using only meteorological data. However, model outcomes may heavily depend on the assumptions used to parameterize them. We conducted a sensitivity analysis for a model of Aedes aegypti (L.) abundance using weather data from two locations where this vector is established, La Margarita, Puerto Rico and Tucson, Arizona. We tested the effect of simplifying temperature-dependent development and mortality rates and of changing development and mortality thresholds as compared with baselines estimated using biophysical models...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393613/original-title-hiv-infection-and-unawareness-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-puerto-rico-data-from-the-national-hiv-behavioral-surveillance-system-2011-2014
#17
Sandra Miranda de León, Carola T Sánchez-Díaz, Mark Machin-Rivera, Ileska M Valencia-Torres, Yadira Rolón, Vivian Colón-López
BACKGROUND: Unawareness of HIV infection is a public health challenge that needs to be addressed, particularly in the case of men who have sex with men (MSM), since recent data are reporting increasing rates of HIV in this population in Puerto Rico. OBJECTIVES: We examined differences in the prevalence of HIV infection and unawareness among MSM in 2011 and 2014 using data from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, 2011 and 2014. METHODS: Bivariate analyses was used to compare demographical and behavioral characteristics in both cycles (2011 and 2014)...
April 10, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392284/comparative-analysis-of-the-genetic-basis-of-cry1f-resistance-in-two-strains-of-spodoptera-frugiperda-originated-from-puerto-rico-and-florida
#18
Ana M Camargo, Pedro Castañera, Gema P Farinós, Fangneng Huang
The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a major target pest of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize and cotton in America. Since the commercialization of Cry1F maize (event TC1507) in 2003, resistance to Cry1F maize in field populations of S. frugiperda has occurred in Puerto Rico, Brazil and the southeast region of the United States. In this paper, we conducted a comparative analysis of the inheritance of two Cry1F-resistant colonies of S. frugiperda originated from Puerto Rico (PR) and Florida (FL), respectively...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388922/viral-and-serological-kinetics-in-zika-virus-infected-patients-in-south-korea
#19
Young Eui Jeong, Go-Woon Cha, Jung Eun Cho, Eun Ju Lee, Youngmee Jee, Won-Ja Lee
Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes clinical symptoms similar to those observed in dengue and chikungunya virus infections. The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated laboratory testing using a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in January 2016. More than 1,000 suspected cases of infection were tested and nine were confirmed as imported cases of Zika virus infection from January to July 2016. The travel destinations of the infected individuals were Brazil, Philippines, Viet Nam, Guatemala, Puerto Rico, and the Dominican Republic...
April 7, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382641/differences-in-fatigue-severity-in-a-sample-of-adult-cancer-patients
#20
Cindy S Tofthagen, Xusheng Chen, Elsa Pedro, Leorey N Saligan, Velda J Gonzalez
OBJECTIVE: To describe differences in fatigue severity in a sample of adult Puerto Rican patients during and post cancer treatments. BACKGROUND: Hispanics, including Puerto Ricans, are an understudied population who are underrepresented in clinical trials, especially in symptom research. Although symptom management is a clinical priority in oncology care, treatment-related differences in Puerto Rican cancer patients' report of fatigue severity has not been well described...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
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