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Desmond M Connolly, Vivienne M Lee
INTRODUCTION: Increased white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scans of high altitude aircrew and altitude chamber workers indicate that exposure to low ambient pressure (hypobaria) promotes white matter injury. If associated with frequent decompression stress then experienced divers should also exhibit more WMH, yet published case-control studies are inconsistent. This meta-analysis evaluated the prevalence of WMH in healthy divers and controls...
November 2015: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Nicholas M Studer, John R Hughes, Joseph Puskar
Decompression sickness (DCS) is one of several dysbarisms (medical conditions resulting from a change in atmospheric pressure) that can be encountered by the Special Operations Forces (SOF) medical provider. DCS can present with several different manifestations. The authors present the case of a 23-year-old Airman who presented with vague neurologic symptoms following altitude-chamber training. They discuss the care of casualties with DCS and its implications for SOF.
2015: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
M Uguen, R Pougnet, A Uguen, B Loddé, J D Dewitte
AIM: Dysbaric osteonecrosis (DON) continues to be a significant occupational hazard that has significant medical and social consequences for professional divers. This review aims to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of DON among professional divers and to summarize the scientific knowledge regarding distribution of the lesions as well as disease prognosis and treatment. METHOD: A literature review using the Medline database. RESULTS: The prevalence of DON varies between 0 and 70...
November 2014: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
Gunalp Uzun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2014: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
Costantino Balestra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2014: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
X Y Kuang, L J Chen, H L Li, F Yao, J M Xu, F Huang, L J Guo
PURPOSE: To study the effects of exposure to compressed air on tunnel workers' health and to investigate the prevalence of dysbaric osteonecrosis (DON) in caisson workers. METHODS: 128 tunnel workers were divided into the exposed group (n = 58) and the control group (n = 70), and their shoulders, hips and knees were examined with X-ray, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). RESULTS: 1) 34.5% of the exposed group were diagnosed with DON based on the national diagnostic criteria of decompression sickness...
May 2014: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
Behnam Sharareh, Ran Schwarzkopf
OBJECTIVE: To perform a general literature review of dysbaric osteonecrosis (DON) to describe its pathophysiology, prevalence in scuba divers, prognosis, and treatment options. DATA SOURCES: A literature search on PubMed was performed using the term "dysbaric osteonecrosis" yielding 67 results. There was no exclusion based on dates. Articles that mainly dealt with decompression sickness secondary to tunnel work, mining, or airplane travel were not selected. An additional search on PubMed using the terms "(osteonecrosis diving) NOT dysbaric" was performed to identify other publications not picked up in the initial search...
March 2015: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1961: Project Report
Andrea Cortegiani, Grazia Foresta, Giustino Strano, Maria Teresa Strano, Francesca Montalto, Domenico Garbo, Santi Maurizio Raineri
Dysbaric accidents are usually referred to compressed air-supplied diving. Nonetheless, some cases of decompression illness are known to have occurred among breath-hold (BH) divers also, and they are reported in the medical literature. A male BH diver (57 years old), underwater fishing champion, presented neurological disorders as dizziness, sensory numbness, blurred vision, and left frontoparietal pain after many dives to a 30-35 meters sea water depth with short surface intervals. Symptoms spontaneously regressed and the patient came back home...
2013: Case Reports in Medicine
John Hayman
Dysbaric bone necrosis demonstrated in ichthyosaurs may be the result of prolonged deep diving rather than rapid ascent to escape predators. The bone lesions show structural and anatomical similarity to those that may occur in human divers and in the deep diving sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus.
August 2012: Die Naturwissenschaften
Emmanuel Gempp, Jean-Eric Blatteau, Olivier Simon, Eric Stephant
INTRODUCTION: Dysbaric osteonecrosis (DON) is a complication that usually occurs in professional divers or compressedair workers. Its correlation with a previous musculoskeletal decompression injury (i.e., 'limb bend') remains a controversial subject. There is little information about the prevalence of DON and its relationship to decompression sickness (DCS) in recreational divers. METHODS: We undertook an observational, retrospective study of recreational divers treated for musculoskeletal DCS between 2004 and 2008 in three hyperbaric centres in the south of France using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following hyperbaric treatment...
December 2009: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Sophie Dennison, Andreas Fahlman, Michael Moore
Recent dogma suggested that marine mammals are not at risk of decompression sickness due to a number of evolutionary adaptations. Several proposed adaptations exist. Lung compression and alveolar collapse that terminate gas-exchange before a depth is reached where supersaturation is significant and bradycardia with peripheral vasoconstriction affecting the distribution, and dynamics of blood and tissue nitrogen levels. Published accounts of gas and fat emboli and dysbaric osteonecrosis in marine mammals and theoretical modeling have challenged this view-point, suggesting that decompression-like symptoms may occur under certain circumstances, contrary to common belief...
2012: Frontiers in Physiology
Keith Van Meter
Most commercial diving operations and naval operations have 24/7, on-site availability of hyperbaric oxygen therapy to perform routine surface decompression or immediate treatment of arterial gas embolism or decompression sickness. Availability and prompt use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the field for treatment of divers with dysbaric conditions has demonstrated its efficacy in acute, co-morbid conditions such as acute exsanguination, blast injury, crush injury, and cardiopulmonary arrest affecting those same divers...
December 2011: Surgical Technology International
Qing Zhang, Sheng-hui Jin, Wen-yu Liang, Yan Jin, Xing-he Liu, Yong Xu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the imaging features of dysbaric osteonecrosis. METHODS: The imaging appearances of four patients with dysbaric osteonecrosis caused by diving, were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: In four cases with dysbaric osteonecrosis including case 1 with stage I, case 2 with stage II, case 3 and case 4 with stage III, there were a case with the lesion in a bone and other 3 cases with lesions in multiple bones,and a case with the lesion in unilateral bone and 3 cases with the lesions in lateral bones...
November 2011: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Neil Dg Banham
INTRODUCTION: Oxygen toxicity seizures (OTS) are a known complication of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). The incidence of OTS has been variously reported and appears to be related to the duration and pressure of exposure in addition to individual susceptibility factors. METHOD: All OTS occurring in patients undergoing HBOT during the first 20 years of operation of the Fremantle Hospital Hyperbaric Medicine Unit were reviewed. RESULTS: During 41,273 HBOT in 3,737 patients, 25 OTS occurred; a rate of 0...
December 2011: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Güner Sonmez, Günalp Uzun, Mesut Mutluoglu, Akin S Toklu, Hakan Mutlu, Hakan Ay, Senol Yildiz
INTRODUCTION: Due to the increasing popularity in recreational diving long-term health consequences of this sport have aroused interest in the diving community. Although not as important as dysbaric osteonecrosis, ischemic brain lesions, or neurophysiological symptoms, paranasal sinus mucosal hypertrophy (PSMH) has also been discussed as being more prevalent among divers. In this study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare asymptomatic divers with control subjects for PSMH...
October 2011: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
Ian J Kenney, Camilla Sonksen
OBJECTIVE: We set out to identify whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) would identify evidence of dysbaric osteonecrosis (DON) in a group of experienced recreational scuba divers. DESIGN: Local British Sub Aqua Club divers of at least Trainee Dive Leader grade were offered MRI scans (T1 and TIRM sequences) of hips, femora and shoulders. Anonymous images were interpreted separately by two radiologists, and cases not considered unequivocally normal were discussed for consensus opinion...
September 2010: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
Ivica Zeba, Igor Barkovic, Sinisa Knezevic, Dubravka Matanic Lender, Marina Bralic, Ljiljana Bulat-Kardum
Scuba diving has become increasingly popular in the last 20 yr. Although it is considered safe, accidents, sometimes with fatal outcomes, do occur. The incidence of diving-related CNS barotrauma is low and it has been reported very infrequently. The clinical presentation may range from minimal dysesthesias to complete quadriplegia, encephalopathy, or death. In this paper we present a case of pneumocephalus in a 36-yr-old male scuba diver that presented with minor neurologic symptoms. A discussion, including a review of the literature, is also presented...
May 2010: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
Allison P Hawkes, Joyce Roy, Norma Stacey-Scott, Joanne E A Joy, Greg Bogdan
The Maine Agricultural Safety and Health Program performed a needs assessment to determine the health and safety concerns of Maine's fishing community. Information for the assessment was obtained from clinicians, focus groups of wives of fishers, and government agencies. Reports from the United States Coast Guard showed that during 1993-1994, sixty-five people were injured on commercial fishing vessels and eight people died. Decompression illness was the most frequently reported non-fatal injury (n = 15). Chronic injuries reported by clinicians included back pain, tendinitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, dysbaric osteonecrosis...
2004: Journal of Agromedicine
Akin Savas Toklu, Maide Cimsit
Historically, Turkey once had a substantial number of professional sponge divers, a population known for a relatively high incidence of diving-related conditions such as decompression sickness (DCS) and dysbaric osteonecrosis (DON). Sponge diving ended in the mid-1980s when nearly all of the sponges in the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas contracted a bacterial disease and the occupation became unprofitable. We reviewed the records of Turkish sponge divers for information on their level of knowledge, diving equipment, dive profiles, and occupational health problems...
April 2009: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
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