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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923155/user-preferences-and-willingness-to-pay-for-safe-drinking-water-experimental-evidence-from-rural-tanzania
#1
Zachary Burt, Robert M Njee, Yolanda Mbatia, Veritas Msimbe, Joe Brown, Thomas F Clasen, Hamisi M Malebo, Isha Ray
Almost half of all deaths from drinking microbiologically unsafe water occur in Sub-Saharan Africa. Household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) systems, when consistently used, can provide safer drinking water and improve health. Social marketing to increase adoption and use of HWTS depends both on the prices of and preferences for these systems. This study included 556 households from rural Tanzania across two low-income districts with low-quality water sources. Over 9 months in 2012 and 2013, we experimentally evaluated consumer preferences for six "low-cost" HWTS options, including boiling, through an ordinal ranking protocol...
November 25, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920760/prevalence-of-the-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-coagulase-positive-and-negative-staphylococcus-in-chicken-meat-retailed-to-consumers
#2
Kamelia Osman, Jihan Badr, Khalid S Al-Maary, Ihab M I Moussa, Ashgan M Hessain, Zeinab M S Amin Girah, Usama H Abo-Shama, Ahmed Orabi, Aalaa Saad
The use of antibiotics in farm management (growing crops and raising animals) has become a major area of concern. Its implications is the consequent emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and accordingly their access into the human food chain with passage of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) to the normal human intestinal microbiota and hence to other pathogenic bacteria causative human disease. Therefore, we pursued in this study to unravel the frequency and the quinolone resistance determining region, mecA and cfr genes of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918929/long-term-red-meat-preservation-using-chilled-and-frozen-storage-combinations-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Cassius E O Coombs, Benjamin W B Holman, Michael A Friend, David L Hopkins
This paper reviews current literature relating to the effects of chilled and frozen storage on the quality characteristics of red meat (lamb and beef). These characteristics include tenderness (shear force), juiciness (fluid losses), flavour (lipid oxidation), colour and microbial loading. Research suggests that chilled storage of red meat can improve certain properties, such as shear force and species-specific flavour, to threshold levels before the effects on flavour and colour become deleterious, and key microbial species proliferate to spoilage levels...
December 1, 2016: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913569/national-health-spending-faster-growth-in-2015-as-coverage-expands-and-utilization-increases
#4
Anne B Martin, Micah Hartman, Benjamin Washington, Aaron Catlin
Total nominal US health care spending increased 5.8 percent and reached $3.2 trillion in 2015. On a per person basis, spending on health care increased 5.0 percent, reaching $9,990. The share of gross domestic product devoted to health care spending was 17.8 percent in 2015, up from 17.4 percent in 2014. Coverage expansions that began in 2014 as a result of the Affordable Care Act continued to affect health spending growth in 2015. In that year, the faster growth in total health care spending was primarily due to accelerated growth in spending for private health insurance (growth of 7...
December 2, 2016: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912772/food-systems-transformations-ultra-processed-food-markets-and-the-nutrition-transition-in-asia
#5
Phillip Baker, Sharon Friel
BACKGROUND: Attracted by their high economic growth rates, young and growing populations, and increasingly open markets, transnational food and beverage corporations (TFBCs) are targeting Asian markets with vigour. Simultaneously the consumption of ultra-processed foods high in fat, salt and glycaemic load is increasing in the region. Evidence demonstrates that TFBCs can leverage their market power to shape food systems in ways that alter the availability, price, nutritional quality, desirability and ultimately consumption of such foods...
December 3, 2016: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900883/radioactivity-of-natural-medicinal-preparations-contained-extracts-from-peat-mud-available-in-retail-trade-used-externally
#6
Maria Karpińska, Jacek Kapała, Agnieszka Raciborska, Grzegorz Kulesza, Anna Milewska, Stanisław Mnich
In this work were identified and measured the activity of radioactive isotopes present in medicinal preparations from peat mud and estimated the doses obtained from them during therapy. Radioactivity of 22 preparations from peat mud and 20 water samples from water of the North-East region of Poland was studied. The median of the total activity was 24.8 Bq kg(-1). Total maximal isotope activity was observed in the Iwonicka Cube 146 Bq kg(-1) while considerable amounts of isotopes were found in the Kolobrzeska Peat Mud Paste 112 Bq kg(-1)...
November 30, 2016: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898910/feeding-microalgae-meal-all-g-rich-ccap-4067-2-to-beef-heifers-ii-effects-on-ground-beef-color-and-palatability
#7
K J Phelps, J S Drouillard, T G O'Quinn, D D Burnett, T L Blackmon, J E Axman, C L Van Bibber-Krueger, J M Gonzalez
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of feeding microalgae meal (All-G Rich, CCAP 4087/2; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) to finishing heifers on 85% lean and 15% fat (85/15) ground beef PUFA content, palatability, and color stability. Crossbred heifers ( = 288; 452 ± 23 kg initial BW) were allocated to pens (36 pens and 8 heifers/pen), stratified by initial pen BW (3,612 ± 177 kg), and randomly assigned within strata to 1 of 4 treatments: 0, 50, 100, and 150 g·heifer·d of microalgae meal...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898904/feeding-microalgae-meal-all-g-rich-ccap-4087-2-to-beef-heifers-i-effects-on-longissimus-lumborum-steak-color-and-palatibility
#8
K J Phelps, J S Drouillard, T G O'Quinn, D D Burnett, T L Blackmon, J E Axman, C L Van Bibber-Krueger, J M Gonzalez
The objective of this study was to examine effects of 4 levels of microalgae meal (All-G Rich, CCAP 4087/2; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) supplementation to the diet of finishing heifers on longissimus lumborum (LL) steak PUFA content, beef palatability, and color stability. Crossbred heifers ( = 288; 452 ± 23 kg initial BW) were allocated to pens (36 pens and 8 heifers/pen), stratified by initial pen BW (3,612 ± 177 kg), and randomly assigned within strata to 1 of 4 treatments: 0, 50, 100, and 150 g·heifer·d of microalgae meal...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898846/rapid-communication-impact-of-contemporary-light-sources-on-oxidation-of-fresh-ground-beef
#9
J V Cooper, B R Wiegand, A B Koc, L Schumacher, I Grün, C L Lorenzen
Meat color is considered one of the driving factors in consumer purchasing decisions. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of 2 different lighting sources on color and lipid oxidation of ground beef patties in a controlled environment. USDA Select top rounds ( = 20) were processed to produce ground beef at 2 different fat levels (5 and 25%) and made into patties (113.4 g). Patties were packaged with oxygen permeable polyvinyl chloride, assigned to one of three lighting treatments (low UV fluorescent [FLO], light emitting diode [LED], and no light [DRK, negative control]), and placed within deli cases at 5°C...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892908/regional-interrelationships-a-leadership-opportunity-for-health-care
#10
Timothy Rotarius, Aaron Liberman
Given the impact that the health care industry has on the national economy, health care executives need to move beyond simply providing health care treatments and instead focus on strategically leading their regions, including the other key industry contributors in their specific regions. Geographic and economic regions can be viewed as concentric circles of influence, with each circle recognizing the resources and contributions that are specific to a region. An acknowledgement by health care executives of the regional interrelationships that exist in a specific region is necessary for health care managers to strategically lead regional interrelationships...
January 2016: Health Care Manager
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890155/factors-influencing-experience-in-crowds-the-participant-perspective
#11
Victoria Filingeri, Ken Eason, Patrick Waterson, Roger Haslam
Humans encounter crowd situations on a daily basis, resulting in both negative and positive experiences. Understanding how to optimise the participant experience of crowds is important. In the study presented in this paper, 5 focus groups were conducted (35 participants, age range: 21-71 years) and 55 crowd situations observed (e.g. transport hubs, sport events, retail situations). Influences on participant experience in crowds identified by the focus groups and observations included: physical design of crowd space and facilities (layout, queuing strategies), crowd movement (monitoring capacity, pedestrian flow), communication and information (signage, wayfinding), comfort and welfare (provision of facilities, environmental comfort), and public order...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889161/mrsa-and-multidrug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-u-s-retail-meats-2010-2011
#12
Beilei Ge, Sampa Mukherjee, Chih-Hao Hsu, Johnnie A Davis, Thu Thuy T Tran, Qianru Yang, Jason W Abbott, Sherry L Ayers, Shenia R Young, Emily T Crarey, Niketta A Womack, Shaohua Zhao, Patrick F McDermott
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been detected in retail meats, although large-scale studies are scarce. We conducted a one-year survey in 2010-2011 within the framework of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Among 3520 retail meats collected from eight U.S. states, 982 (27.9%) contained S. aureus and 66 (1.9%) were positive for MRSA. Approximately 10.4% (107/1032) of S. aureus isolates, including 37.2% (29/78) of MRSA, were multidrug-resistant (MDRSA). Turkey had the highest MRSA prevalence (3...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889154/prevalence-and-quantification-of-thermophilic-campylobacter-spp-in-italian-retail-poultry-meat-analysis-of-influencing-factors
#13
Simone Stella, Gabriella Soncini, Graziella Ziino, Antonio Panebianco, Francesca Pedonese, Roberta Nuvoloni, Elisabetta Di Giannatale, Giampaolo Colavita, Leonardo Alberghini, Valerio Giaccone
Retail poultry meat is a crucial vehicle for consumers' exposure to Campylobacters, but no official controls are currently applied in Italy. The aim of this study was the evaluation of Campylobacter contamination of a wide range of poultry meats marketed in Italy. N. 472 chicken and turkey meat samples (sectioned meats, offal, meat preparations and products) were taken from slaughterhouses, deboning plants and different retailers and submitted to detection/enumeration of Campylobacter spp. The isolates were identified by phenotypic and biomolecular techniques...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889138/405%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-5%C3%A2-nm-light-emitting-diode-illumination-causes-photodynamic-inactivation-of-salmonella-spp-on-fresh-cut-papaya-without-deterioration
#14
Min-Jeong Kim, Woo Suk Bang, Hyun-Gyun Yuk
This study evaluated the antibacterial effect of 405 ± 5 nm light emitting diode (LED) illumination against four Salmonella serovars on fresh-cut papaya and on fruit quality at various storage temperatures. To determine the antibacterial mechanism of LED illumination at 0.9 kJ/cm(2), oxidative damage to DNA and membrane lipids of Salmonella in phosphate-buffered saline solution was measured. The populations of Salmonella on cut fruits were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by 0.3-1.3 log CFU/cm(2) at chilling temperatures following LED illumination for 36-48 h (1...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888478/examining-the-quality-of-medicines-at-kenyan-healthcare-facilities-a-validation-of-an-alternative-post-market-surveillance-model-that-uses-standardized-patients
#15
Francis Wafula, Amy Dolinger, Benjamin Daniels, Njeri Mwaura, Guadalupe Bedoya, Khama Rogo, Ana Goicoechea, Jishnu Das, Bernard Olayo
BACKGROUND: Promoting access to medicines requires concurrent efforts to strengthen quality assurance for sustained impact. Although problems of substandard and falsified medicines have been documented in low- and middle-income countries, reliable information on quality is rarely available. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to validate an alternative post-market surveillance model to complement existing models. METHODS: The study used standardized patients or mystery clients (people recruited from the local community and trained to pose as real patients) to collect medicine samples after presenting a pre-specified condition...
November 25, 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887701/more-than-170-polyunsaturated-tocopherol-related-compounds-in-a-vitamin-e-capsule-countercurrent-chromatographic-enrichment-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-analysis-and-preliminary-identification-of-the-potential-artefacts
#16
Simon Hammann, Alexander Kröpfl, Walter Vetter
Tocopherols and tocotrienols (usually summed up as vitamin E) are a class of structurally related natural antioxidants. Commonly, only some of the eight classic representatives (four tocopherols and four tocotrienols) are found with varied composition in food. In this study we fractionated 230mg oil from commercial vitamin E supplement capsules by countercurrent chromatography (CCC) and subsequent analysis by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) of silylated CCC fractions showed that these eight isomers represented only about 70% of total tocopherol compounds...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881272/the-impact-of-a-pricing-policy-change-on-retail-prices-of-medicines-in-egypt
#17
Omneya Mohamed, David H Kreling
OBJECTIVES: To describe the products with price changes and assess the impact of price changes on the products' price and affordability within the context of the Egyptian market. METHODS: A descriptive pre-post observational study was conducted. We selected March through June 2013 as the post-change observation period. A matching pre-change observation period, one year earlier, was selected to be consistent with potential seasonal variation in product use. RESULTS: It was found that 65...
September 2016: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881173/walkability-and-walking-for-transport-characterizing-the-built-environment-using-space-syntax
#18
Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Neville Owen, Ester Cerin, Billie Giles-Corti, Takemi Sugiyama
BACKGROUND: Neighborhood walkability has been shown to be associated with walking behavior. However, the availability of geographical data necessary to construct it remains a limitation. Building on the concept of space syntax, we propose an alternative walkability index, space syntax walkability (SSW). This study examined associations of the full walkability index and SSW with walking for transport (WT). METHODS: Data were collected in 2003-2004 from 2544 adults living in 154 Census Collection Districts (CCD) in Adelaide, Australia...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878673/reforming-the-swedish-pharmaceuticals-market-consequences-for-costs-per-defined-daily-dose
#19
Mats A Bergman, David Granlund, Niklas Rudholm
In 2009 and 2010, the Swedish pharmaceuticals market was reformed. One of the stated policy goals was to achieve low costs for pharmaceutical products dispensed in Sweden. We use price and sales data for off-patent brand-name and generic pharmaceuticals to estimate a log-linear regression model, allowing us to assess how the policy changes affected the cost per defined daily dose. The estimated effect is an 18 % cost reduction per defined daily dose at the retail level and a 34 % reduction in the prices at the wholesale level (pharmacies' purchase prices)...
September 2016: Int J Health Econ Manag
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876025/substituting-sugar-confectionery-with-fruit-and-healthy-snacks-at-checkout-a-win-win-strategy-for-consumers-and-food-stores-a-study-on-consumer-attitudes-and-sales-effects-of-a-healthy-supermarket-intervention
#20
Lise L Winkler, Ulla Christensen, Charlotte Glümer, Paul Bloch, Bent E Mikkelsen, Brian Wansink, Ulla Toft
BACKGROUND: The widespread use of in-store marketing strategies to induce unhealthy impulsive purchases has implications for shopping experience, food choice and possibly adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine consumer attitudes and evaluate sales effects of a healthy checkout supermarket intervention. The study was part of Project Sundhed & Lokalsamfund (Project SoL); a Danish participatory community-based health promotion intervention. METHODS: Consumer attitudes towards unhealthy snack exposure in supermarkets were examined in a qualitative pre-intervention study (29 short in-store interviews, 11 semi-structured interviews and three focus group interviews)...
November 22, 2016: BMC Public Health
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