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Phagocytosis Abeta

James P Fuller, Jeffrey B Stavenhagen, Søren Christensen, Fredrik Kartberg, Martin J Glennie, Jessica L Teeling
Immunotherapy is a promising strategy for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Antibodies directed against Amyloid Beta (Aβ) are able to successfully clear plaques and reverse cognitive deficits in mouse models. Excitement towards this approach has been tempered by high profile failures in the clinic, one key issue has been the development of inflammatory side effects in the brain (ARIAs). New antibodies are entering the clinic for Alzheimer's disease; therefore, it is important to learn all we can from the current generation...
November 2015: Acta Neuropathologica
Xiao He, Bing-Gui Sun
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a most common neurodegenerative disease. The mechanisms underlying AD, especially late-onset AD, remain elusive. In the past few years, results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and systems approaches indicated that innate immune responses mediated by microglia played critical roles in AD. Functional analysis on animal models also showed that immune receptors or proteins expressed in microglia mediated Abeta-induced inflammation, or Abeta phagocytosis by microglia. Microglia plays double sword roles in AD...
June 2014: Yao Xue Xue Bao, Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica
Peng Li, Fu-Kai Huang, Chun Yang, Xin Zhou, Yu-Feng Liu, Bin Yan, Xiao-Ping Song, Ya-Li Liu, Lin Yuan
Aggregation and accumulation of beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) in brain tissues contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the promotion of Abeta clearance is one of the key targets for preventing and treatment Alzheimer's disease. Studies proved that some traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compounds and extracts could impact the activity of degrading enzyme in amyloid peptide, the transport of hemato encephalic barrier and the phagocytosis of microglial cells, promote Abeta clearance, and improve learning and memory of animal models with Alzheimer's disease...
December 2013: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Huey-Jen Tsay, Yung-Cheng Huang, Fong-Lee Huang, Chia-Ping Chen, Yu-Chun Tsai, Ying-Hsiu Wang, Mine-Fong Wu, Feng-Yi Chiang, Young-Ji Shiao
BACKGROUND: The specific role of microglia on Aβ-mediated neurotoxicity is difficult to assign in vivo due to their complicated environment in the brain. Therefore, most of the current microglia-related studies employed the isolated microglia. However, the previous in vitro studies have suggested either beneficial or destructive function in microglia. Therefore, to investigate the phenotypes of the isolated microglia which exert activity of neuroprotective or destructive is required...
2013: Journal of Biomedical Science
Erik Hjorth, Dan Frenkel, Howard Weiner, Marianne Schultzberg
Glial activation and increased inflammation characterize neuropathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim was to develop a model for studying phagocytosis of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide by human microglia and to test effects thereupon by immunomodulatory substances. Human CHME3 microglia showed intracellular Abeta(1-42) colocalized with lysosome-associated membrane protein-2, indicating phagocytosis. This was increased by interferon-gamma, and to a lesser degree with Protollin, a proteosome-based adjuvant...
2010: International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease
Vanessa C McMains, Michael Myre, Lisa Kreppel, Alan R Kimmel
Presenilin (PS) is the catalytic moiety of the gamma-secretase complex. PS and other gamma-secretase components are well conserved among metazoa, but their presence and function in more-distant species are not resolved. Because inappropriate gamma-secretase processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in humans is associated with familial Alzheimer's disease, understanding essential elements within each gamma-secretase component is crucial to functional studies. Diverged proteins have been identified in primitive plants but experiments have failed to demonstrate gamma-secretase activity...
September 2010: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Jyh-Haur Chern, Pei-Chien Hsu, Li-Wen Wang, Huey-Jen Tsay, Iou-Jiun Kang, Feng-Shiun Shie
Increasing evidence indicates that microglial activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In AD, activated microglia may facilitate the clearance of beta-amyloid (Abeta), a neurotoxic component in AD pathogenesis. However, microglial activation comes at the cost of triggering neuro-inflammation, which contributes to cerebral dysfunction. Thus, pharmacological approaches that can achieve a favorable combination of a reduced microglia-mediated neuro-inflammation, and an enhanced Abeta clearance may be beneficial for preventing the progression of the disease...
October 6, 2010: Chemico-biological Interactions
C Dirk Keene, Rubens C Chang, Americo H Lopez-Yglesias, Bryan R Shalloway, Izabella Sokal, Xianwu Li, Patrick J Reed, Lisa M Keene, Kathleen S Montine, Richard M Breyer, Jason K Rockhill, Thomas J Montine
A complex therapeutic challenge for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is minimizing deleterious aspects of microglial activation while maximizing beneficial actions, including phagocytosis/clearance of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides. One potential target is selective suppression of microglial prostaglandin E(2) receptor subtype 2 (EP2) function, which influences microglial phagocytosis and elaboration of neurotoxic cytokines. To test this hypothesis, we transplanted bone marrow cells derived from wild-type mice or mice homozygous deficient for EP2 (EP2(-/-)) into lethally irradiated 5-month-old wild-type or APPswe-PS1DeltaE9 double transgenic AD mouse model recipients...
July 2010: American Journal of Pathology
C Laske, E Stransky, N Hoffmann, W Maetzler, G Straten, G W Eschweiler, T Leyhe
Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor that activates microglial cells, involved in phagocytosis of amyloid-beta (Abeta) in the brain. In the present study, we found in 50 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) significantly increased M-CSF plasma levels compared to 22 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 35 age-matched healthy controls. In contrast, MCI patients showed significantly decreased M-CSF levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compared to AD patients and 20 patients with other non-inflammatory neurological disease (NIND)...
August 2010: Current Alzheimer Research
A M Smith, H M Gibbons, M Dragunow
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder manifested by memory loss, confusion and changes in mood. A principal pathology of this debilitating disorder is extracellular deposits of amyloid-beta (Abeta) protein. The "amyloid hypothesis" postulates that a build-up of Abeta protein is responsible for neuronal loss and the ensuing symptoms of AD. One possible mechanism of Abeta clearance, and hence AD therapy, is phagocytosis of Abeta protein by microglial cells. Microglia are the brain's resident immune cells and phagocytosis is one of their innate functions...
August 11, 2010: Neuroscience
Paramita Chakrabarty, Carolina Ceballos-Diaz, Amanda Beccard, Christopher Janus, Dennis Dickson, Todd E Golde, Pritam Das
Reactive gliosis surrounding amyloid beta (Abeta) plaques is an early feature of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis and has been postulated to represent activation of the innate immune system in an apparently ineffective attempt to clear or neutralize Abeta aggregates. To evaluate the role of IFN-gamma-mediated neuroinflammation on the evolution of Abeta pathology in transgenic (Tg) mice, we have expressed murine IFN-gamma (mIFN-gamma) in the brains of Abeta precursor protein (APP) Tg mice using recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 1...
May 1, 2010: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Michael T Heneka, Fabian Nadrigny, Tommy Regen, Ana Martinez-Hernandez, Lucia Dumitrescu-Ozimek, Dick Terwel, Daniel Jardanhazi-Kurutz, Jochen Walter, Frank Kirchhoff, Uwe-Karsten Hanisch, Markus P Kummer
Locus ceruleus (LC)-supplied norepinephrine (NE) suppresses neuroinflammation in the brain. To elucidate the effect of LC degeneration and subsequent NE deficiency on Alzheimer's disease pathology, we evaluated NE effects on microglial key functions. NE stimulation of mouse microglia suppressed Abeta-induced cytokine and chemokine production and increased microglial migration and phagocytosis of Abeta. Induced degeneration of the locus ceruleus increased expression of inflammatory mediators in APP-transgenic mice and resulted in elevated Abeta deposition...
March 30, 2010: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Milan Fiala
Morbidities of aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been related to defective functions of both T cells and macrophages leading to brain amyloidosis and inflammation. In AD patients, "inflammaging" may be associated with an increase of incompetent memory T cells and inflammatory cytokines produced by macrophages, whereas defective clearance of amyloid-beta 1-42 (Abeta) may be related to defective transcription of immune genes necessary for Abeta phagocytosis, beta-1,4-mannosyl-glycoprotein 4-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase and Toll-like receptors...
April 2010: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Tarja Malm, Milla Koistinaho, Anu Muona, Johanna Magga, Jari Koistinaho
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a dementing neurodegenerative disorder without a cure. The abnormal parenchymal accumulation of beta-amyloid (Abeta) is associated with inflammatory reactions involving microglia and astrocytes. Increased levels of Abeta and Abeta deposition in the brain are thought to cause neuronal dysfunction and underlie dementia. Microglia, the brain resident cells of monocytic origin, have a potential ability to phagocytose Abeta but they also react to Abeta by increased production of proinflammatory toxic agents...
June 2010: Glia
Takayuki Nagano, Shinya H Kimura, Motohiko Takemura
Treatment with amyloid beta(1-42) (Abeta(1-42)) at 1microM for 60min increased phagocytosis of latex beads by cultured rat microglia. This increase was reduced dose-dependently by prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), but PGD(2), PGF(2alpha), iloprost, or U-46619 had no effects. PGE(2) also reduced the phagocytosis of fluorescent-labeled Abeta(1-42). Abeta(1-42)-induced phagocytosis was reduced by butaprost but not by 17-phenyl trinor PGE(2), sulprostone, or PGE(1) alcohol. The reduction effect of PGE(2) on phagocytosis was reversed by AH6809, an E-prostanoid receptor 2 (EP2) antagonist, which inhibited cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) accumulation induced by PGE(2)...
April 6, 2010: Brain Research
Ralf P Friedrich, Katharina Tepper, Raik Rönicke, Malle Soom, Martin Westermann, Klaus Reymann, Christoph Kaether, Marcus Fändrich
The formation of extracellular amyloid plaques is a common patho-biochemical event underlying several debilitating human conditions, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Considerable evidence implies that AD damage arises primarily from small oligomeric amyloid forms of Abeta peptide, but the precise mechanism of pathogenicity remains to be established. Using a cell culture system that reproducibly leads to the formation of Alzheimer's Abeta amyloid plaques, we show here that the formation of a single amyloid plaque represents a template-dependent process that critically involves the presence of endocytosis- or phagocytosis-competent cells...
February 2, 2010: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sadanand Gaikwad, Sergey Larionov, Yiner Wang, Holger Dannenberg, Takashi Matozaki, Alon Monsonego, Dietmar R Thal, Harald Neumann
The signal regulatory protein-beta1 (SIRPbeta1) is a DAP12-associated transmembrane receptor expressed in a subset of hematopoietic cells. Recently, it was shown that peritoneal macrophages express SIRPbeta1, which positively regulated phagocytosis. Here, we found that SIRPbeta1 was up-regulated and acted as a phagocytic receptor on microglia in amyloid precursor protein J20 (APP/J20) transgenic mice and in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Interferon (IFN)-gamma and IFN-beta stimulated gene transcription of SIRPbeta1 in cultured microglia...
December 2009: American Journal of Pathology
Paramita Chakrabarty, Karen Jansen-West, Amanda Beccard, Carolina Ceballos-Diaz, Yona Levites, Christophe Verbeeck, Abba C Zubair, Dennis Dickson, Todd E Golde, Pritam Das
Proinflammatory stimuli, after amyloid beta (Abeta) deposition, have been hypothesized to create a self-reinforcing positive feedback loop that increases amyloidogenic processing of the Abeta precursor protein (APP), promoting further Abeta accumulation and neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a proinflammatory cytokine, has been shown to be increased in AD patients implying a pathological interaction. To assess the effects of IL-6 on Abeta deposition and APP processing in vivo, we overexpressed murine IL-6 (mIL-6) in the brains of APP transgenic TgCRND8 and TG2576 mice...
February 2010: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Erin G Reed-Geaghan, Julie C Savage, Amy G Hise, Gary E Landreth
Microglia are the brain's tissue macrophages and are found in an activated state surrounding beta-amyloid plaques in the Alzheimer's disease brain. Microglia interact with fibrillar beta-amyloid (fAbeta) through an ensemble of surface receptors composed of the alpha(6)beta(1) integrin, CD36, CD47, and the class A scavenger receptor. These receptors act in concert to initiate intracellular signaling cascades and phenotypic activation of these cells. However, it is unclear how engagement of this receptor complex is linked to the induction of an activated microglial phenotype...
September 23, 2009: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Milan Fiala, Robert Veerhuis
The ultimate goal of diagnostic research is a blood test detecting the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) before neuronal damage develops. Current amyloid-beta (Abeta) tests do not detect the process leading to neurodegeneration. Novel immunologic and proteomics tests are based on aberrant appearance of inflammatory cytokines in the CSF and other protein biomarkers in the CSF or blood, and immune biomarkers of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC's). Cytokines, chemokines, complement factors, serum amyloid P component, and signaling proteins in the CSF or blood may be a rich source of diagnostic biomarkers, but the power of these tests will need to be examined in prospective studies...
January 2010: Experimental Gerontology
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