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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143759/the-role-of-food-antioxidants-benefits-of-functional-foods-and-influence-of-feeding-habits-on-the-health-of-the-older-person-an-overview
#1
REVIEW
Douglas W Wilson, Paul Nash, Harpal Singh Buttar, Keith Griffiths, Ram Singh, Fabien De Meester, Rie Horiuchi, Toru Takahashi
This overview was directed towards understanding the relationship of brain functions with dietary choices mainly by older humans. This included food color, flavor, and aroma, as they relate to dietary sufficiency or the association of antioxidants with neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Impairment of olfactory and gustatory function in relation to these diseases was also explored. The role of functional foods was considered as a potential treatment of dementia and Alzheimer's disease through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase as well as similar treatments based on herbs, spices and antioxidants therein...
October 28, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143445/glycyrrhiza-uralensis-and-semilicoisoflavone-b-reduce-a%C3%AE-secretion-by-increasing-ppar%C3%AE-expression-and-inhibiting-stat3-phosphorylation-to-inhibit-bace1-expression
#2
Ming-Yao Gu, Yoon Sun Chun, Dong Zhao, Ryu Shi Yong, Hyun Ok Yang
SCOPE: Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract (GUE) has been reported to improve amyloid beta (Aβ) induced cognitive deficits in mice. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect and the components involved have not been previously explored. Extracellular Aβ plaques are one of the major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, decreasing Aβ levels is one strategy for preventing the etiology of AD. This study aimed to test the effect of GUE and semilicoisoflavone B (SB) on Aβ secretion and investigate the mechanism underlying this effect...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142315/hiv-1-counteracts-an-innate-restriction-by-amyloid-precursor-protein-resulting-in-neurodegeneration
#3
Qingqing Chai, Vladimir Jovasevic, Viacheslav Malikov, Yosef Sabo, Scott Morham, Derek Walsh, Mojgan H Naghavi
While beta-amyloid (Aβ), a classic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia, has long been known to be elevated in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected brain, why and how Aβ is produced, along with its contribution to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains ill-defined. Here, we reveal that the membrane-associated amyloid precursor protein (APP) is highly expressed in macrophages and microglia, and acts as an innate restriction against HIV-1. APP binds the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein, retains it in lipid rafts and blocks HIV-1 virion production and spread...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141977/vitamins-associated-with-brain-aging-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-disease-biomarkers-epidemiological-and-experimental-evidence-plausible-mechanisms-and-knowledge-gaps
#4
REVIEW
Michael Fenech
The key to preventing brain aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer disease (AD) via vitamin intake is first to understand molecular mechanisms, then to deduce relevant biomarkers, and subsequently to test the level of evidence for the impact of vitamins in the relevant pathways and their modulation of dementia risk. This narrative review infers information on mechanisms from gene and metabolic defects associated with MCI and AD, and assesses the role of vitamins using recent results from animal and human studies...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141953/amyloid-%C3%AE-42-peptide-is-toxic-to-non-neural-cells-in-drosophila-yielding-a-characteristic-metabolite-profile-and-the-effect-can-be-suppressed-by-pi3k
#5
Mercedes Arnés, Sergio Casas-Tintó, Anders Malmendal, Alberto Ferrús
The human Aβ42 peptide is associated with Alzheimer's disease through its deleterious effects in neurons. Expressing the human peptide in adult Drosophila in a tissue- and time-controlled manner, we show that Aβ42 is also toxic in non-neural cells, neurosecretory and epithelial cell types in particular. This form of toxicity includes the aberrant signaling by Wingless morphogen leading to the eventual activation of Caspase 3. Preventing Caspase 3 activation by means of p53 keeps epithelial cells from elimination but maintains the Aβ42 toxicity yielding more severe deleterious effects to the organism...
November 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138799/lychee-seed-extract-protects-against-neuronal-injury-and-improves-cognitive-function-in-rats-with-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus-with-cognitive-impairment
#6
Yong Tang, Chonglin Yu, Jianming Wu, Haixia Chen, Yuan Zeng, Xiuling Wang, Le Yang, Qibing Mei, Shousong Cao, Dalian Qin
Lychee seed is a traditional Chinese medicine and has many beneficial effects such as modulation of blood sugar and lipids, antioxidation, antivirus and antitumor. Studies have indicated that type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) share common biological mechanisms including insulin resistance, impaired glucose metabolism, β‑amyloid (Aβ) formation, oxidative stress and presence of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The present study investigated the effects of lychee seed extract (LSE) on neuroprotection, cognitive function improvement and possible underlying mechanisms in a rat model of T2DM with cognitive impairment...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137651/abnormal-dendritic-calcium-activity-and-synaptic-depotentiation-occur-early-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Yang Bai, Miao Li, Yanmei Zhou, Lei Ma, Qian Qiao, Wanling Hu, Wei Li, Zachary Patrick Wills, Wen-Biao Gan
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid deposition, tangle formation as well as synapse loss. Synaptic abnormalities occur early in the pathogenesis of AD. Identifying early synaptic abnormalities and their underlying mechanisms is likely important for the prevention and treatment of AD. METHODS: We performed in vivo two-photon calcium imaging to examine the activities of somas, dendrites and dendritic spines of layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in the primary motor cortex in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of AD and age-matched wild type control mice...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136781/andrographolide-sulfonate-improves-alzheimer-associated-phenotypes-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#8
Ji Geng, Wen Liu, Yuyun Xiong, Hongqun Ding, Chunhong Jiang, Xiaoling Yang, Xiang Li, Ahmed Elgehama, Yang Sun, Qiang Xu, Wenjie Guo, Jing Gao
Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder with Amyloid-β plaques onset, synaptic damage, and cognitive decline. Aβ deposits cause pathological events including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neuron death. In this study, APPswe/PSENΔ9 double transgenic mice model was used to imitate Alzheimer's disease and the effect and possible mechanism of Andrographolide sulfonate were examined. Andrographolide sulfonate was given to the mice for 7 months before the onset of Aβ plaque. Spatial memory test showed that Andrographolide sulfonate treatment prevented cognitive decline...
November 8, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136094/effects-of-multidomain-lifestyle-intervention-omega-3-supplementation-or-their-combination-on-physical-activity-levels-in-older-adults-secondary-analysis-of-the-multidomain-alzheimer-preventive-trial-mapt-randomised-controlled-trial
#9
Philipe de Souto Barreto, Yves Rolland, Matteo Cesari, Charlotte Dupuy, Sandrine Andrieu, Bruno Vellas
Background/objectives: to investigate the effects of a 3-year multidomain lifestyle intervention, omega-3 supplementation or both on physical activity (PA) in older adults with subjective memory complaints. Design/settings/subjects: the Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial was a 3-year randomised controlled trial that enroled 1,680 community-dwelling adults aged 70 years or over, with subjective memory complaints. Participants were randomised to omega-3 supplementation (total daily dose of 800 mg docosahexanoic acid and up to 225 mg eicosapentanoic acid), multidomain intervention (nutritional and exercise counselling and cognitive training), omega-3 plus multidomain intervention or placebo with usual care...
November 10, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134229/decursin-and-decursinol-angelate-molecular-mechanism-and-therapeutic-potential-in-inflammatory-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Adeeb Shehzad, Sajida Parveen, Munibah Qureshi, Fazli Subhan, Young Sup Lee
Epidemiological studies have shown that inflammation plays a critical role in the development and progression of various chronic diseases, including cancers, neurological diseases, hepatic fibrosis, diabetic retinopathy, and vascular diseases. Decursin and decursinol angelate (DA) are pyranocoumarin compounds obtained from the roots of Angelica gigas. Several studies have described the anti-inflammatory effects of decursin and DA. Decursin and DA have shown potential anti-inflammatory activity by modulating growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor, transcription factors such as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, cellular enzymes including matrix metalloproteinases cyclooxygenase, and protein kinases such as extracellular receptor kinase, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, and protein kinase C...
November 13, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133125/very-low-doses-of-muscimol-and-baclofen-ameliorate-cognitive-deficits-and-regulate-protein-expression-in-the-brain-of-a-rat-model-of-streptozocin-induced-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Vladimirs Pilipenko, Karina Narbute, Ulrika Beitnere, Juris Rumaks, Jolanta Pupure, Baiba Jansone, Vija Klusa
Recent studies devoted to neuroprotection have focused on the role of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system in regulating neuroinflammatory processes which play a key role in the neurodegenerative processes observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by inducing glial cell overactivation and impairing neurotransmission. Data on the efficacy of classical GABA-A and GABA-B receptor agonists (muscimol and baclofen, respectively) in animal models of AD are not available. Moreover, no published studies have examined the ability of optimal doses of these compounds to prevent neuroinflammation, the alterations in neurotransmission and cognitive deficits...
November 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133030/20-s-protopanaxadiol-ppd-alleviates-scopolamine-induced-memory-impairment-via-regulation-of-cholinergic-and-antioxidant-systems-and-expression-of-egr-1-c-fos-and-c-jun-in-mice
#12
Cong Lu, Liming Dong, Jingwei Lv, Yan Wang, Bei Fan, Fengzhong Wang, Xinmin Liu
20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) possesses various biological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antitumor and anti-fatigue properties. Recent studies found that PPD functioned as a neurotrophic agent to ameliorate the sensory deficit caused by glutamate-induced excitotoxicity through its antioxidant effects and exhibited strong antidepressant-like effects in vivo. The objective of the present study was first to investigate the effect of PPD in scopolamine (SCOP)-induced memory deficit in mice and the potential mechanisms involved...
November 10, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132092/berberine-attenuates-cognitive-impairment-and-ameliorates-tau-hyperphosphorylation-by-limiting-the-self-perpetuating-pathogenic-cycle-between-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-oxidative-stress-and-neuroinflammation
#13
Wenbo He, Chuanling Wang, Yi Chen, Yongli He, Zhiyou Cai
BACKGROUND: Berberine (BBR) plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present work was to explore whether BBR ameliorates cognitive deficits in AD and to investigate whether its underlying mechanism involves inhibiting hyperphosphorylated tau protein. METHODS: The cognitive function was measured by the Morris water maze (MWM) test. The levels of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins were determined by Western blot. The biomarkers of NF-κB signaling pathway and oxidative stress were detected by Western blot and biochemical assays...
June 15, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131485/in-vitro-effects-of-serotonin-melatonin-and-other-related-indole-compounds-on-amyloid-%C3%AE-kinetics-and-neuroprotection
#14
Ruth Hornedo Ortega, Grégory Da Costa, Ana Belén Cerezo, Ana Mª Troncoso, Tristan Richard, Mª Carmen García Parrilla
SCOPE: Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is the main component of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The inhibition of Aβ assembly, the destabilisation of Aβ aggregates and the decrease of its cytotoxicity for the prevention of neuronal death are considered neuroprotective effects. In this work, the protective effects against Aβ aggregation and cytotoxicity of eight indolic compounds: tryptophan (Tryp), tryptamine (Trpa), serotonin (Ser), tryptophol (Phol), N-acetylserotonin (Nser), 3-indoleacetic acid (3IA), tryptophan ethyl ester (Tee) and melatonin (Mel) was evaluated...
November 12, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130578/sirt3-deregulation-is-linked-to-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Junghee Lee, Yunha Kim, Tian Liu, Yu Jin Hwang, Seung Jae Hyeon, Hyeonjoo Im, Kyungeun Lee, Victor E Alvarez, Ann C McKee, Soo-Jong Um, Manwook Hur, Inhee Mook-Jung, Neil W Kowall, Hoon Ryu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly. Despite decades of study, effective treatments for AD are lacking. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been closely linked to the pathogenesis of AD, but the relationship between mitochondrial pathology and neuronal damage is poorly understood. Sirtuins (SIRT, silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog in yeast) are NAD-dependent histone deacetylases involved in aging and longevity. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between SIRT3 and mitochondrial function and neuronal activity in AD...
November 11, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130020/what-do-we-know-from-clinical-trials-on-exercise-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Yong Shen, Rena Li
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in elderly with major symptoms of a general term for memory loss and other intellectual abilities impairment which are serious enough to interfere with daily life. While there is no treatment can prevent and revise the cognitive function impairment in AD, physical activity becomes a potential beneficial intervention for AD. Multiple evidences suggested that exercise in general plays beneficial roles in improving brain function. Most common mechanisms of exercise-induced enhancement of brain function are including alteration of neurogenesis, neuron plasticity, neuronal signaling and receptors, as well as neuronal networks...
December 2016: Journal of Sport and Health Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129937/cerebrospinal-fluid-proteins-as-regulators-of-beta-amyloid-aggregation-and-toxicity
#17
Kayla M Pate, Regina M Murphy
Amyloid disorders, such as Alzheimer's, are almost invariably late-onset diseases. One defining diagnostic feature of Alzheimer's disease is the deposition of beta-amyloid as extracellular plaques, primarily in the hippocampus. This raises the question: are there natural protective agents that prevent beta-amyloid from depositing, and is it loss of this protection that leads to onset of disease? Proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been suggested to act as just such natural protective agents. Here, we describe some of the early evidence that led to this suggestion, and we discuss, in greater detail, two CSF proteins that have garnered the bulk of the attention...
July 2017: Israel Journal of Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129747/mitochondrial-sirt3-and-neurodegenerative-brain-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Anamika, Archita Khanna, Papia Acharjee, Arup Acharjee, Surendra Kumar Trigun
Sirtuins are highly conserved NAD(+) dependent class III histone deacetylases and catalyze deacetylation and ADP ribosylation of a number of non-histone proteins. Since, they require NAD(+) for their activity, the cellular level of Sirtuins represents redox status of the cells and thereby serves as bona fide metabolic stress sensors. Out of seven homologues of Sirtuins identified in mammals, SIRT3, 4 & 5 have been found to be localized and active in mitochondria. During recent past, clusters of protein substrates for SIRT3 have been identified in mitochondria and thereby advocating SIRT3 as the main mitochondrial Sirtuin which could be involved in protecting stress induced mitochondrial integrity and energy metabolism...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128369/inhibition-of-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-1-alters-expression-of-mitochondria-related-genes-in-pc12-cells-relevance-to-mitochondrial-homeostasis-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#19
Grzegorz A Czapski, Magdalena Cieślik, Przemysław L Wencel, Sylwia Wójtowicz, Robert P Strosznajder, Joanna B Strosznajder
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the release of amyloid beta peptides (Aβ) in the form of monomers/oligomers which may lead to oxidative stress, mitochondria dysfunction, synaptic loss, neuroinflammation and, in consequence, to overactivation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). However, Aβ peptides are also released in the brain ischemia, traumatic injury and in inflammatory response. PARP-1 is suggested to be a promising target in therapy of neurodegenerative disorders. We investigated the impact of PARP-1 inhibition on transcription of mitochondria-related genes in PC12 cells...
November 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128320/exercise-decreases-bace-and-app-levels-in-the-hippocampus-of-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Karim A Alkadhi, An T Dao
We investigated the effect of treadmill exercise training on the levels of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related protein molecules in the DG and CA1 areas of a rat model of AD, i.c.v. infusion of Aβ1-42 peptide, 2weeks (250pmol/day). Aβ infusion markedly increased protein levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP), the secretase beta-site APP cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE-1) and Aβ in the CA1 and DG areas. The results also revealed that 4weeks of treadmill exercise prevented the increase in the levels of APP, BACE-1 and Aβ proteins in both hippocampal areas...
November 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
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