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Visual illusions in pilots

Donald A Redelmeier, Sheharyar Raza
Aerial perspective illusion is a feature of visual perception where landscapes appear relatively close in clear light and distant in dim light. We hypothesized that bright sunlight might cause drivers to perceive distant terrain as relatively close and misinterpret the approach speed of surrounding landscape as unduly slow. This hypothesis would mean, in turn, that drivers in bright sunlight may underestimate their progress on the road, compensate by traveling at a faster baseline speed, and ultimately increase the prevailing risk of a life-threatening traffic crash...
May 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Millad J Sobhanian, Rohit Agarwal, Ethan Meltzer, Eric Kildebeck, Benjamin S Frohman, Ashley N Frohman, Steven L Galetta, Shiv Saidha, Owen White, Pablo Villoslada, Friedemann Paul, Axel Petzold, Robert L Rennaker, Elena H Martinez-Lapiscina, Laura J Balcer, Randy Kardon, Elliot M Frohman, Teresa C Frohman
BACKGROUND: The Pulfrich phenomenon (PF) is the illusory perception that an object moving linearly along a 2-D plane appears to instead follow an elliptical 3-D trajectory, a consequence of inter-eye asymmetry in the timing of visual object identification in the visual cortex; with optic neuritis as a common etiology. OBJECTIVE: We have designed an objective method to identify the presence and magnitude of the PF, in conjunction with a cooresponding strategy by which to abolish the effect; with monocular application of neutral density filters to the less affected fellow eye, in patients with MS and a history of optic neuropathy (e...
April 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Miguel Ángel Sánchez-Tena, Cristina Alvarez-Peregrina, Mª Carolina Valbuena-Iglesias, Pablo Ruisoto Palomera
Optical illusions are involved in the perception of false or erroneous images which might involve disorientation. They occur by a discordance by the peripheral systems about the information captured and generally, resulting in pilots failure to recognize key signals. The aim of this study is to review the state of the art of spatial disorientation and optical illusions in aviation pilots. This kind of disorientation has important practical consequences, because a remarkable percentage of plane accidents are related to pilot's optical illusions...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Torin K Clark, Laurence R Young
BACKGROUND: Increased gravito-inertial acceleration, or hypergravity, such as produced in a centrifuge or in an aircraft coordinated turn, causes humans to systematically overestimate their roll tilt in the dark. This is known as the "G-excess" illusion. We have previously modified a mathematical observer model of dynamic orientation perception to replicate these illusory tilt perceptions. This modified model also made a novel, previously untested, prediction that humans would underestimate acute roll tilt in reduced gravitational environments (hypogravity)...
July 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Christian Ryan, Martina Stafford, Robert James King
Faces are one of the most socially significant visual stimuli encountered in the environment, whereas pareidolias are illusions of faces arising from ambiguous stimuli in the environment. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by deficits in response to social stimuli. We found that children with ASD (n = 60) identify significantly fewer pareidolic faces in a sequence of ambiguous stimuli than typically developing peers. The two groups did not differ in the number of objects identified, indicating that the children with ASD had a specific lack of attention to faces...
December 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
John Eick, Elizabeth J Richardson
OBJECTIVE: To determine the location of cortical activation during a visual illusion walking paradigm, a recently proposed treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI)-related neuropathic pain, in persons with SCI compared with able-bodied controls. DESIGN: Pilot experimental functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) trial. SETTING: Outpatient rehabilitation clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Persons with paraplegia (n=3) and able-bodied participants (n=5) were included in this study...
April 2015: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
(no author information available yet)
Spatial orientation of pilots using a cockpit exterior surveillance system was tested in real nighttime helicopter flights. Major factors complicating adequate spatial orientation and provoking visual illusions in pilots are lack of information for spatial depth (relation) perception in two-dimensional TV images altering their position along the horizontal and vertical lines of trajectory and simultaneous piloting and target search-identification operations. Reliability of pilot's spatial orientation could be improved by displaying on the exterior imaging screen also relevant flight navigation parameters...
September 2013: Aviakosmicheskaia i Ekologicheskaia Meditsina, Aerospace and Environmental Medicine
Bob Cheung
Despite aggressive efforts in spatial disorientation (SD) research, hardware development, and training, the operational impact of SD in terms of crew and aircraft losses remains significant. Current training in spatial orientation is primarily composed of didactic lectures on the anatomy and physiology of the sensory systems. Significant efforts have been concentrated on reproducing various types of visual and vestibular "illusions" that pilots might encounter in flight, with limited and varying success. Unfortunately, the terms of "SD" and "illusion" have been used synonymously, leading to the general belief that if one were to be exposed to a specific type of illusion, one can prevent or avoid SD mishaps...
November 2013: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
Pablo Martinez-Martin, Prashanth Reddy, Angelo Antonini, Tove Henriksen, Regina Katzenschlager, Per Odin, Antonia Todorova, Yogini Naidu, Susanne Tluk, Chandni Chandiramani, Anne Martin, Kallol Ray Chaudhuri
BACKGROUND: Apomorphine infusion therapy remains under-used and there are no comparative studies of motor and non-motor effects of apomorphine infusion. METHODS: In this paper we report preliminary results from an ongoing clinical observational "real life" surveillance-based study focused on effects of this therapy on non-motor symptoms and health-related quality of life in a group of patients on apomorphine. RESULTS: Apomorphine infusion led to highly significant improvements in UPDRS 3 (p = 0...
2011: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
John Richard Rollin Stott
On the ground, the essential requirement to remain orientated is a largely unconscious activity. In flight, orientation requires a conscious effort by the pilot particularly when the visual environment becomes degraded and a deceptive force environment becomes the frame of reference. Furthermore, an unusual force environment can determine the apparent location of objects within a limited visual scene, sometimes with disastrous consequences. This review outlines the sources of pilot disorientation that arise from the visual and force environment of flight and their interaction...
2013: Extreme Physiology & Medicine
Torsten Passie, Udo Schneider, Mathias Borsutzky, Roger Breyer, Hinderk M Emrich, Borwin Bandelow, Gerhard Schmid-Ott
The binocular depth inversion test (BDIT) measures a common illusion of visual perception whereby implausible objects are seen as normal, e.g., a hollow face is perceived as a normal, convex face. Such inversion is frequent, especially for objects with a high degree of familiarity. Under normal conditions, cognitive factors apparently override the binocular disparity cues of stereopsis. This internal mechanism of "censorship" of perception, which balances "top-down" and "bottom-up" processes of perception to come to a cognitive coherence, which is congruent to previous experience and concepts, appears to be disturbed in (pro-)psychotic states...
2013: Psychology, Health & Medicine
(no author information available yet)
Results of psychological "additional investigation" of the crash of Boeing-737, "Aeroflot-Nord" on 14.09.2008 near Perm are presented. 37 pilots from the one of the leading airline companies sensed the attitude and rolling out the aircraft to the forward flight under the moving horizon with straight display of bank and tangage (view from the aircraft to the ground) in model conditions. 29 pilots (78.4%) made a mistake at determining the roll direction and tangage, they made a mistake at determining the roll direction 61 times (16...
September 2012: Voenno-medit︠s︡inskiĭ Zhurnal
Georgie Powell, Aline Bompas, Petroc Sumner
We explored whether color afterimages and faint physical chromatic stimuli are processed equivalently by the visual system. Afterimage visibility in classic illusions appears to be particularly influenced by consistent contexts, while real stimulus versions of these illusions are absent in the literature. Using both a matching and a nulling paradigm, we present converging evidence that luminance edges enhance the perceived saturation of afterimages more than they do physical stimuli of similar appearance. We suggest that afterimages violate the response norms associated with real stimuli...
2012: Journal of Vision
Benjamin T Crane
A theme in sensory perception is that exposure to a stimulus causes perception of subsequent stimuli to be shifted in the opposite direction. Such phenomenon is known as aftereffect and has been extensively described in the visual system as well as recently described for the vestibular system during translation. It is known from aviation studies that after a maneuver in roll, pilots can experience a false perception of roll in the opposite direction. The magnitude and duration of this effect as well as the potential influence of the gravity vector have not previously been defined...
November 2012: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Suzanne A E Nooij, Eric L Groen
INTRODUCTION: Spatial disorientation (SD) is still a contributing factor in many aviation accidents, stressing the need for adequate SD training scenarios. In this article we focused on the post-roll effect (the sensation of rolling back after a roll maneuver, such as an entry of a coordinated turn) and investigated the effect of roll stimuli on the pilot's ability to stabilize their roll attitude. This resulted in a ground-based demonstration scenario for pilots. METHODS: The experiments took place in the advanced 6-DOF Desdemona motion simulator, with the subject in a supine position...
May 2011: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
Silvia L Cruz, Mario Domínguez
This work describes the solvent-induced hallucinatory experiences of 10 male and seven female teenagers in Mexico City from 1998 to 2000. The youth were recruited from public schools through a combined snowball and convenience sampling procedure. Inclusion criteria were: 13-18 years of age, school attendance, living with family, and weekly toluene-based solvent misuse. Interested students were interviewed and transcripts were analyzed. Hallucinations and illusions were common, including changes in color perception, visual, somatic, auditory, and tactile hallucinations...
2011: Substance Use & Misuse
Marine Jequier Gygax, Patrick Schneider, Christopher John Newman
Mirror therapy, which provides the visual illusion of a functional paretic limb by using the mirror reflection of the non-paretic arm, is used in the rehabilitation of hemiparesis after stroke in adults. We tested the effectiveness and feasibility of mirror therapy in children with hemiplegia by performing a pilot crossover study in ten participants (aged 6-14 y; five males, five females; Manual Ability Classification System levels: one at level I, two at level II, four at level III, three at level IV) randomly assigned to 15 minutes of daily bimanual training with and without a mirror for 3 weeks...
May 2011: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Angel López-Candales, Kathy Edelman, Maria Dolores Candales
BACKGROUND: The McConnell sign has been regarded as a highly specific echo finding in acute pulmonary embolism (aPE). However, a completely satisfying explanation to account for this observation in aPE remains elusive. We used longitudinal velocity vector imaging (VVI) using a dedicated software program (Research Arena, Siemens, California) to assess regional right ventricular global and apical (RVa) mechanics between aPE and chronic pulmonary hypertension (cPH) patients. METHODS: Standard echo parameters of RV performance as well as base to apex RV strain and dyssynchrony were quantified using VVI in a total of 30 patients...
July 2010: Echocardiography
Yuko Takada, Tetsuya Hisada, Naruo Kuwada, Masao Sakai, Tomomitsu Akamatsu
Spatial disorientation (SD) is one of the most severe causative factors in aviation accidents. We analyzed the reported SD episodes to evaluate the characteristics of severe SD in fighter pilots. Three hundred seventeen cases (95.5%) of 332 total valid cases experienced SD, and the ratio of night and day SD experiences (52.7% vs. 47.3%) (p < 0.05) shows a clear prevalence of night SD events. The severity of SD episodes at night (2.23 +/- 1.09) was higher than at day (1.89 +/- 1.04) (p < 0.01). In addition, the severity of visual illusions was significantly higher at night...
June 2009: Military Medicine
Chi-Ting Horng, Chung-Cheng Liu, Daih-Iluang Kuo, Po-Chuen Shieh, Yi-Chang Wu, Jiann-Torng Chen, Ming-Ling Tsai
BACKGROUND: The Coriolis illusion produces spatial disorientation and is, therefore, dangerous for pilots. It is not known whether it also affects visual function (visual acuity and stereopsis). METHODS: There were 18 subjects (15 men and 3 women, mean age 24.7 yr) enrolled in the study. A spatial disorientation simulator was used to produce Coriolis stimulation. The visual acuity of the subjects was evaluated with the Rosenbaum Vision Card before and during Coriolis stimulation...
April 2009: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
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