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Acceleration forces in pilots

Arne Tribukait, Eddie Bergsten, Ola Eiken
BACKGROUND: During hovering with a helicopter, an involuntary change in attitude (during brownout) results in reduced lifting force and a horizontal acceleration component. This movement pattern is difficult to perceive via the otolith organs. If the angular displacement occurs rapidly, it will, however, activate the semicircular canals. The major aim of this study was to establish to what extent pitch-plane angular displacements can be perceived based on canal information when there is no tilt stimulus to the otoliths...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Michael E Valente, Judy A Sherif, Colleen G Azen, Phung K Pham, Calvin G Lowe
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to measure peak acceleration forces during interfacility transport; examine whether drops in cerebral oxygenation occurred; and test the associations between cerebral oxygenation, acceleration, and patient positioning. METHODS: A cerebral oximeter (INVOS-5100C; Somanetics, Minneapolis, MN) monitored regional saturation of oxygen (rSO2 [cerebral oxygenation]) in pediatric and neonatal patients (N = 24) transported between facilities by ground ambulance, helicopter, or fixed wing aircraft...
May 2016: Air Medical Journal
Francisco Munoz, Constanza Jiménez, Daniela Espinoza, Alain Vervelle, Jacques Beugnet, Ziyad Haidar
BACKGROUND: Demand for shorter treatment time is common in orthodontic patients. Periodontally Accelerated Osteogenic Orthodontics (PAOO) is a somewhat new surgical procedure which allows faster tooth movement via combining orthodontic forces with corticotomy and grafting of alveolar bone plates. Leukocyte and Platelet-Rich Fibrin (L-PRF) possess hard- and soft-tissue healing properties. Further, evidence of pain-inhibitory and anti-inflammatory potential is growing. Therefore, this study explores the feasibility, intra- and post-operative effects of using L-PRF in PAOO in terms of post-operative pain, inflammation, infection and post-orthodontic stability...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
Zbigniew Wochyński, Krzysztof Kowalczuk, Marek Kłossowski, Krzysztof A Sobiech
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at investigating the relationship between the lipid index (WS) in the examined cadets and duration of exposure to +Gz in the human centrifuge. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study involved 19 first-year cadets of the Polish Air Force Academy in Dęblin. Tests in the human centrifuge were repeated twice, i.e. prior to (test I) and 45 days after (test II). After exposure to +Gz, the examined cadets were divided into 2 groups...
2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Ryu Nagahara, Jean-Benoit Morin, Masaaki Koido
PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess soccer-specific impairment of mechanical properties in accelerated sprinting and its relation with activity profiles during an actual match. METHODS: Thirteen male field players completed four sprint measurements, wherein running speed was obtained using a laser-distance-measurement system, before and after the respective halves of two soccer matches. Macroscopic mechanical properties (theoretical maximal horizontal force, F0; maximal horizontal sprinting power, Pmax; theoretical maximal sprinting velocity, V0) during the 35-m sprint acceleration were calculated from speed-time data...
January 18, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Booyong Choi, Yongkyun Lee, Taehwan Cho, Hyojin Koo, Dongsoo Kim
G-Induced Loss of Consciousness (G-LOC) is mainly caused by the sudden acceleration in the direction of +Gz axis from the fighter pilots, and is considered as an emergent situation of which fighter pilots are constantly aware. In order to resist against G-LOC, fighter pilots are subject to run Anti-G straining maneuver (AGSM), which includes L-1 respiration maneuvering and muscular contraction of the whole body. The purpose of this study is to create a G-LOC warning alarm prior to G-LOC by monitoring the Electromyogram (EMG) of the gastrocnemius muscle on the calf, which goes under constant muscular contraction during the AGSM process...
August 2015: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Liyona Kampel, Eyal Klang, Harry Winkler, Barak Gordon, Yael Frenkel-Nir, Yifat Erlich Shoam
BACKGROUND: Varicocele is quite common in the general population, affecting up to 15% of men. It is not considered disqualifying for the pilot's training program of the Israeli Air Force as long as there are no related symptoms or associated pathologies. During combat flight, increased venous pressure due to acceleration forces and anti-G straining maneuvers, used to counteract high gravitational G forces, can theoretically aggravate the venous blood pooling in varicocele, leading to rupture...
December 2015: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Ya'e Wang, Jie Li, Siyuan Zhai, Zhiyong Wei, Juanjuan Feng
The collaborative and mutually reinforcing phosphorus removal in domestic wastewater in a sponge iron and microorganisms system was studied through a laboratory and a pilot scale experiment. The results showed that the total phosphorus concentration of the effluent of less than 0.5 mg/L could be achieved. The results also support that the biochemical reaction accelerated the iron electrochemical corrosion. As a driving force, iron bacteria strengthened the chemical oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III). The chemical precipitation of Fe(III) is the main form of phosphorus removal...
2015: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Bob Cheung, Gregory Craig, Brad Steels, Robert Sceviour, Vaughn Cosman, Sion Jennings, Peter Holst
BACKGROUND: During approach and departure in rotary wing aircraft, a sudden loss of external visual reference precipitates spatial disorientation. METHODS: There were 10 Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) Griffon pilots who participated in an in-flight investigation of a 3-dimensional conformal Helmet Display Tracking System (HDTS) and the BrownOut Symbology System (BOSS) aboard an Advanced System Research Aircraft. For each symbology system, pilots performed a two-stage departure followed by a single-stage approach...
August 2015: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Marcelo M Morales, Sérgio A L Souza, Luiz Paulo Loivos, Marina A Lima, Amir Szklo, Leandro Vairo, Taís H K Brunswick, Bianca Gutfilen, Miquéias Lopes-Pacheco, Alberto J Araújo, Alexandre P Cardoso, Regina C Goldenberg, Patricia R M Rocco, Lea M B Fonseca, José R Lapa e Silva
BACKGROUND: Silicosis is an occupational disease for which no effective treatment is currently known. Systemic administration of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMDMCs) has shown to be safe in lung diseases. However, so far, no studies have analyzed whether bronchoscopic instillation of autologous BMDMCs is a safe route of administration in patients with silicosis. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, non-randomized, single-center longitudinal study in five patients...
2015: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
J Rieneke C Schreinemakers, C Boer, P C G M van Amerongen, M Kon
BACKGROUND: Dutch F-16 fighter pilots experience oxygen mask inflicted nasal trauma, including discomfort, pain, skin abrasions, bruises and bone remodelling. Pressure and shear forces on the nose might contribute to causing these adverse effects. In this study, it was evaluated how flight conditions affected the exerted pressure, and whether shear forces were present. METHODS: The pressure exerted by the oxygen mask was measured in 20 volunteers by placing pressure sensors on the nose and chin underneath the mask...
June 5, 2015: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Yuichi Nodake, Saki Matsumoto, Ryoko Miura, Hidetoshi Honda, Genji Ishibashi, Shuzo Matsumoto, Itaru Dekio, Ryuzo Sakakibara
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Staphylococcus epidermidis is an autologous bacterium that is beneficial to skin health. Our goal was to develop a novel, personalized basic cosmetic that exploits this characteristic. METHODS: We conducted a double-blinded, randomized clinical trial on augmentation with S. epidermidis as a pilot study, in which S. epidermidis was collected from the subject, cultured for proliferation, and then continuously applied to the subject's own face before sleep twice per week for four weeks in order to increase colonization levels...
August 2015: Journal of Dermatological Science
Tao Jiang, Guoxue Li, Qiong Tang, Xuguang Ma, Gang Wang, Frank Schuchardt
The aim of this study was to uncover ways to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduce energy consumption during the composting process. We assessed the effects of different aeration rates (0, 0.18, 0.36, and 0.54 L/(kg dry matter (dm)·min)) and methods (continuous and intermittent) on GHG emissions. Pig feces and corn stalks were mixed at a ratio of 7:1. The composting process lasted for 10 weeks, and the compost was turned approximately every 2 weeks. Results showed that both aeration rate and method significantly affected GHG emissions...
May 1, 2015: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Cheng-Fei Du, Xiao-Yu Liu, Li-Zhen Wang, Song-Yang Liu, Yu-Bo Fan
INTRODUCTION: Modern super agile fighter aircraft are capable of producing an increasing multiaxial acceleration environment which can adversely affect the pilot. An evaluation of the performance of the restraint system during flight maneuvers will benefit restraint designs and, thus, the safety of pilots. METHODS: A finite element model of a mannequin with PCU-15/P harness restraint was used in this study to investigate how the factors, such as strap material stiffness, friction, and belt tension, affect the performance of restraint systems during impact along the -Gx, -Gy, and -Gz directions...
May 2015: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Gianluca Bonora, Ilaria Carpinella, Davide Cattaneo, Lorenzo Chiari, Maurizio Ferrarin
BACKGROUND: Step climbing is a demanding task required for personal autonomy in daily living. Anticipatory Postural Adjustments (APAs) preceding gait initiation have been widely investigated revealing to be hypometric in Parkinson's disease (PD) with consequences in movement initiation. However, only few studies focused on APAs prior to step climbing. In this work, a novel method based on wearable inertial sensors for the analysis of APAs preceding gait initiation and step climbing was developed to further understand dynamic balance control...
2015: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Karen Wovkulich, Martin Stute, Brian J Mailloux, Alison R Keimowitz, James Ross, Benjamin Bostick, Jing Sun, Steven N Chillrud
Arsenic is a prevalent contaminant at a large number of US Superfund sites; establishing techniques that accelerate As remediation could benefit many sites. Hundreds of tons of As were released into the environment by the Vineland Chemical Co. in southern New Jersey during its manufacturing lifetime (1949-1994), resulting in extensive contamination of surface and subsurface soils and sediments, groundwater, and the downstream watershed. Despite substantial intervention at this Superfund site, sufficient aquifer cleanup could require many decades if based on traditional pump and treat technologies only...
September 25, 2014: Environmental Chemistry
Rahman Shiri, Heikki Frilander, Markku Sainio, Kirsi Karvala, Roope Sovelius, Tapio Vehmas, Eira Viikari-Juntura
To assess the associations of acceleration force indicators (aircraft type and flight hours) with cervical and lumbar pain and radiological degeneration among fighter pilots. The PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched until October 2013. Twenty-seven studies were included in the review and 20 in the meta-analysis. There were no differences in the prevalence of neck pain (pooled OR=1.07, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.33), cervical disc degeneration (OR=1.26, CI 0.81 to 1.96), low back pain (OR=0...
February 2015: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Armin Kibele, David Behm
A new testing procedure is introduced to evaluate the alactic running performance in a 10s sprint task with near-maximal movement velocity. The test is performed on a motor-equipped treadmill with inverted polarity that increases mechanical resistance instead of driving the treadmill belt. As a result, a horizontal force has to be exerted against the treadmill surface in order to overcome the resistant force of the engine and to move the surface in a backward direction. For this task, subjects lean with their hands towards the front safety barrier of the treadmill railing with a slightly inclined body posture...
December 2005: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Olivier Manen, Julian Clément, Sébastien Bisconte, Eric Perrier
BACKGROUND: During an aircraft ejection, the pilot is exposed to accelerations to the point of human tolerance, which may cause spinal injuries. Many nations have reported a spinal trauma rate of about 20-30%, with plain radiography as the first-line exam. Insofar as ejection seats and diagnostic imaging have improved, the objectives of this study are to describe the spine injuries among recently ejected French aircrew, to analyze the spinal imaging used, and, if necessary, to propose a better standardized radiological procedure...
January 2014: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
Yoshihiro Kondoh, Tomotaka Takeda, Takamitsu Ozawa, Keishiro Narimatsu, Michiyo Konno, Toshiki Fujii, Chieko Sekiguchi, Kazunori Nakajima, Keiichi Ishigami, Masahito Shomura
UNLABELLED: This pilot study compared impact strain at the core and root surfaces between two different post-core systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The form of a bovine mandibular front tooth was modified to resemble that of a human maxillary incisor as a test specimen. A cast post and core (Metal PC) and composite resin and glass fiber-reinforced epoxy resin post (Fiber-Resin PC) system were tested. Four gauges were affixed to the buccal and lingual surfaces of the core and root...
2013: Open Dentistry Journal
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