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Lrrk2 actin

Roman Tatura, Theo Kraus, Armin Giese, Thomas Arzberger, Malte Buchholz, Günter Höglinger, Ulrich Müller
INTRODUCTION: In order to better understand the role of epigenetic influences in the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), we studied the expression of microRNAs in gyri cinguli of patients and controls. METHODS: Expression profiling of 744 well-characterized microRNAs in gyri cinguli from patients and controls using TaqMan array microRNA cards. Verification of significantly dysregulated microRNAs by SYBR Green qRT-PCR. RESULTS: First screen by TaqMan array identified 43 microRNAs that were upregulated in gyri cinguli from patients...
September 28, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Irving E Vega
EFhd2 is a conserved calcium binding protein linked to different neurological disorders and types of cancer. Although, EFhd2 is more abundant in neurons, it is also found in other cell types. The physiological function of this novel protein is still unclear, but it has been shown in vitro to play a role in calcium signaling, apoptosis, actin cytoskeleton, and regulation of synapse formation. Recently, EFhd2 was shown to promote cell motility by modulating the activity of Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA. Although, EFhd2's role in promoting cell invasion and metastasis is of great interest in cancer biology, this review focusses on the evidence that links EFhd2 to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurological disorders...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Ketan S Patil, Indranil Basak, Ramavati Pal, Hsin-Pin Ho, Guido Alves, Emmanuel J Chang, Jan Petter Larsen, Simon Geir Møller
MicroRNAs are key regulators associated with numerous diseases. In HEK293 cells, miR-153-3p and miR-205-5p down-regulate alpha-synuclein (SNCA) and Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), two key proteins involved in Parkinson's disease (PD). We have used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) to identify a spectrum of miR-153-3p and miR-205-5p targets in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. We overexpressed and inhibited both microRNAs in SH-SY5Y cells and through comparative proteomics profiling we quantified ~240 protein spots from each analysis...
2015: PloS One
Laura Civiero, Maria Daniela Cirnaru, Alexandra Beilina, Umberto Rodella, Isabella Russo, Elisa Belluzzi, Evy Lobbestael, Lauran Reyniers, Geshanthi Hondhamuni, Patrick A Lewis, Chris Van den Haute, Veerle Baekelandt, Rina Bandopadhyay, Luigi Bubacco, Giovanni Piccoli, Mark R Cookson, Jean-Marc Taymans, Elisa Greggio
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a causative gene for Parkinson's disease, but the physiological function and the mechanism(s) by which the cellular activity of LRRK2 is regulated are poorly understood. Here, we identified p21-activated kinase 6 (PAK6) as a novel interactor of the GTPase/ROC domain of LRRK2. p21-activated kinases are serine-threonine kinases that serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins Cdc42 and Rac1 and have been implicated in different morphogenetic processes through remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton such as synapse formation and neuritogenesis...
December 2015: Journal of Neurochemistry
Mark S Moehle, João Paulo Lima Daher, Travis D Hull, Ravindra Boddu, Hisham A Abdelmotilib, James Mobley, George T Kannarkat, Malú G Tansey, Andrew B West
The Leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene is genetically and biochemically linked to several diseases that involve innate immunity. LRRK2 protein is highly expressed in phagocytic cells of the innate immune system, most notably in myeloid cells capable of mounting potent pro-inflammatory responses. Knockdown of LRRK2 protein in these cells reduces pro-inflammatory responses. However, the effect of LRRK2 pathogenic mutations that cause Parkinson's disease on myeloid cell function is not clear but could provide insight into LRRK2-linked disease...
August 1, 2015: Human Molecular Genetics
M Caesar, S Felk, J O Aasly, F Gillardon
Converging evidence suggests that the Parkinson's disease-linked leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) modulates cellular function by regulating actin dynamics. In the present study we investigate the role of LRRK2 in functional synaptic terminals of adult LRRK2-knockout and LRRK2(R1441G)-transgenic mice as well as in primary fibroblasts of LRRK2(G2019S) mutation carriers. We show that lack of LRRK2 decreases and overexpression of mutant LRRK2 age-dependently increases the effect of the actin depolymerizing agent Latrunculin A (LatA) on the synaptic cytoskeleton...
January 22, 2015: Neuroscience
Pika Miklavc, Konstantin Ehinger, Kristin E Thompson, Nina Hobi, Derya R Shimshek, Manfred Frick
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is known to play a role in the pathogenesis of various diseases including Parkinson disease, morbus Crohn, leprosy and cancer. LRRK2 is suggested to be involved in a number of cell biological processes such as vesicular trafficking, transcription, autophagy and lysosomal pathways. Recent histological studies of lungs of LRRK2 knock-out (LRRK2 -/-) mice revealed significantly enlarged lamellar bodies (LBs) in alveolar type II (ATII) epithelial cells. LBs are large, lysosome-related storage organelles for pulmonary surfactant, which is released into the alveolar lumen upon LB exocytosis...
2014: PloS One
Loukia Parisiadou, Jia Yu, Carmelo Sgobio, Chengsong Xie, Guoxiang Liu, Lixin Sun, Xing-Long Gu, Xian Lin, Nicole A Crowley, David M Lovinger, Huaibin Cai
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is enriched in the striatal projection neurons (SPNs). We found that LRRK2 negatively regulates protein kinase A (PKA) activity in the SPNs during synaptogenesis and in response to dopamine receptor Drd1 activation. LRRK2 interacted with PKA regulatory subunit IIβ (PKARIIβ). A lack of LRRK2 promoted the synaptic translocation of PKA and increased PKA-mediated phosphorylation of actin-disassembling enzyme cofilin and glutamate receptor GluR1, resulting in abnormal synaptogenesis and transmission in the developing SPNs...
March 2014: Nature Neuroscience
Karina Häbig, Sandra Gellhaar, Birgit Heim, Verena Djuric, Florian Giesert, Wolfgang Wurst, Carolin Walter, Thomas Hentrich, Olaf Riess, Michael Bonin
Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene represent the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, LRRK2 function and molecular mechanisms causing the parkinsonian phenotype remain widely unknown. Most of LRRK2 knockdown and overexpression models strengthen the relevance of LRRK2 in regulating neurite outgrowth. We have recently identified ARHGEF7 as the first guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) of LRRK2. This GEF is influencing neurite outgrowth through regulation of actin polymerization...
December 2013: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Mareike Caesar, Susanne Zach, Coby B Carlson, Kathrin Brockmann, Thomas Gasser, Frank Gillardon
Recent studies indicate that the Parkinson's disease-linked leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) modulates cytoskeletal functions by regulating actin and tubulin dynamics, thereby affecting neurite outgrowth. By interactome analysis we demonstrate that the binding of LRRK2 to tubulins is significantly enhanced by pharmacological LRRK2 inhibition in cells. Co-incubation of LRRK2 with microtubules increased the LRRK2 GTPase activity in a cell-free assay. Destabilization of microtubules causes a rapid decrease in cellular LRRK2(S935) phosphorylation indicating a decreased LRRK2 kinase activity...
June 2013: Neurobiology of Disease
Elpida Tsika, Darren J Moore
Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene represent the most common cause of familial Parkinson's disease (PD), whereas common variation at the LRRK2 locus is associated with an increased risk of idiopathic PD. Considerable progress has been made toward understanding the biological functions of LRRK2 and the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenic effects of disease-associated mutations. The development of neuronal culture models and transgenic or viral-based rodent models have proved useful for identifying a number of emerging pathways implicated in LRRK2-dependent neuronal damage, including the microtubule network, actin cytoskeleton, autophagy, mitochondria, vesicular trafficking, and protein quality control...
June 2012: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Mark S Moehle, Philip J Webber, Tonia Tse, Nour Sukar, David G Standaert, Tara M DeSilva, Rita M Cowell, Andrew B West
Missense mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) cause late-onset Parkinson's disease (PD), and common genetic variation in LRRK2 modifies susceptibility to Crohn's disease and leprosy. High levels of LRRK2 expression in peripheral monocytes and macrophages suggest a role for LRRK2 in these cells, yet little is known about LRRK2 expression and function in immune cells of the brain. Here, we demonstrate a role for LRRK2 in mediating microglial proinflammatory responses and morphology. In a murine model of neuroinflammation, we observe robust induction of LRRK2 in microglia...
February 1, 2012: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Sebastian Kicka, Zhouxin Shen, Sarah J Annesley, Paul R Fisher, Susan Lee, Steven Briggs, Richard A Firtel
We identify a new pathway that is required for proper pseudopod formation. We show that Roco2, a leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2)-related Roco kinase, is activated in response to chemoattractant stimulation and helps mediate cell polarization and chemotaxis by regulating cortical F-actin polymerization and pseudopod extension in a pathway that requires Rab1A. We found that Roco2 binds the small GTPase Rab1A as well as the F-actin cross-linking protein filamin (actin-binding protein 120, abp120) in vivo...
July 1, 2011: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Diane Chan, Allison Citro, Joanna M Cordy, Grace C Shen, Benjamin Wolozin
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are currently the most common genetic cause of familial late-onset Parkinson disease, which is clinically indistinguishable from idiopathic disease. The most common pathological mutation in LRRK2, G2019S LRRK2, is known to cause neurite retraction. However, molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of neurite length by LRRK2 are unknown. Here, we demonstrate a novel interaction between LRRK2 and the Rho GTPase, Rac1, which plays a critical role in actin cytoskeleton remodeling necessary for the maintenance of neurite morphology...
May 6, 2011: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Loukia Parisiadou, Huaibin Cai
The mutations in the LRRK2 gene cause clinically typical, late-onset Parkinson disease, strengthening the idea that the familial forms of the disease represent an important tool for the study of the idiopathic forms. Despite the great effort to describe and functionally characterize the LRRK2 gene product, its physiological role remains elusive. In this article, we will discuss along with other references, our recent findings that assigned a critical role of LRRK2 protein on cytosleketal dynamics and how this direction could provide a valuable platform to further appreciate the mechanism underlying LRRK2-mediated pathophysiology of the disease...
September 2010: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Karina Haebig, Christian Johannes Gloeckner, Marta Garcia Miralles, Frank Gillardon, Claudia Schulte, Olaf Riess, Marius Ueffing, Saskia Biskup, Michael Bonin
BACKGROUND: Mutations within the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are a common cause of familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease. The multidomain protein LRRK2 exhibits overall low GTPase and kinase activity in vitro. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we show that the rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF7 and the small GTPase CDC42 are interacting with LRRK2 in vitro and in vivo. GTPase activity of full-length LRRK2 increases in the presence of recombinant ARHGEF7...
2010: PloS One
Andrea Meixner, Karsten Boldt, Marleen Van Troys, Manor Askenazi, Christian J Gloeckner, Matthias Bauer, Jarrod A Marto, Christophe Ampe, Norbert Kinkl, Marius Ueffing
Mutations in human leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (Lrrk2), a protein of yet unknown function, are linked to Parkinson's disease caused by degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. The protein comprises several domains including a GTPase and a kinase domain both affected by several pathogenic mutations. To elucidate the molecular interaction network of endogenous Lrrk2 under stoichiometric constraints, we applied QUICK (quantitative immunoprecipitation combined with knockdown) in NIH3T3 cells. The identified interactome reveals actin isoforms as well as actin-associated proteins involved in actin filament assembly, organization, rearrangement, and maintenance, suggesting that the biological function of Lrrk2 is linked to cytoskeletal dynamics...
January 2011: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Eugénie Mutez, Lydie Larvor, Frédéric Leprêtre, Vincent Mouroux, Dorota Hamalek, Jean-Pierre Kerckaert, Jordi Pérez-Tur, Nawal Waucquier, Christel Vanbesien-Mailliot, Aurélie Duflot, David Devos, Luc Defebvre, Alexandre Kreisler, Bernard Frigard, Alain Destée, Marie-Christine Chartier-Harlin
To gain insight into systemic molecular events associated with an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, we compared gene expression patterns in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) sampled from elderly, healthy controls and from Parkinson's disease (PD) patients carrying the most frequently found mutation of the LRRK2 gene (G2019S). A transcriptomic approach enabled us to detect differentially expressed genes and revealed perturbations of pathways known to be involved in PD-related neurodegeneration: the ubiquitin-proteasome system, the mitochondrial oxidation system, inflammation, axonal guidance, calcium signalling and apoptosis...
October 2011: Neurobiology of Aging
Loukia Parisiadou, Chengsong Xie, Hyun Jin Cho, Xian Lin, Xing-Long Gu, Cai-Xia Long, Evy Lobbestael, Veerle Baekelandt, Jean-Marc Taymans, Lixin Sun, Huaibin Cai
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) functions as a putative protein kinase of ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM) family proteins. A Parkinson's disease-related G2019S substitution in the kinase domain of LRRK2 further enhances the phosphorylation of ERM proteins. The phosphorylated ERM (pERM) proteins are restricted to the filopodia of growing neurites in which they tether filamentous actin (F-actin) to the cytoplasmic membrane and regulate the dynamics of filopodia protrusion. Here, we show that, in cultured neurons derived from LRRK2 G2019S transgenic mice, the number of pERM-positive and F-actin-enriched filopodia was significantly increased, and this correlates with the retardation of neurite outgrowth...
November 4, 2009: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
M J Hurley, P H Patel, M J Jackson, L A Smith, S Rose, P Jenner
The level of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (Lrrk2) mRNA expression was measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in anterior striatum from normal and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) that had L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine methyl ester (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesia. The level of striatal Lrrk2 mRNA was increased in MPTP-treated common marmosets that had L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia compared with normal animals that did not receive l-DOPA...
July 2007: European Journal of Neuroscience
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