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Night flying operations

Anthony Schiemer
BACKGROUND: A syrinx is a fluid-filled cavity within the spinal cord. They can lead to a variety of symptoms, including limb weakness and back pain. Incidental finding of syringomyelia provides a challenge for clinicians due to the wide variety of possible symptoms. In military aviation, neurological findings in pilots can result in extensive investigation that can lead to potentially invasive management. Conversely, the potential for chronic progression of a spinal syrinx and subsequent neurological deterioration makes early identification critical...
October 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Filipe Dantas-Torres, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva Sales, Débora Elienai de Oliveira Miranda, Fernando José da Silva, Luciana Aguiar Figueredo, Fábio Lopes de Melo, Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito, Maria Sandra Andrade, Sinval Pinto Brandão-Filho
Outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis are relatively common among soldiers involved in nocturnal activities in tropical forests. We investigated the population dynamics of sand flies in a military training camp located in a remnant of Atlantic rainforest in northeastern Brazil, where outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis have sporadically been described. From July 2012 to July 2014, light traps were monthly placed in 10 collection sites, being nine sites located near the forest edge and one near a sheep and goat stable...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Mikael Sallinen, Maria Sihvola, Sampsa Puttonen, Kimmo Ketola, Antti Tuori, Mikko Härmä, Göran Kecklund, Torbjörn Åkerstedt
Airline pilots' sleep and on-duty alertness are important focus areas in commercial aviation. Until now, studies pertaining to this topic have mainly focused on specific characteristics of flights and thus a comprehensive picture of the matter is not well established. In addition, research knowledge of what airline pilots actually do to maintain their alertness while being on duty is scarce. To address these gaps in research knowledge, we conducted a field study on a representative sample of the airline pilots of a medium-sized airline...
January 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Inkyu Sa, Stefan Hrabar, Peter Corke
This paper presents an algorithm and a system for vertical infrastructure inspection using a vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) unmanned aerial vehicle and shared autonomy. Inspecting vertical structures such as light and power distribution poles is a difficult task that is time-consuming, dangerous and expensive. Recently, micro VTOL platforms (i.e., quad-, hexa- and octa-rotors) have been rapidly gaining interest in research, military and even public domains. The unmanned, low-cost and VTOL properties of these platforms make them ideal for situations where inspection would otherwise be time-consuming and/or hazardous to humans...
2015: Sensors
U Aschenbrenner, S Neppl, F Ahollinger, U Schweigkofler, J O Weigt, M Frank, M Zimmermann, J Braun
The advantages that are inherent to the air ambulance service are shown in a reduction in mortality of critically ill or injured patients. The air ambulance service ensures quick and efficient medical care to a patient as well as the immediate transport of patients to a suitable hospital. In addition, primary air rescue has proved to be effective as a support for the standard ground-based ambulance services in some regions of Germany during the night. Under certain conditions, such as the strict adherence to established, practiced and coordinated procedures, air rescue at night does not have a significantly higher risk compared to operations in daytime...
June 2015: Der Unfallchirurg
Noam Cvikel, Katya Egert Berg, Eran Levin, Edward Hurme, Ivailo Borissov, Arjan Boonman, Eran Amichai, Yossi Yovel
Social foraging is a very common yet extremely complex behavior. Numerous studies attempted to model it with little supporting evidence. Studying it in the wild is difficult because it requires monitoring the animal's movement, its foraging success, and its interactions with conspecifics. We present a novel system that enables full night ultrasonic recording of freely foraging bats, in addition to GPS tracking. As they rely on echolocation, audio recordings of bats allow tapping into their sensory acquisition of the world...
January 19, 2015: Current Biology: CB
Bob Siyuan Shao, Michele Guindani, Douglas D Boyd
BACKGROUND: The fatality rate for general aviation, 82 times that of air carriers and even higher for those involving aeromedical transportation, has not declined over time. Although noncommercial (private) pilots are increasingly seeking the instrument rating (IFR), which offers safety advantages, there is a paucity of research on causes of fatal crashes for this aviator subset. METHODS: The NTSB accident database was queried for general aviation fatal accidents involving private pilots...
June 2014: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
Carl McQueen, Richard Apps, Fay Mason, Nicholas Crombie, Jon Hulme
The deployment of specialist teams to incident scenes by helicopter and the delivery of critical care interventions such as Rapid Sequence Induction of anaesthesia to patients are becoming well-established components of trauma care in the UK. Traditionally in the UK, Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) are limited to daylight operations only. The safety and feasibility of operating HEMS services at night is a topic of debate currently in the UK HEMS community. Within the West Midlands Major Trauma Network, the Medical Emergency Response Incident Team (MERIT) provides a physician-led prehospital care service that responds to incidents by air during daylight hours and by Rapid Response Vehicle during the hours of darkness...
November 2013: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
J Rieneke C Schreinemakers, Paul Westers, Pieter van Amerongen, Moshe Kon
BACKGROUND: A preliminary survey showed half of the participating Royal Netherlands Air Force (RNLAF) F-16 fighter pilots to have nasal integument and osteocartilagenous disorders related to wearing in-flight oxygen masks. AIM: To make an inventory of these disorders and possible associated factors. METHODS: All RNLAF F-16 pilots were requested to fill out a semi-structured questionnaire for a cross-sectional survey. Additionally, one squadron in The Netherlands and pilots in operational theater were asked to participate in a prospective study that required filling out a pain score after each flight...
2013: PloS One
Anthony S Wagstaff, Karl Ivar Jahr, Suzanne Rodskier
INTRODUCTION: Neck pain in fighter pilots has been studied by several air forces and found to be relatively common. The aim of this project was to study the incidence, characteristics, possible associated causative factors, and operational impact of neck pain in Royal Norwegian Air Force (RNoAF) fighter pilots. METHODS: The study was designed as a retrospective anonymous questionnaire survey, collecting data on age, aircraft type, flying hours, and physical activity...
November 2012: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
Arthur Estrada, Amanda M Kelley, Catherine M Webb, Jeremy R Athy, John S Crowley
INTRODUCTION: Successful military aviation operations depend on maintaining continuous day-night operations. Stimulants are easy to use and popular for sustaining performance because their utility is not dependent upon environmental or scheduling modifications. Dextroamphetamine is authorized for use by the aircrews of all U.S. military services, but its potential for abuse and subsequent addiction is of aeromedical concern. Finding an alternative stimulant, such as modafinil, that displays a low affinity for dopamine uptake binding sites would prove extremely beneficial...
June 2012: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
Elmer W Gray, Robert A Fusco, Ray Noblet, Roger D Wyatt
The downstream movement, or drift, of larval black flies as well as many other aquatic insects has been well documented. This phenomenon has most often been associated with the dusk-to-overnight time frame. Operationally, larvicide applications targeting black flies are typically initiated early in the day and can extend until near sunset. To determine if larvicide applications conducted late in the day would be affected by the drift behavior of larval black flies, 6 larvicide applications were conducted. Three applications were conducted at midmorning and 3 during the evening...
June 2011: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
Jason W Horn, Thomas H Kunz
Operators of early weather-surveillance radars often observed echoes on their displays that did not behave like weather pattern, including expanding ring-like shapes they called angels. These echoes were caused by high-flying insects, migrating birds, and large colonies of bats emerging from roosts to feed. Modern weather-surveillance radar stations in the United States (NEXt-generation RADar or NEXRAD) provide detailed images that clearly show evening bat emergences from large colonies. These images can be used to investigate the flight behavior of groups of bats and population trends in large colonies of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) in south-central Texas which are clearly imaged by local NEXRAD radar stations...
July 2008: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Michelle G Colacicco-Mayhugh, John P Grieco, John L Putnam, Douglas A Burkett, Russell E Coleman
In this study, we examined the effect of weather and moon illumination on sand fly activity, as measured by light trap collections made between 2 May 2003 and 25 October 2004 at Tallil Air Base, Iraq. Wind speed, temperature, dew point, percentage of sky cover, and moon illumination were entered into principal components analysis. The resulting principal components were entered into stepwise regression to develop a model of the impact of the weather on sand fly collections. Wind speed, percentage of sky cover, and moon illumination each had a strong inverse relationship with the number of sand flies collected, whereas temperature displayed a direct relationship to sand fly collections...
May 2011: Journal of Medical Entomology
Jan Norum
BACKGROUND: Air ambulance operations in the Arctic have to deal with remote locations, long distances, rough weather conditions, seasonable darkness, and almost no alternative for landing. Despite these challenges, people expect high quality, specialist health care. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyse air ambulance operations due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Arctic and employ the result as an instrument for future suggestions. Melting ice in the Arctic Sea opens new prospects for shipping, adventures, and oil/gas industry...
2010: International Maritime Health
David M C Powell, Mick B Spencer, Keith J Petrie
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the effect of an additional day's layover on reducing fatigue in two different duties: a two-pilot crew flying between Auckland and Brisbane, and a three-pilot crew flying between Auckland and Los Angeles. METHODS: Pilots completed a reaction time task, the Samn-Perelli fatigue scale, and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale on both outward and return flights. The flights were conducted with and without a 1-d layover (Brisbane) and with a 1- or 2-d layover (Los Angeles)...
November 2010: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
M S Hoddle, J G Millar, C D Hoddle, Y Zou, J S McElfresh, S M Lesch
The sex pheromone of Stenoma catenifer was evaluated in commercial avocado orchards in Guatemala to determine operational parameters, such as optimal lure type, trap height, trap density and estimates of the distances that male moths fly. Of four pheromone dispensers tested, gray and white rubber septa were of equal efficacy, whereas 1-ml low-density polyethylene vials and 2×3-cm polyethylene ziplock bags were least efficacious. The height at which wing traps were hung did not significantly affect the number of adult male S...
April 2011: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Nirit Soffer-Dudek, Golan Shahar
General sleep-related experiences (Watson, 2001), including special dream states such as elevated dream recall, nightmares, hypnagogic hallucinations, flying dreams, and waking dreams, have been shown to be associated with life stress and psychopathological distress (Soffer-Dudek & Shahar, 2009). In this study, we attempted to examine these associations within the context of terror-related stress. In the week following operation Oferet Yetzuka in Israel, ninety-one participants filled out questionnaires concerning sleep experiences, psychopathological distress, and degree of exposure to terror...
2010: Psychiatry
Anand B Joshi, Murari L Das, Shireen Akhter, Rajib Chowdhury, Dinesh Mondal, Vijay Kumar, Pradeep Das, Axel Kroeger, Marleen Boelaert, Max Petzold
BACKGROUND: Bangladesh, India and Nepal are working towards the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) by 2015. In 2005 the World Health Organization/Training in Tropical Diseases launched an implementation research programme to support integrated vector management for the elimination of VL from Bangladesh, India and Nepal. The programme is conducted in different phases, from proof-of-concept to scaling up intervention. This study was designed in order to evaluate the efficacy of the three different interventions for VL vector management: indoor residual spraying (IRS); long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLIN); and environmental modification (EVM) through plastering of walls with lime or mud...
2009: BMC Medicine
Eva-Maria Elmenhorst, Martin Vejvoda, Hartmut Maass, Jürgen Wenzel, Gernot Plath, Ekkehart Schubert, Mathias Basner
INTRODUCTION: A new noise-reduced landing approach was tested--a Segmented Continuous Descent Approach (SCDA)-with regard to the resulting workload on pilots. METHODS: Workload of 40 pilots was measured using physiological (heart rate, blood pressure, blink frequency, saliva cortisol concentration) and psychological (fatigue, sleepiness, tension, and task load) parameters. Approaches were conducted in A320 and A330 full-flight simulators during night shift. SCDA was compared to the standard Low Drag Low Power (LDLP) procedure as reference...
April 2009: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
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