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Christoph Jans, Eleonora Sarno, Lucie Collineau, Leo Meile, Katharina D C Stärk, Roger Stephan
Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria is an increasing health concern. The spread of AMR bacteria (AMRB) between animals and humans via the food chain and the exchange of AMR genes requires holistic approaches for risk mitigation. The AMRB exposure of humans via food is currently only poorly understood leaving an important gap for intervention design. Method: This study aimed to assess AMRB prevalence in retail food and subsequent exposure of Swiss consumers in a systematic literature review of data published between 1996 and 2016 covering the Swiss agriculture sector and relevant imported food...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rajesh P Haridas
In the 1870s, Joseph Jacobs was employed as an apprentice in the Longs and Billups pharmacy in Athens, GA. Jacobs later established a chain of pharmacies in Atlanta, GA. Coca-Cola was first sold to the public on May 8, 1886, at Jacobs' Pharmacy in the Five Points district of Atlanta, GA. The soda fountain in Jacobs' Pharmacy was owned by Willis E. Venable, who was related to James M. Venable, the first patient etherized by Crawford Long in Jefferson, GA.
January 2018: Journal of Anesthesia History
Yan Yan, Li Liu, Jing Zeng, Liang Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to improve the management quality of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in rural areas. METHODS: Two hundred forty discharged COPD patients were divided into an intervention group and a control group. In the intervention group, 120 patients established contact with doctors through the network consulting room, namely doctor's mobile platform, and were managed through video, voice, and text by the doctors, and kept in close contact with the doctors after discharge (education, consultation), and received electronic prescriptions, and drugs were sent to the door by online retailers...
March 20, 2018: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
Grace Chai, Jing Xu, James Osterhout, Mark A Liberatore, Kathleen L Miller, Carolyn Wolff, Marisa Cruz, Peter Lurie, Gerald Dal Pan
BACKGROUND: The opioid epidemic, driven in part by increased prescribing, is a public health emergency. This study examines dispensed prescription patterns and approvals of new opioid analgesic products to investigate whether the introduction of these new drugs increases prescribing. METHODS: Prescribing patterns based on dispensed prescription claims from the U.S. retail setting were assessed with new brand and generic opioid analgesic products approved in the United States from 1997 through 2015...
March 20, 2018: Anesthesiology
Benjamin W Chrisinger, Michael J Kallan, Eliza D Whiteman, Amy Hillier
Food shopping decisions are pathways between food environment, diet and health outcomes, including chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. The choices of where to shop and what to buy are interrelated, though a better understanding of this dynamic is needed. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's nationally representative Food Acquisitions and Purchase Survey food-at-home dataset was joined with other databases of retailer characteristics and Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI) of purchases. We used linear regression models with general estimating equations to assess relationships between trip, store, and shopper characteristics with trip HEI scores...
March 16, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Barbara Nevicka, Annelies E M Van Vianen, Annebel H B De Hoogh, Bart C M Voorn
Although narcissists often emerge as leaders, research has thus far shown inconsistent results on the relationship between leader narcissism and effectiveness in the eyes of followers. Here we draw on leader distance theory (Shamir, 1995) and implicit leader theory (Lord & Maher, 1991) to propose that followers' assessment of a narcissistic leader and followers' overall job attitudes depend on the leader's visibility to the followers. The more opportunities followers have to observe narcissistic leaders the more they will experience these leaders' toxic behavior (e...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Koren Hanson, Kevin P Haggerty, Charles B Fleming, Martie L Skinner, Mary Casey-Goldstein, W Alex Mason, Ronald W Thompson, Cleve Redmond
OBJECTIVE: As legalization of nonmedical retail marijuana increases, states are implementing public health campaigns designed to prevent increases in youth marijuana use. This study investigated which types of marijuana-related messages were rated most highly by parents and their teens and whether these preferences differed by age and marijuana use. METHOD: Nine marijuana-focused messages were developed as potential radio, newspaper, or television announcements...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Huiling DI, Sisi Liang, Qingyang Li, Lei Shi, Ayaka Shima, Hecheng Meng, He Yan, Shinji Yamasaki
Bacteria of the genus Providencia are opportunistic pathogens of clinical significance due to their association with diarrhea and urinary tract infections. The present study was conducted to examine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Providencia spp. in retail meats sold in Guangzhou, China and Osaka, Japan. Out of 158 meat samples including beef, pork and chicken, 67 Providencia (42%) belonging to four species viz., P.alcalifaciens, P. rustigianii, P. stuartii and P. rettgeri were isolated, and most of them were resistant to tetracycline (91%) followed by ampicillin (69%) and streptomycin (49%)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Tammy Y N Tong, Fumiaki Imamura, Pablo Monsivais, Søren Brage, Simon J Griffin, Nicholas J Wareham, Nita G Forouhi
High cost of healthy foods could be a barrier to healthy eating. We aimed to examine the association between dietary cost and adherence to the Mediterranean diet in a non-Mediterranean country. We evaluated cross-sectional data from 12 417 adults in the UK Fenland Study. Responses to 130-item FFQ were used to calculate a Mediterranean diet score (MDS). Dietary cost was estimated by matching food consumption data with retail prices of five major supermarkets. Using multivariable-adjusted linear regression, we examined the association of MDS and individual foods with dietary cost in absolute and relative scales...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Anna A De Boer, Adam Ismail, Keri Marshall, Gerard Bannenberg, Kevin L Yan, William J Rowe
Fish oil (FO) products constitute good sources of omega-3 fats. Oxidation data from a large third-party database of 1900 + globally-sourced FO samples were assessed. In FO products, for peroxide value (PV), 13.9% exceeded 5 mEq O2 /kg (2.2% >10); for acid value (AcV) 2.1% exceeded 3 mg KOH/g, while for p-anisidine value (pAV) in unflavoured oils, 6.1% exceeded 20, (3.8% >30), and 8.8% exceeded TOTOX limits (26). Additionally, we compared FO with other dietary oils. The FO median PV was similar to those of algal and sunflower oils, 4...
July 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Yumi Lee, Sang Hwa Song, Taesu Cheong
In this paper, we examine a real-world case related to the consumer product supply chain to analyze the value of supply chain coordination under the condition of moral hazard. Because of the characteristics of a buyback contract scheme employed in the supply chain, the supplier company's sales department encourages retailers to order more inventory to meet their sales target, whereas retailers pay less attention to their inventory level and leftovers at the end of the season. This condition induces moral hazard problems in the operation of the supply chain, as suppliers suffer from huge returns of leftover inventory...
2018: PloS One
Michael J Widener, Leia M Minaker, Jessica L Reid, Zachary Patterson, Tara Kamal Ahmadi, David Hammond
OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential links between activity spaces, the food retail environment and food shopping behaviours for the population of young, urban adults. DESIGN: Participants took part in the Canada Food Study, which collected information on demographics, food behaviour, diet and health, as well as an additional smartphone study that included a seven-day period of logging GPS (global positioning system) location and food purchases. Using a time-weighted, continuous representation of participant activity spaces generated from GPS trajectory data, the locations of food purchases and a geocoded food retail data set, negative binomial regression models were used to explore what types of food retailers participants were exposed to and where food purchases were made...
March 16, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Shuhong Zhang, Guangzhu Yang, Qinghua Ye, Qingping Wu, Jumei Zhang, Yuanbin Huang
Klebsiella pneumoniae is not only a major hospital-acquired pathogen but also an important food-borne pathogen that can cause septicaemia, liver abscesses, and diarrhea in humans. The phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of K. pneumoniae in retail foods have not been thoroughly investigated in China. The objective of this study was to characterize K. pneumoniae isolates through biotyping, serotyping, determination of virulence factors, antibiotic resistance testing, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR), and (GTG)5 -PCR molecular typing...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Anna Timperio, David Crawford, Rebecca M Leech, Karen E Lamb, Kylie Ball
This study examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between typologies of neighbourhood food environment and dietary patterns among 10-12 year-old children. Baseline data were collected in 2002/3 and follow-up data in 2006 from children in Melbourne or Geelong. Parents completed a food frequency questionnaire at both time points. 'Healthful' and 'energy-dense' dietary pattern scores were computed. A Geographic Information System was used to determine the presence or absence of food outlets (cafés/restaurant; fast food; supermarkets/grocery stores; convenience store; greengrocer; and butcher, seafood or poultry retailer) within an 800 m road network buffer of home...
March 12, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Mehul D Bhatt, Birju D Bhatt, James T Dorrian, Beth N McLellan
BACKGROUND: There is limited data regarding generic medication prices. Recent studies have shown price changes at the retail level, but much is not known about the pharmaceutical supply chain or price changes at the manufacturer level. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the extent of price changes for topical generic medications. METHODS: A comprehensive review of average wholesale prices (AWP) and manufacturers of topical generics and available corresponding branded medications was conducted for 2005 and 2016...
March 12, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Kristy Marynak, Andrea Gentzke, Teresa W Wang, Linda Neff, Brian A King
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. middle and high school students (1). Exposure to e-cigarette advertisements is associated with higher odds of current e-cigarette use among middle and high school students (2-4). To assess patterns of self-reported exposure to four e-cigarette advertising sources (retail stores, the Internet, television, and newspapers and magazines), CDC analyzed data from the 2014, 2015, and 2016 National Youth Tobacco Surveys (NYTSs)...
March 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Geraldine Dowling, Pierce V Kavanagh, Hans-Georg Eckhardt, Brendan Twamley, Gary Hessman, Gavin McLaughlin, John O' Brien, Simon D Brandt
Nitrazolam and clonazolam are two designer benzodiazepines that are available from internet retailers and there is growing evidence suggesting that such compounds have the potential to cause severe adverse events. Information about tolerability in humans is scarce but typically, low doses can be difficult to administer for users when handling bulk material and variability of the active ingredient in tablet formulations can also be of a concern. Customs, toxicology and forensic laboratories are increasingly encountering designer benzodiazepines, both in tablet and powdered forms, and the unavailability of reference standards can impact on the ability to identify these compounds...
March 15, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Becky Freeman, Suzan Burton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Shannon M Melody, Veronica Martin-Gall, Ben Harding, Mark Gk Veitch
OBJECTIVES: To describe the retail availability of tobacco and to examine the association between tobacco outlet density and area-level remoteness and socio-economic status classification in Tasmania. DESIGN: Ecological cross-sectional study; analysis of tobacco retail outlet data collected by the Department of Health and Human Services (Tasmania) according to area-level (Statistical Areas Level 2) remoteness (defined by the Remoteness Structure of the Australian Statistical Geographical Standard) and socio-economic status (defined by the 2011 Australian Bureau of Statistics Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage)...
March 19, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Marla G Leal-Cervantes, Sofía M Arvizu-Medrano, Ramón Martínez-Peniche, Nanci E Martínez-Gonzáles, Montserrat Hernández-Iturriaga
Multiple outbreaks related to Salmonella in tomatoes require an evaluation of the risk associated with cherry tomatoes due to the increase in its production, consumption, and marketing in Mexico's central region. The purpose of this study was to determine the microbial quality of cherry tomatoes obtained from two retail sale points (supermarkets and local markets). Cherry tomato samples (333) were collected from four supermarkets and from four local markets, and the contents of aerobic plate count, molds and yeasts, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli were quantified; the presence of Salmonella was simultaneously determined...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
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