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R Tafer, M Sleiman, A Boulkamh, C Richard
The photolysis of aqueous 5-chlorosalicylic acid (ClSA) and dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), its main photoproduct, was studied to determine the extent of degradation caused by simulated solar light. Photoproducts identification was achieved using high resolution LC-MS and GC-MS. About 40 photoproducts from C19 to C1 were characterized, including a dihydroxycyclopentadienic acid, a ring contraction photoproduct, and numerous carbonyls and carboxylic acid derivatives that were detected thanks to derivatization...
October 15, 2016: Water Research
Margret Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur A Thorsteinsdottir, Finnur F Eiriksson, Hrafnhildur L Runolfsdottir, Inger M Sch Agustsdottir, Steinunn Oddsdottir, Baldur B Sigurdsson, Hordur K Hardarson, Nilesh R Kamble, Snorri Th Sigurdsson, Vidar O Edvardsson, Runolfur Palsson
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is a hereditary disorder that leads to excessive urinary excretion of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (DHA), causing nephrolithiasis and chronic kidney disease. Treatment with allopurinol or febuxostat reduces DHA production and attenuates the renal manifestations. Assessment of DHA crystalluria by urine microscopy is used for therapeutic monitoring, but lacks sensitivity. We report a high-throughput assay based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for quantification of urinary DHA...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
James A Cranford, Kipling M Bohnert, Brian E Perron, Carrie Bourque, Mark Ilgen
PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence and correlates of vaporization (i.e., "vaping") as a route of cannabis administration in a sample of medical cannabis patients. PROCEDURES: Adults ages 21 and older (N=1485M age=45.1) who were seeking medical cannabis certification (either for the first time or as a renewal) at medical cannabis clinics in southern Michigan completed a screening assessment. Participants completed measures of route of cannabis administration, cannabis use, alcohol and other substance use...
October 15, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Cristiane Ávila Santana, Dinorah Machado Vaz Lima, Luis Humberto da Cunha Andrade, Yzel Rondon Súarez, Sandro Marcio Lima
The aim of this study was to evaluate the fluorescence of Astyanax lacustris fish scales when excited in the UV-A and blue regions for use as a bioindicator of aquatic ecosystems. This species was firstly defined as Astyanax altiparanae, popularly known as "lambari-do-rabo-amarelo". Currently, abiotic/biotic environmental integrity is generally assessed using limnological and physicochemical parameters related to biological indicators in streams or rivers, which are not sufficient to evaluate the real environmental conditions: in some cases, these parameters can be strongly dependent on local weather conditions...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
M David Keller, John M Ziriax, William Barns, Benjamin Sheffield, Douglas Brungart, Tony Thomas, Bobby Jaeger, Kurt Yankaskas
Noise, hearing loss, and electronic signal distortion, which are common problems in military environments, can impair speech intelligibility and thereby jeopardize mission success. The current study investigated the impact that impaired communication has on operational performance in a command and control environment by parametrically degrading speech intelligibility in a simulated shipborne Combat Information Center. Experienced U.S. Navy personnel served as the study participants and were required to monitor information from multiple sources and respond appropriately to communications initiated by investigators playing the roles of other personnel involved in a realistic Naval scenario...
October 19, 2016: Hearing Research
Narayan R Kissoon, Bryan C Hoelzer, David P Martin, Tim J Lamer
BACKGROUND: New advances in spinal cord stimulation have led to improved treatment of patients suffering from chronic pain. While the overall safety of newer stimulation devices has been established, no published reports exist regarding safety considerations when these devices are implanted in patients with a preexisting cardiac device. CASE REPORT: An 83-year-old man with a history of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest secondary to an episode of ventricular fibrillation underwent automated implantable cardiac defibrillator placement...
October 22, 2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
T Kuchuloria, T Akhvlediani, N Akhvlediani
This root cause analysis concerns the conflict in the Eastern Ukraine and its impact on healthcare delivery in the context of treating internally displaced persons (IDPs). Inadequate treatment of tuberculosis (TB) was selected as a major topic for intervention planning in conflict areas in Ukraine. With respect to treating TB among IDPs, rapid diagnosis and adequate nutrition and shelter are important components of care and disease control. The DOT, supported by trained primary healthcare providers equipped with rapid MDR TB diagnostic capacities, need to provide appropriate shelter and nutrition to IDPs...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
N Didbaridze, N Lomidze, T Abuladze, G Qiliptari, T Didbaridze, I Gvasalia, Z Mkervalishvili, N Gogokhia
Anaerobic clostridial infection is the most severe form of paraproctitis. The incubation period is very short, from 3 to 6 hours, sometimes lasting for 1-2 days. Clostridial infection spreads rapidly and induces gas gangrene, causes destruction of cells and other intermediate substances, and impedes blood circulation. This paper presents a case study of an extremely severe form of anaerobic infection with spontaneous gas gangrene, cellulitis, fasciomyositic necrosis, severe intoxication and septic shock on the abdominal front and lateral surfaces...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
N Lomtatidze, G Dumbadze, M Chkhaidze, R Khakhnelidze
This paper presents statistical data of 2012-2015 on the diseases caused by the atmospheric air and water pollutions in Ajara region. The research on the content of dust, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide as well as carbon monoxide in the atmospheric air was held together with the National Environment Agency Ajara Monitoring Service. The results of the research have shown that the average content of the dust reached its maximum in 2012 (0.60 mg/m3) and it dropped to the minimum in 2015 (0.441 mg/m3). As for average content of carbon monoxide the maximum was observed in 2013 (3...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Fitsum Abadi, Christophe Barbraud, Olivier Gimenez
Early-life demographic traits are poorly known, impeding our understanding of population processes and sensitivity to climate change. Survival of immature individuals is a critical component of population dynamics and recruitment in particular. However, obtaining reliable estimates of juvenile survival (i.e., from independence to first year) remains challenging, as immatures are often difficult to observe and to monitor individually in the field. This is particularly acute for seabirds, in which juveniles stay at sea and remain undetectable for several years...
October 22, 2016: Global Change Biology
Bertram J Wilm, Christoph Barmet, Simon Gross, Lars Kasper, S Johanna Vannesjo, Max Haeberlin, Benjamin E Dietrich, David O Brunner, Thomas Schmid, Klaas P Pruessmann
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to improve the quality of single-shot spiral MRI and demonstrate its application for diffusion-weighted imaging. METHODS: Image formation is based on an expanded encoding model that accounts for dynamic magnetic fields up to third order in space, nonuniform static B0 , and coil sensitivity encoding. The encoding model is determined by B0 mapping, sensitivity mapping, and concurrent field monitoring. Reconstruction is performed by iterative inversion of the expanded signal equations...
October 21, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Alice H Suroviec
The use of enzymatically modified electrodes for the detection of glucose or other non-electrochemically active analytes is becoming increasingly common. Direct heterogeneous electron transfer to glucose oxidase has been shown to be kinetically difficult, which is why electron transfer mediators or indirect detection is usually used for monitoring glucose with electrochemical sensors. It has been found, however, that electrodes modified with single or multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) demonstrate fast heterogeneous electron transfer kinetics as compared to that found for traditional electrodes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Andriy Bilichak, Igor Kovalchuk
Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful epigenetic tool that allows in a relatively short period of time to down-regulate the expression of an endogenous gene in infected plants for either monitoring the resulting phenotype or enhancing/modifying a particular trait associated with the gene. Here, we describe the utilization of Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) as a vector for the VIGS technique in Arabidopsis plants. The unique ability of TRV to infect both somatic tissues and gametes allows deciphering the role of genes in these tissues simultaneously...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Erika Varkonyi-Gasic
Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the posttranscriptional regulation of protein-coding genes, and they are essential for a normal development and survival. Mature miRNAs are cleaved from larger precursor RNAs and are typically 21-22 nt long.The small size, the lack of a common feature like a poly(A) tail, 3' end-modifications, and presence of a precursor-all these factors affect the detection and hinder the quantification of miRNAs. The stem-loop qRT-PCR method described here is designed to detect and quantify mature miRNAs in a fast, specific, accurate, and reliable manner...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Nibal R Chamoun, Rony Zeenny, Hanine Mansour
Background Pharmacists' involvement in patient care has improved the quality of care and reduced medication errors. However, this has required a lot of work that could not have been accomplished without documentation of interventions. Several means of documenting errors have been proposed in the literature but without a consistent comprehensive process. Recently, the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) recognized that pharmacy practice lacks a consistent process for direct patient care and discussed several options for a pharmaceutical care plan, essentially encompassing medication therapy assessment, development and implementation of a pharmaceutical care plan and finally evaluation of the outcome...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Paolo Girardi, Roberto Brugnoli, Giovanni Manfredi, Gabriele Sani
Lithium has been a gold standard in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD) for several decades. Despite a general reduction in the use of lithium over the past several years, it is effective in the management of both manic and depressive episodes in BD and continues to be recommended as a first-line mood stabilizer. This review provides an overview of the pharmacology of lithium and highlights its clinical profile in the management of BD, focusing on the potential advantages of prolonged-release (PR) versus immediate-release (IR) formulations of lithium...
October 21, 2016: Drugs in R&D
Gabor Nagy, Viktoria Baksa, Alexandra Kiss, Melinda Turani, Gaspar Banfalvi
The toxicity of gadolinium is reduced by chelating agents that render this heavy metal into contrast complexes used for medical magnetic resonance imaging. However, the dissociation of gadolinium chelates is known to generate Gd(3+) ions, the cellular toxicity of which has not been tested in details. The cytotoxic effects of Gd(III) ions were evaluated by monitoring the proliferation, measuring the cellular motility and following chromatin changes in various cell lines upon Gd(3+) treatment. Measurements applied long-term scanning microscopy and a perfusion platform that replaced the medium with test solutions, bypassed physical contact with the cell culture during experiments, and provided uninterrupted high time-resolution time-lapse photomicrography for an extended period of time...
October 22, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Andrew Jeyaruban, Muriel Soden, Sarah Larkins
To examine the management of gout in general practice in Townsville, Australia, and to explore comorbid conditions in patients with gout. Study will also explore how closely guidelines are being followed in managing gout. Retrospective chart review was conducted from May to November 2014 in three general practices in Townsville. Registers for patients were established by searching "gout" and "gouty arthritis". Three hundred and twenty-one patients were included in the study after excluding inactive patients, patients below age of 18 and patients with cancer...
October 21, 2016: Rheumatology International
C T Lau, A Kan, N Shek, P Tam, K K Y Wong
BACKGROUND: Congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) is an increasingly recognized disease with potential mortality. Owing to limited published studies, the true incidence is yet to be determined. We carried out this prospective study with the aim to estimate its true incidence on a population basis. METHODS: An antenatal ultrasonography program was implemented since 2009. Fetuses with suspected intra-thoracic lesions were monitored by regular follow-ups...
October 21, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
Masatoyo Nakajo, Yoriko Kajiya, Megumi Jinguji, Yoshiaki Nakabeppu, Masayuki Nakajo, Tohru Nihara, Takashi Yoshiura
Positron emission tomography (PET) or PET/computed tomography (CT) using (18)F-3'-fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine ((18)F-FLT) offers noninvasive assessment of cell proliferation in human cancers in vivo. The present review discusses the current status on clinical applications of (18)F-FLT-PET (or PET/CT) in digestive and abdominal oncology by comparing with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG)-PET (or PET/CT). The results of this review show that although (18)F-FLT uptake is lower in most cases of digestive and abdominal malignancies compared with (18)F-FDG uptake, (18)F-FLT-PET can be used to detect primary tumors...
October 21, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
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