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alopecia areata

Kanchalit Thanomkitti, Rattiyaporn Kanlaya, Kedsarin Fong-Ngern, Chompunoot Kapincharanon, Kanyarat Sueksakit, Prangwalai Chanchaem, Rattapon Thuangtong, Visith Thongboonkerd
Alopecia areata (AA) is one of the common hair disorders for which treatment is frequently ineffective and associated with relapsing episodes. Better understanding of disease mechanisms and novel therapeutic targets are thus required. From 10 AA patients, quantitative proteomics using LTQ-Orbitrap-XL mass spectrometer revealed 104 down-regulated, 4 absent, 3 up-regulated and 11 newly present proteins in lesional vs. non-lesional biopsies. Among these, the decreased levels of α-tubulin, vimentin, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), HSP90, annexin A2 and α-enolase were successfully confirmed by Western blotting...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Khatiya Chelidze, Shari R Lipner
Nail changes are a common feature of alopecia areata (AA) and are a significant source of cosmetic disfigurement and functional impairment. This review provides an update of the prevalence, clinical and histopathological features, pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, clinical course, prognosis, and management of nail changes in patients with AA. Searches for peer-reviewed journal articles were conducted using the PubMed/MEDLINE database with the search terms "nail changes alopecia areata," "alopecia areata nails," and specific searches on "trachyonychia alopecia areata" and "pitting alopecia areata...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Ravi Sharma, Sandeep Randhawa
A 12-year-old Indian boy presented with acute and severe vision loss in his right eye. He was being treated for scalp alopecia areata and rashes behind the ears and above the brow. The eye examination revealed unilateral hemorrhagic retinal vasculitis. The lab work was normal except for a positive HLA-B27 result. The patient was treated with intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA) and systemic immunosuppression. The retinal vasculitis improved with treatment, but visual acuity only mildly improved...
January 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Tueboon Sriphojanart, Saranya Khunkhet, Poonkiat Suchonwanit
Diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP) is an effective topical immunotherapy for recalcitrant alopecia areata (AA), which sometimes requires prolonged treatment. We developed a new treatment protocol to shorten the duration of therapy. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of the new treatment protocol with the standard treatment protocol in the treatment of recalcitrant AA. We conducted a 6-year retrospective comparative study of patients with AA who received one of the DPCP treatment protocols at our institute...
October 11, 2017: Dermatology Reports
Seung-Hee Loh, Hae-Na Moon, Bark-Lynn Lew, Woo-Young Sim
BACKGROUND: Alopecia areata (AA) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease with T-cell-mediated attack of hair follicle autoantigens. As T-helper 17 (Th17) cells and T regulatory (Treg) cells are crucially involved in the pathogenesis, the role of Th17 and Treg cytokines has not been studied yet. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether AA is associated with alterations in lesional and serum Th17 and Treg cytokines, and studied whether they were associated with clinical type...
December 28, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Maria K Hordinsky
In the absence of an approved treatment by the US Food and Drug Administration, choosing one of the many off-label treatments available for a child, teen, or adult with alopecia areata (AA) can be challenging. The physician or midlevel provider treating a patient with AA needs to take into consideration the age of the patient, location of hair loss, disease extent and activity, and any ongoing medical or psychological issues. Many patients and their families have now also heard the "buzz" about evolving research, particularly with JAK inhibitors, for the treatment of AA...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Symposium Proceedings
Kunal Malik, Emma Guttman-Yassky
Alopecia areata is a T-cell-mediated disease that shares phenotypic similarities with other inflammatory diseases, particularly atopic dermatitis, and lacks safe, effective, mechanism-specific treatments. Increasing data suggests that alopecia areata harbors contributions of T helper type 1, T helper type 2, T helper type 17/IL-23, and phosphodiesterase pathways. Antagonism of these axes is undergoing evaluation, and might elucidate the underlying molecular circuitry of alopecia areata, advancing the translational revolution for this disease...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Symposium Proceedings
Chean Ping Lim, Rachel K Severin, Lynn Petukhova
Autoimmune diseases create a substantial burden of disease, and alopecia areata is among the more prevalent forms. Comorbidities are medical conditions that tend to occur together and may provide etiologic insights, suggest novel therapeutic strategies, and help patients and family members understand the risk of other health conditions. It is well established that having one autoimmune disease increases risk for others because of an underlying shared biology. Precision medicine initiatives are creating vast amounts of data that allow us to efficiently identify comorbidities...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Symposium Proceedings
Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn, Sinu Paul, Eddy Hsi Chun Wang, Annemieke de Jong, Angela M Christiano, Alessandro Sette
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Symposium Proceedings
Angela Renee Rodgers
Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disease that alters one's appearance. Some define it as a cosmetic disease despite evidence that substantial psychosocial burden is associated with it. As a physician, support group leader, consultant for the National Alopecia Areata Foundation, and patient, I discuss the evidence behind the psychosocial impact of alopecia areata and the importance of comprehensive treatment.
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Symposium Proceedings
Jordan M Thompson, Min Kyung Park, Abrar A Qureshi, Eunyoung Cho
Few studies have examined the clinical epidemiology of alopecia areata (AA) in regard to patient race, and therefore, any disparities in incidence or prevalence of disease are largely unexplored. We sought to investigate potential racial disparities amongst two large cohorts of women. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII), wherein participants self-reported a diagnosis of AA. We determined odds ratios for AA by race in a multivariate analysis...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Symposium Proceedings
Tito R Mendoza, Joyce Osei, Madeleine Duvic
Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease that causes hair loss. Although persons with the disease can be physically described as having varying degrees of hair loss, the condition has significant ramifications on an individual's well-being. We previously reported the preliminary psychometric properties of the Alopecia Areata Symptom Impact Scale (AASIS), a disease-specific measure that asks participants about their AA symptoms and how these symptoms interfere with their daily functioning. The goals of this article are to provide a detailed description of the development of the AASIS items and to offer a psychometric update for the measure...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Symposium Proceedings
Elena Bernardis, Leslie Castelo-Soccio
Quantifying alopecia areata in real time has been a challenge for clinicians and investigators. Although several scoring systems exist, they can be cumbersome. Because there are more clinical trials in alopecia areata, there is an urgent need for a quantitative system that is reproducible, standardized, and simple. In this article, a computer imaging algorithm to recreate the Severity of Alopecia Tool scoring system in an automated way is presented. A pediatric alopecia areata image set of four view-standardized photographs was created, and texture analysis was used to distinguish between normal hair and bald scalp...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Symposium Proceedings
Natasha Atanaskova Mesinkovska
Alopecia areata is a prevalent autoimmune skin disease with no cure or indicated treatment options. In the absence of an approved treatment, some patients are eager to try unconventional therapies, despite the very limited research evaluating their safety and efficacy. Recently emerging unconventional therapies for alopecia areata discussed include antihistamines, cryotherapy, and low-dose naltrexone.
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Symposium Proceedings
Dory Kranz, Abby Ellison, Natasha A Mesinkovska, Angela M Christiano, Maria K Hordinsky, John E Harris
Alopecia areata (AA) is a common autoimmune skin disease that results in the loss of hair on the scalp and elsewhere on the body and affects over 146 million people worldwide at some point in their lives. Founded in 1981, the National Alopecia Areata Foundation is a nonprofit organization that supports research to find a cure or acceptable treatment for AA, supports those with the disease, and educates the public about AA. The National Alopecia Areata Foundation conducts research summits every 2 years to review progress and create new directions in its funded and promoted research...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Symposium Proceedings
Jessica Cervantes, Joaquin J Jimenez, Gina M DelCanto, Antonella Tosti
Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by T lymphocytic infiltrates around the bulbar region of hair follicles. Statins have surfaced as potential therapeutic agents for AA, partly because of their modulation of the JAK/STAT pathway. Some data indicate that statins are a possible option for acute, but not chronic, longstanding AA. Animal studies suggest that treatment with statins increases CD4+/CD25+/Foxp3+ populations in AA-affected mice.
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Symposium Proceedings
Lauren C Strazzulla, Lorena Avila, Kristen Lo Sicco, Jerry Shapiro
Platelet-rich plasma and microneedling have been investigated recently as potential therapeutic options for the treatment of hair disorders. Evidence from laboratory studies indicates that these treatments enhance growth factor production that in turn facilitates hair follicle development and cycling. Several small studies and case reports have presented encouraging findings regarding the use of these treatments for alopecia areata. Future investigations will be needed to validate these therapeutic techniques for patients with alopecia areata and further refine which subtypes of the disease these methods are best indicated for...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Symposium Proceedings
Lucy Yichu Liu, Brett Andrew King
Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease affecting people of all ages. There is currently no cure for AA, and a highly efficacious therapy for severe AA has been elusive. Recently, scientific advances have identified the Janus kinase pathway as a target for treatment. Both Janus kinase inhibitors approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, tofacitinib and ruxolitinib, have shown promise in open-label clinical trials. This review summarizes the results of long-term use of tofacitinib in severe AA.
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Symposium Proceedings
Ralf Paus, Silvia Bulfone-Paus, Marta Bertolini
The collapse of the immune privilege (IP) of the anagen hair bulb is now accepted as a key element in AA pathogenesis, and hair bulb IP restoration lies at the core of AA therapy. Here, we briefly review the essentials of hair bulb IP and recent progress in understanding its complexity. We discuss open questions and why the systematic dissection of hair bulb IP and its pharmacological manipulation (including the clinical testing of FK506 and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analogs) promise to extend the range of future therapeutic options in AA and other IP collapse-related autoimmune diseases...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Symposium Proceedings
David A Norris
During its 25th anniversary year, the National Alopecia Areata Foundation (NAAF) undertook a project to completely re-evaluate their research program and to help focus and direct future directions of alopecia areata (AA) research to better meet the goals of individuals with and the scientists working to discover mechanisms of disease and better treatments for AA. This project was embodied in five research summits in 2008, 2009, 2010, 2012, and 2014 as part of the NAAF's main strategic initiative, the Alopecia Areata Treatment Development Program, to accelerate progress toward a viable treatment...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Symposium Proceedings
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