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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777625/is-methotrexate-an-effective-and-safe-treatment-for-maintaining-hair-regrowth-in-people-with-alopecia-totalis-a-critically-appraised-topic
#1
R Browne, L Stewart, H C Williams
AIM: To assess the effects of methotrexate for maintaining hair regrowth in alopecia totalis. METHODS: We critically appraised the literature identified from searching PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase and Cochrane Central (October 2017), using the search terms ("alopecia areata" OR "alopecia totalis" OR "alopecia universalis") AND (methotrexate). RESULTS: Two prospective studies and 11 retrospective case series were included comprising 226 patients with alopecia varying from 30% hair loss to alopecia universalis at baseline...
May 19, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773262/-smoking-cessation-pharmacological-strategies-different-from-standard-treatments
#2
REVIEW
M Underner, J Perriot, G Peiffer, G Harika-Germaneau, N Jaafari
INTRODUCTION: Three drugs are used as an aid for smoking cessation: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), varenicline and bupropion. Standard pharmacological strategies have proven their efficacy but may have poor efficacy, especially among "Hard-core smokers" who display low smoking abstinence rates and high relapse rates. OBJECTIVES: Systematic literature review of data on pharmacological strategies for smoking cessation which are different from standard treatments...
May 14, 2018: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770909/omalizumab-in-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria-refractory-to-conventional-therapy-an-italian-retrospective-clinical-analysis-with-suggestions-for-long-term-maintenance-strategies
#3
Victor D Mandel, Mario B Guanti, Serena Liberati, Antongiulio Demonte, Giovanni Pellacani, Patrizia Pepe
INTRODUCTION: Omalizumab is indicated for the treatment of patients affected by chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) refractory to antihistamines. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy, safety, and recurrence of symptoms in a real-life experience of omalizumab as an add-on therapy for H1 -antihistamine-refractory CSU patients (refractory CSU). METHODS: A retrospective review of the clinical records of all refractory CSU treated with omalizumab at our dermatology center from June 2014 to April 2017 was performed...
May 16, 2018: Dermatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768465/stopping-the-effective-non-fluoroquinolone-antibiotics-at-day-7-vs-continuing-until-day-14-in-adults-with-acute-pyelonephritis-requiring-hospitalization-a-randomized-non-inferiority-trial
#4
Pavankumar Rudrabhatla, Surendran Deepanjali, Jharna Mandal, Rathinam Palamalai Swaminathan, Tamilarasu Kadhiravan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether stopping the effective antibiotic treatment following clinical improvement at Day 7 (Truncated treatment) would be non-inferior to continued treatment until Day 14 (Continued treatment) in patients with acute pyelonephritis (APN) requiring hospitalization treated with non-fluoroquinolone (non-FQ) antibiotics. METHODS: Hospitalized adult men and non-pregnant women with culture-confirmed APN were eligible for participation after they had clinically improved following empirical or culture-guided treatment with intravenous non-FQ antibiotic(s)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765897/anatomical-analysis-of-the-resected-roots-of-mandibular-first-molars-after-failed-non-surgical-retreatment
#5
Jiyoung Yoon, Byeong-Hoon Cho, Jihyun Bae, Yonghoon Choi
Objectives: Understanding the reason for an unsuccessful non-surgical endodontic treatment outcome, as well as the complex anatomy of the root canal system, is very important. This study examined the cross-sectional root canal structure of mandibular first molars confirmed to have failed non-surgical root canal treatment using digital images obtained during intentional replantation surgery, as well as the causative factors of the failed conventional endodontic treatments. Materials and Methods: This study evaluated 115 mandibular first molars...
May 2018: Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765773/optimising-the-use-of-cetuximab-in-the-continuum-of-care-for-patients-with-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Richard M Goldberg, Clara Montagut, Zev A Wainberg, Philippe Ronga, François Audhuy, Julien Taieb, Sebastian Stintzing, Salvatore Siena, Daniele Santini
The anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody cetuximab in combination with chemotherapy is a standard of care in the first-line treatment of RAS wild-type (wt) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) and has demonstrated efficacy in later lines. Progressive disease (PD) occurs when tumours develop resistance to a therapy, although controversy remains about whether PD on a combination of chemotherapy and targeted agents implies resistance to both components. Here, we propose that some patients may gain additional clinical benefit from the reuse of cetuximab after having PD on regimens including cetuximab in an earlier treatment line...
2018: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765656/the-rise-and-fall-of-an-ancient-ad%C3%A3-lie-penguin-supercolony-at-cape-adare-antarctica
#7
Steven D Emslie, Ashley McKenzie, William P Patterson
We report new discoveries and radiocarbon dates on active and abandoned Adélie penguin ( Pygoscelis adeliae ) colonies at Cape Adare, Antarctica. This colony, first established at approximately 2000 BP (calendar years before present, i.e. 1950), is currently the largest for this species with approximately 338 000 breeding pairs, most located on low-lying Ridley Beach. We hypothesize that this colony first formed after fast ice began blocking open-water access by breeding penguins to the Scott Coast in the southern Ross Sea during a cooling period also at approximately 2000 BP...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761754/pathways-to-recovery-development-and-evaluation-of-a-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-in-patient-treatment-programme-for-adults-with-anorexia-nervosa
#8
Andrea Brown, Richard Jenkinson, Julia Coakes, Annette Cockfield, Tish O'Brien, Louise Hall
Aims and methodA cognitive-behavioural therapy in-patient treatment model for adults with severe anorexia nervosa was developed and evaluated, and outcomes were compared with the previous treatment model and other published outcomes from similar settings. RESULTS: This study showed the Pathways to Recovery outcomes were positive in terms of improvements in body mass index and psychopathology.Clinical implicationsAdults with anorexia nervosa can achieve good outcomes despite longer illness duration and comorbidities...
June 2018: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761524/the-24th-annual-prostate-cancer-foundation-scientific-retreat-report
#9
REVIEW
Andrea K Miyahira, Howard R Soule
INTRODUCTION: The 24th Annual Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) Scientific Retreat was held from October 5-7, 2017, at the Omni Shoreham Hotel in Washington, DC. METHODS: The PCF Scientific Retreat is a scientific conference that specifically focuses on cutting edge research deemed to have significant promise for accelerating advances in prostate cancer biology and treatment. RESULTS: Themes highlighted at this year's meeting included: (i) new understandings in prostate cancer biology and disease progression; (ii) new mechanisms and treatment targets in advanced prostate cancer; (iii) advances in precision medicine genomics, germline genetics, and selection of targeted therapies; (iv) PSMA-targeted agents for PET imaging and radionuclide therapy; (v) approaches for improving the efficacy of immunotherapy in prostate cancer; (vi) applications of 3D Genomics in prostate cancer research; and (vii) potential applications of artificial intelligence in prostate cancer...
May 15, 2018: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760384/instability-of-the-northeast-greenland-ice-stream-over-the-last-45-000-years
#10
Nicolaj K Larsen, Laura B Levy, Anders E Carlson, Christo Buizert, Jesper Olsen, Astrid Strunk, Anders A Bjørk, Daniel S Skov
The sensitivity of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS) to prolonged warm periods is largely unknown and geological records documenting such long-term changes are needed to place current observations in perspective. Here we use cosmogenic surface exposure and radiocarbon ages to determine the magnitude of NEGIS margin fluctuations over the last 45 kyr (thousand years). We find that the NEGIS experienced slow early Holocene ice-margin retreat of 30-40 m a-1 , likely as a result of the buttressing effect of sea-ice or shelf-ice...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760119/spring-summer-net-community-production-new-production-particle-export-and-related-water-column-biogeochemical-processes-in-the-marginal-sea-ice-zone-of-the-western-antarctic-peninsula-2012-2014
#11
Hugh W Ducklow, Michael R Stukel, Rachel Eveleth, Scott C Doney, Tim Jickells, Oscar Schofield, Alex R Baker, John Brindle, Rosie Chance, Nicolas Cassar
New production (New P, the rate of net primary production (NPP) supported by exogenously supplied limiting nutrients) and net community production (NCP, gross primary production not consumed by community respiration) are closely related but mechanistically distinct processes. They set the carbon balance in the upper ocean and define an upper limit for export from the system. The relationships, relative magnitudes and variability of New P (from 15 NO3 - uptake), O2  : argon-based NCP and sinking particle export (based on the 238 U : 234 Th disequilibrium) are increasingly well documented but still not clearly understood...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760109/shelf-ocean-exchange-and-hydrography-west-of-the-antarctic-peninsula-a-review
#12
REVIEW
C Moffat, M Meredith
The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is a highly productive marine ecosystem where extended periods of change have been observed in the form of glacier retreat, reduction of sea-ice cover and shifts in marine populations, among others. The physical environment on the shelf is known to be strongly influenced by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current flowing along the shelf slope and carrying warm, nutrient-rich water, by cold waters flooding into the northern Bransfield Strait from the Weddell Sea, by an extensive network of glaciers and ice shelves, and by strong seasonal to inter-annual variability in sea-ice formation and air-sea interactions, with significant modulation by climate modes like El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Southern Annular Mode...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760108/anatomy-of-a-glacial-meltwater-discharge-event-in-an-antarctic-cove
#13
Michael P Meredith, Ulrike Falk, Anna Valeria Bers, Andreas Mackensen, Irene R Schloss, Eduardo Ruiz Barlett, Kerstin Jerosch, Adrián Silva Busso, Doris Abele
Glacial meltwater discharge from Antarctica is a key influence on the marine environment, impacting ocean circulation, sea level and productivity of the pelagic and benthic ecosystems. The responses elicited depend strongly on the characteristics of the meltwater releases, including timing, spatial structure and geochemical composition. Here we use isotopic tracers to reveal the time-varying pattern of meltwater during a discharge event from the Fourcade Glacier into Potter Cove, northern Antarctic Peninsula...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756609/impact-of-resection-margin-status-on-oncological-outcomes-after-co2-laser-cordectomy
#14
P Aluffi Valletti, F Taranto, A Chiesa, F Pia, G Valente
The management of positive resection margins in micro-endoscopic glottic laser surgery remains a controversial and critical point. This study aims to assess the impact of margin status after transoral laser surgery on local control, survival and organ preservation rates; the decision-making process and treatment options in cases with positive margins are also discussed. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and histological records of 308 consecutive patients with primary early glottic carcinoma (T1a, T1b, selected T2) and treated with endoscopic laser cordectomy...
February 2018: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749271/ultrasound-guided-percutaneous-laser-ablation-is-safe-and-effective-in-the-treatment-of-small-renal-tumors-in-patients-at-increased-bleeding-risk
#15
Sergio Sartori, Giovanni Mauri, Paola Tombesi, Francesca Di Vece, Lara Bianchi, Claudio Maurizio Pacella
PURPOSE: The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of laser ablation (LA) in patients with small renal cell carcinomas (RCC) and increased risk of bleeding. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 2013 to 2017, nine patients (six males, three females, aged 68.5 ± 12.2 years) at high risk of bleeding underwent ultrasonography-guided LA for an RCC. Patients were considered at increased risk of bleeding because of impairment of coagulation parameters, concomitant antiplatelet therapy, or at-risk location of the tumor (one, five, and three patients, respectively)...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747142/risk-factors-for-the-failure-of-iliococcygeus-suspension-for-uterine-prolapse
#16
Dong Hoon Suh, Myung Jae Jeon
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for the failure of iliococcygeus suspension (ICG) for uterine prolapse and estimate its long-term success rates using a clinically relevant criterion. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study included 144 women who underwent transvaginal reconstructive surgery including ICG for symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse. Surgical failure was defined as anatomic recurrence (descent of the vaginal apex beyond the halfway point of the vagina or descent of the anterior or posterior vaginal wall beyond the hymen), symptomatic recurrence (vaginal bulge symptoms), or retreatment for prolapse...
May 2, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745268/first-treatment-and-retreatment-of-medically-refractive-trigeminal-neuralgia-by-stereotactic-radiosurgery-versus-microvascular-decompression-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Victor M Lu, Julia B Duvall, Kevin Phan, Benjamin P Jonker
PURPOSE: Procedures to treat medically refractory trigeminal neuralgia (MRTN) include stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and microvascular decompression (MVD). The aim of this study was to compare outcomes of SRS versus MVD in the treatment of MRTN, with a subgroup focus on those being treated for the first time. METHODS: Search strategy was performed using the PRISMA guidelines for article identification, screening, eligibility and inclusion. Relevant articles were identified from six electronic databases from their inception to June 2017...
May 10, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745035/local-control-and-possibility-of-tailored-salvage-after-hypofractionated-stereotactic-radiotherapy-of-the-cavity-after-brain-metastases-resection
#18
Angelika Bilger, Eva Bretzinger, Jamina Fennell, Carsten Nieder, Hannah Lorenz, Oliver Oehlke, Anca-Ligia Grosu, Hanno M Specht, Stephanie E Combs
In patients undergoing surgical resection of brain metastases, the risk of local recurrence remains high. Adjuvant whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) can reduce the risk of local relapse but fails to improve overall survival. At two tertiary care centers in Germany, a retrospective study was performed to evaluate the role of hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HFSRT) in patients with brain metastases after surgical resection. In particular, need for salvage treatment, for example, WBRT, surgery, or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), was evaluated...
May 9, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742664/surgical-alteration-of-genital-hiatus-size-and-anatomic-failure-after-vaginal-vault-suspension
#19
Monique H Vaughan, Nazema Y Siddiqui, Laura K Newcomb, Alison C Weidner, Amie Kawasaki, Anthony G Visco, Megan S Bradley
OBJECTIVE: To compare anatomic outcomes after native tissue vaginal vault suspension among women categorized by their preoperative and 6-week postoperative genital hiatus size. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study in women who underwent native tissue vaginal vault suspension between 2005 and 2015. We defined a wide genital hiatus as 4 cm or greater and a normal genital hiatus as less than 4 cm. We compared three groups: 1) women with a wide genital hiatus preoperatively and 6 weeks postoperatively (persistently wide group), 2) women with a wide genital hiatus preoperatively but normal genital hiatus 6 weeks postoperatively (improved group), and 3) women with a normal genital hiatus preoperatively and 6 weeks postoperatively (stably normal group)...
May 7, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740089/interplay-of-grounding-line-dynamics-and-sub-shelf-melting-during-retreat-of-the-bj%C3%A3-rn%C3%A3-yrenna-ice-stream
#20
Michele Petrini, Florence Colleoni, Nina Kirchner, Anna L C Hughes, Angelo Camerlenghi, Michele Rebesco, Renata G Lucchi, Emanuele Forte, Renato R Colucci, Riko Noormets
The Barents Sea Ice Sheet was a marine-based ice sheet, i.e., it rested on the Barents Sea floor during the Last Glacial Maximum (21 ky BP). The Bjørnøyrenna Ice Stream was the largest ice stream draining the Barents Sea Ice Sheet and is regarded as an analogue for contemporary ice streams in West Antarctica. Here, the retreat of the Bjørnøyrenna Ice Stream is simulated by means of two numerical ice sheet models and results assessed against geological data. We investigate the sensitivity of the ice stream to changes in ocean temperature and the impact of grounding-line physics on ice stream retreat...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
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