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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346658/potential-for-diet-to-prevent-and-remediate-cognitive-deficits-in-neurological-disorders
#1
Heather M Francis, Richard J Stevenson
The pathophysiology of many neurological disorders involves oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. There is now substantial evidence that diet can decrease these forms of pathophysiology, and an emerging body of literature relatedly suggests that diet can also prevent or even remediate the cognitive deficits observed in neurological disorders that exhibit such pathology (eg, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, age-related cognitive decline, epilepsy). The current review summarizes the emerging evidence in relation to whole diets prominent in the scientific literature-ketogenic, caloric restriction, high polyphenol, and Mediterranean diets-and provides a discussion of the possible underlying neurophysiological mechanisms...
January 15, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346523/timed-up-and-go-test-and-future-dementia-occurrence
#2
Ji Eun Lee, Dong Wook Shin, Su-Min Jeong, Ki Young Son, Belong Cho, Jong Lull Yoon, Byung Joo Park, In Soon Kwon, Jinkook Lee, SangYun Kim
Background: This study evaluated whether baseline results of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test is associated with future dementia occurrence. Methods: Using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort database, we identified 49 283 subjects without a dementia diagnosis who participated in the National Screening Program for Transitional Ages at 66 years of age during 2007-2012. Gait impairment was defined as taking longer than 10 seconds to perform the TUG test...
January 16, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346315/dietary-total-prenylflavonoids-from-the-fruits-of-psoralea-corylifolia-l-prevents-age-related-cognitive-deficits-and-down-regulates-alzheimer-s-markers-in-samp8-mice
#3
Zhi-Jing Chen, Yan-Fang Yang, Ying-Tao Zhang, Dong-Hui Yang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a serious threat for the aging society. In this study, we examined the preventive effect of the total prenylflavonoids (TPFB) prepared from the dried fruits of Psoralea corylifolia L., using an age-related AD mouse model SAMP8. We found that long-term dietary TPFB at 50 mg/kg·day significantly improved cognitive performance of the SAMP8 mice in Morris water maze tests, similar to 150 mg/kg·day of resveratrol, a popular neuro-protective compound. Furthermore, TPFB treatment showed significant improvements in various AD markers in SAMP8 brains, which were restored to near control levels of the normal mice, SAMR1...
January 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345616/inhibition-of-oxidative-stress-in-cholinergic-projection-neurons-fully-rescues-aging-associated-olfactory-circuit-degeneration-in-drosophila
#4
Ashiq Hussain, Atefeh Pooryasin, Mo Zhang, Laura F Loschek, Marco La Fortezza, Anja B Friedrich, Catherine-Marie Blais, Habibe K Üçpunar, Vicente A Yépez, Martin Lehmann, Nicolas Gompel, Julien Gagneur, Stephan J Sigrist, Ilona C Grunwald Kadow
Loss of the sense of smell is among the first signs of natural aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Cellular and molecular mechanisms promoting this smell loss are not understood. Here, we show that Drosophila melanogaster also loses olfaction before vision with age. Within the olfactory circuit, cholinergic projection neurons show a reduced odor response accompanied by a defect in axonal integrity and reduction in synaptic marker proteins. Using behavioral functional screening, we pinpoint that expression of the mitochondrial reactive oxygen scavenger SOD2 in cholinergic projection neurons is necessary and sufficient to prevent smell degeneration in aging flies...
January 18, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345339/the-role-of-cdk5-mediated-drp1-phosphorylation-in-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-mitochondrial-fission-and-neuronal-apoptosis
#5
Miao-Yu Guo, Lei Shang, Yang-Yang Hu, Li-Ping Jiang, Yu-Ying Wan, Qin-Qin Zhou, Kun Zhang, Hong-Fei Liao, Jing-Lin Yi, Xiao-Jian Han
Alzheimer's disease, one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, is pathologically characterized by Amyloid beta containing plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Amyloid beta (Aβ) induces neuronal apoptosis through the intracellular Ca2+ increase, subsequent hyperactivation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and mitochondrial abnormality. Recently, Cdk5 was identified as an upstream regulator of mitochondrial fission during neuronal apoptosis, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, in vitro phosphorylation assays showed that Cdk5 could phosphorylate the recombinant Drp1 at Serine 579...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344418/advances-in-the-studies-of-ginkgo-biloba-leaves-extract-on-aging-related-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Wei Zuo, Feng Yan, Bo Zhang, Jiantao Li, Dan Mei
The prevalence of degenerative disorders in public health has promoted in-depth investigations of the underlying pathogenesis and the development of new treatment drugs. Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (EGb) is obtained from Ginkgo biloba leaves and has been used for thousands of years. In recent decades, both basic and clinical studies have established the effects of EGb. It is widely used in various degenerative diseases such as cerebrovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, macroangiopathy and more. Here, we reviewed several pharmacological mechanisms of EGb, including its antioxidant properties, prevention of mitochondrial dysfunctions, and effect on apoptosis...
December 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341318/cognitive-trajectories-and-spectrum-of-neuropathology-in-superagers-the-first-ten-cases
#7
Emily Rogalski, Tamar Gefen, Qinwen Mao, Maureen Connelly, Sandra Weintraub, Changiz Geula, Eileen H Bigio, M-Marsel Mesulam
On average, memory capacity is significantly higher in populations of 50-60 year olds than in populations of 80 year olds. We define SuperAgers as individuals 80 or older whose episodic memory capacity is at least as good as that of cognitively average individuals in their 50s and 60s. SuperAgers therefore have memory capacity that is superior for age. Previous work showed that SuperAgers have greater cortical volumes and greater resistance to age-related cortical atrophy than 'cognitively average' individuals of the same age...
January 17, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341070/personality-changes-during-the-transition-from-cognitive-health-to-mild-cognitive-impairment
#8
Richard J Caselli, Blake T Langlais, Amylou C Dueck, Bruce R Henslin, Travis A Johnson, Bryan K Woodruff, Charlene Hoffman-Snyder, Dona E C Locke
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Behavioral problems in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) impose major management challenges. Current prevention strategies are anchored to cognitive outcomes, but behavioral outcomes may provide another, clinically relevant opportunity for preemptive therapy. We sought to determine whether personality changes that predispose to behavioral disorders arise during the transition from preclinical AD to mild cognitive impairment (MCI). DESIGN: Longitudinal observational cohort study...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338678/supplementation-with-curcuma-longa-reverses-neurotoxic-and-behavioral-damage-in-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#9
Ianara Mendonca da Costa, Marco Aurelio de Moura Freire, Jose Rodolfo Lopes de Paiva Cavalcanti, Dayane Pessoa de Araujo, Bianca Norrara, Isleania Maria Marques Moreira Rosa, Eduardo Pereira de Azevedo, Amalia Cinthia Meneses do Rego, Irami Araujo Filho, Fausto Pierdona Guzen
BACKGROUND: The formation of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles of the tau protein are the main pathological mechanism of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Current therapies for AD offer discrete benefits to the clinical symptoms and do not prevent the continuing degeneration of neuronal cells. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies have long been investigated, where curcumin (Curcuma longa) has shown some properties that can prevent the deleterious processes involved in neurodegenerative diseases...
January 16, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338602/sequential-drug-treatment-algorithm-for-agitation-and-aggression-in-alzheimer-s-and-mixed-dementia
#10
Simon Jc Davies, Amer M Burhan, Donna Kim, Philip Gerretsen, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Vincent L Woo, Sanjeev Kumar, Sarah Colman, Bruce G Pollock, Benoit H Mulsant, Tarek K Rajji
INTRODUCTION: Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) include agitation and aggression in people with dementia. BPSD is common on inpatient psychogeriatric units and may prevent individuals from living at home or in residential/nursing home settings. Several drugs and non-pharmacological treatments have been shown to be effective in reducing behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Algorithmic treatment may address the challenge of synthesizing this evidence-based knowledge...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337053/oral-ingestion-of-plasmalogens-can-attenuate-the-lps-induced-memory-loss-and-microglial-activation
#11
Md Shamim Hossain, Ayako Tajima, Satoshi Kotoura, Toshihiko Katafuchi
Plasmalogens (Pls) are the special phospholipids which were reported to be reduced in brain and blood samples of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, suggested a possibility that an oral ingestion of Pls may prevent the disease progression. Interestingly, the clinical study showed that the daily oral ingestion of Pls among the mild AD patients improved cognition. However, it is unknown of whether the oral ingestion of Pls inhibits the AD like changes in brain e.g., glial activation and accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) proteins...
January 11, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336270/in-silico-ligand-based-identification-of-novel-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitors-against-alzheimer-s-disease-ad
#12
Mohammad Usman Mirza, Nazia Ikram, Nauman Mazhar, Kanzal Iman, Mehwish Riaz, Mohammad A Kamal
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a hot research topic currently across the world, characterized by the formation of β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) has gained much importance since the discovery of the involvement of peripheral anionic site (PAS) as an allosteric regulator of AChE. Progression of this neurodegenerative disorder causes a deficit in the cholinergic activity that leads towards cognitive decline. Therapeutic interventions in AD are largely focused upon AChE inhibitors designed essentially to prevent the loss of cholinergic function...
January 15, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335138/-intrafamily-conflicts-and-family-caregiver-tensions-in-a-nursing-home
#13
Philippe Thomas, Cyril Hazif-Thomas
Conflicts between families and caregivers in a nursing home have multiple causes centred (but not exclusively) on the interest of the resident. Intrafamily conflicts can lead to tensions between families and caregivers. Alzheimer's disease changes the relations with the patient's family members when they are involved in the care, which can lead to a division within the family. This article discusses the sources of difficulties between families and caregivers and ways of managing and above all preventing them...
January 2018: Soins. Gérontologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334419/a-metallo-pro-drug-to-target-cu-ii-in-the-context-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Amandine Conte-Daban, Vinita Ambike, Régis Guillot, Nicolas Delsuc, Clotilde Policar, Christelle Hureau
Alzheimer's disease and oxidative stress are connected. In the present communication, we report the use of a Mn(II)-based superoxide dismutase mimic ([MnII(L)]+, 1+) as a pro-drug candidate to target Cu(II) associated events, i.e. Cu(II)-induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and modulation of the amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide aggregation. Complex 1+ is able to remove Cu(II) from Abeta, stop ROS and prevent alteration of Abeta aggregation as would do the corresponding free ligand LH. Using 1+ instead of LH in further biological applications would have the double advantage to avoid the cell toxicity of LH and to benefit from its proved SOD-like activity...
January 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332578/amyloid-%C3%AE-inhibits-pdgf%C3%AE-receptor-activation-and-prevents-pdgf-bb-induced-neuroprotection
#15
Hui Liu, Golam T Saffi, Maryam S Vasefi, Youngjik Choi, Jeff S Kruk, Nawaz Ahmed, Nyasha Gondora, John Mielke, Zoya Leonenko, Michael A Beazely
PDGFβ receptors and their ligand, PDGF-BB, are upregulated in vivo after neuronal insults such as ischemia. When applied exogenously, PDGF-BB is neuroprotective against excitotoxicity and HIV proteins. METHODS: Given this growth factor's neuroprotective ability, we sought to determine if PDGF-BB would be neuroprotective against amyloid-β (1-42), one of the pathological agents associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In both primary hippocampal neurons and the human-derived neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y, amyloid- treatment for 24 h decreased surviving cell number in a concentration-dependent manner...
January 9, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332554/evaluating-the-dose-dependent-mechanism-of-action-of-trazodone-by-estimation-of-occupancies-for-different-brain-neurotransmitter-targets
#16
Luca Settimo, David Taylor
Trazodone is a drug that was introduced in the clinic almost 40 years ago. It is licensed to treat depression, but it is also commonly used off-label to treat insomnia. A recent study shows that it could be promising in preventing neurodegeneration in mice, and clinical trials to assess its possible beneficial effects on dementia and Alzheimer's disease are expected to start soon in humans. In this study, we describe the dose-dependent pharmacology of trazodone by carrying out pharmacokinetic simulations aiming to predict the brain concentrations of trazodone for different drug-dosing regimens and calculating occupancy for 28 different targets for which published trazodone-binding data are available...
January 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332048/frequency-of-cardiovascular-genetic-risk-factors-in-a-calabrian-population-and-their-effects-on-dementia
#17
Raffaele Maletta, Nicoletta Smirne, Livia Bernardi, Maria Anfossi, Maura Gallo, Maria Elena Conidi, Rosanna Colao, Gianfranco Puccio, Sabrina A M Curcio, Valentina Laganà, Francesca Frangipane, Chiara Cupidi, Maria Mirabelli, Franca Vasso, Giusi Torchia, Maria G Muraca, Raffaele Di Lorenzo, Giuseppina Rose, Alberto Montesanto, Giuseppe Passarino, Amalia C Bruni
BACKGROUND: Several genetic variants playing a key role in cholesterol levels, blood pressure, and vascular dysfunction influence the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). The many meta-analysis studies carried out on large numbers of samples in different populations have not provided clear results to date, because a trans-ethnic shift of risk genotypes in different populations is often observed. OBJECTIVES: To determine genotypes allele frequencies of the polymorphisms most frequently identified to be correlated with cardio-cerebrovascular disease and AD in a Southern Italy population and to investigate their possible association with dementia...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332042/protective-effects-of-indian-spice-curcumin-against-amyloid-%C3%AE-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
P Hemachandra Reddy, Maria Manczak, Xiangling Yin, Mary Catherine Grady, Andrew Mitchell, Sahil Tonk, Chandra Sekhar Kuruva, Jasvinder Singh Bhatti, Ramesh Kandimalla, Murali Vijayan, Subodh Kumar, Rui Wang, Jangampalli Adi Pradeepkiran, Gilbert Ogunmokun, Kavya Thamarai, Kandi Quesada, Annette Boles, Arubala P Reddy
The purpose of our article is to assess the current understanding of Indian spice, curcumin, against amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced toxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Natural products, such as ginger, curcumin, and gingko biloba have been used as diets and dietary supplements to treat human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular, respiratory, infectious, diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndromes, and neurological disorders. Products derived from plants are known to have protective effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-arthritis, pro-healing, and boosting memory cognitive functions...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332040/synthetic-fragment-of-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-prevents-memory-loss-and-protects-brain-neurons-in-olfactory-bulbectomized-mice
#19
Olga M Volpina, Alexandr N Samokhin, Dmitriy O Koroev, Inna V Nesterova, Tatyana D Volkova, Natalia I Medvinskaya, Pavel V Nekrasov, Olga G Tatarnikova, Anna V Kamynina, Samson M Balasanyants, Tamara A Voronina, Alexey M Kulikov, Natalia V Bobkova
Activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) plays an essential role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is known that the soluble isoform of the receptor binds to ligands and prevents negative effects of the receptor activation. We proposed that peptide fragments from RAGE prevent negative effects of the receptor activation during AD neurodegeneration. We have synthesized peptide fragments from surface-exposed regions of RAGE. Peptides were intranasally administrated into olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) mice, which developed some characteristics similar to AD neurodegeneration...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330839/peripheral-blood-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-as-a-biomarker-of-alzheimer-s-disease-are-there-methodological-biases
#20
REVIEW
Marta Balietti, Cinzia Giuli, Fiorenzo Conti
Mounting evidence that alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and signaling may be involved in the etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has suggested that its blood levels could be used as a biomarker of the disease. However, higher, lower, or unchanged circulating BDNF levels have all been described in AD patients compared to healthy controls. Although the reasons for such different findings are unclear, methodological issues are likely to be involved. The heterogeneity of participant recruitment criteria and the lack of control of variables that influence circulating BDNF levels regardless of dementia (depressive symptoms, medications, lifestyle, lack of overlap between serum and plasma, and experimental aspects) are likely to bias result and prevent study comparability...
January 13, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
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